punctuation mark, read as colon (:)
|th||K||u ,o||G, i||
About the translation:
This is a tile with what appears to be 10 panels / sections of text. The first band of text seems to be written upside down. I have a better image of the tile and am making changes. I still need a better image because the handwriting is poor, leaving questions as to the intended characters.
|Click on image for [a more readable] Christofani transcription of this text.|
Much of the text has been destroyed and, based upon the images I have seen, difficult at best to ascertain any meaning. However, I have obtained a good image of the Christofani transcription, linked here, which faciliatates a better reading of the text. We begin from the top of the tablet with the first band representing 7 lines of text.
Everything below the dotted line will change. All characters with an underline are difficult to read. The direction the letters face in the tablet indicates the direction of reading the text, usually from left to right. Sometimes, as is true in the Tavola Cortonensis and a few other scripts, a character, usually "E" may be reversed, facing the word to which it belongs to avoid any confusion. In such cases without the reversal of the character the meaning of the phrase could change.
The punctuation mark, is represented here as a colon (:) for ease of reading. An unusual character that appears to be a variation of the is interpeted as a "b."
SECTION A (Click on image for larger view) - modified based on Christofoni transcription.
CP-1: (Left to right) INCIP ALK P_ _ __ IA
CP-2 (Right to left) LNES : 8ATI RIAS ARAS [Translation: ]
CP-7 (left to right) RIO L _ _ LER CI UMOIR (UMVIR) : BVNA EXVI SA ACIL PHA CIRI PH [Translation: the river (L. rivus-i, stream; It. rio; Fr. rivière) there (Le) ...laurel, bay tree; meten. triumph, victory (L. laurus-i) gods, (L. lar, laris, lares) who, which, what, that (L. qui, quae, quod; It. chi; Fr. qui) to be moist (L. umeo [hu]-ere); the good (L bonus-a-um) is there any? (L. ecqui, ecquae or ecqua, ecquod, interj.) herself, reflex. Pron. (L. se or sese; Fr. sa) the eagle (L. aquila-ae) of Pha?]
CP-18 (right to left) CIM : CLEFA AMA CRINAL : :Ki TEI FACI LICEI KVNIS ARLASI... [Translation: Cim (unknown word) the staff, cudgel (L. clava-ae, f.) he loves (L. amo-are) of the hair, for the hair (L. crinalis-e)? who, which, what, that, wherefore, whereby (L. qui, quae, quod; It. chi; Fr. qui) god (L. deus, divus, di, divi, dea, diva; It. dio, dia; Fr. dieu, dieux, deese) I made make, to do (L. facio, facere)
of the Licei, Lycians? you fasten, tie together, connect, join, unite? (L. conecto-nectere-nexui-nexum) the Arlasi, name.
CP-27 (left to right ) RINI TEV KVS : RISA FARSI TIS : FALIA SV ACHIE (AIE) VACA (8ACA) IK (I) NAC VAS (8AS) [Translation: the queens (L. regina-ae; It. regina; Fr. reine) of Teukos, name, place? or alternatively, the god (L. deus, divus, di, divi, dea, diva; It. dio, dia; Fr. dieu, dieux, deese) of Cos? she quarrels, complains (L. rixor-ari) she filled (L. farcio, farcire) the rich, Dis, god of Hades, Pluto (L. Dis, Ditis, dis, diti [from dives], rich; Gr. Ploutos) Ralia, name? Possibly kalia or falia, a wooden tower or pillar (L. fala [phala]-ae,); his, its (L. suo, sua; It. sua, suo; Fr. soi) of Achaia (L. Achaia or Achaia-ae, Achaia or in Gen. Greece) the cow (L. vaccae-ae; It. vacca; Fr. vache) : born, to be (L. nascor-i); the vase, vessel (L. vas, vasis; It. vaso; Fr. Vase; Polish, wazon; Albanian, guazo)
CP-40 (right to left) NOBNES : FACIL : SAF CNES : IT NAMO (NAMV) LIRI NILU (NILF) PICAS : KI IANU (IANF) FACBV [Translation: Nobnes, name? easy to manage, easy to do, convienient, favorable (L. facilis-e) I kiss? (L. savior-ari) Cnaeus? (L. Cn, Cnaeus-i) It, unknown word, and ? (L. et?) , a wood, grove (L. nemus-oris, or alternatively, no one, nobody (L. nemo-onis) the lyre (L. lyra-ae) the river Nile? (L. Nilus-i) the woodpecker? (L. picus-i) : who, which, what, that (L. qui, quae, quod; It. chi; Fr. qui) of Janus? (L. Ianus) or a covered passage, arcade (L. ianus-i) I made (L. faciebam; It. facevo)]
CP-52 (left to right) UXAM (FXAM) SAS CAFABEM AR : SAC :SACV: [Translation: for the wife? (L. uxor-oris) stone, rock (L. saxum-i; It. sasso; Persian, sang) I hollowed out, excavated, pierced (L. cavo-are; 1st. person impf. cavebam) the gold (L. aurum-i, It. auro; fr. or) of the sack (L. sacculus-I; Welsh, sach-au; It. sacco; Fr. sac) I , to strain or filter (L. sacco-are)
Section B (Click on image for larger view)
CP-66 (right to left) _ _ FEI: PVLEI LVC... FIA (VIRA) FIRA SEL UXVM (VXVM) SVL ILVCV COIUS (CVIFS) CHOPER (KVPER) PEKIRAN ARIDES [Translation: For example (L. vei, even, actually, for example, either, or)
CP-80 (Right to left)...E : SIS THAS LEFIS AMA.................(Left to right) ARCE RATFM IRSA VI ....................[Translation: to be willing or want (L. si vis; sis = si vis) I am silent (L. taceo-ere-itum) swift, light armed (l. levis-e) he wishes, loves (L. amo-are)....(script damaged ) the leader (L. archon-ontis, an Athenian magistrate) determined (L. ratus-a-um)
CP-90 (Right to left) PVNET NVS CASA................IN VCHV CV ASTEI CHARI [Translation: he will place, put (L. pono, ponere, posui [posivi] positum [postum]) our (L. nos) house (L. casa-ae, f.).......in (L. in) the sight (It. occhio, m. eye, sight) I assemble (L. coeo-ire) the towns (L. astu); possibly of the staff (It. asta, f. staff, rod) of Chara (L. chara-ae, f. an edible root)
CP-100 (Left to right) EICES IRIEN CASA _ _CIM VSIE...ERIE S _.........................EFVI VRI RESAN [Translation: you eject (L. eicio-icere-ieci-iectum) Irien of the house (L. casa-ae)...the top (Fr. cime, It. cima, f.)
CP-111 (Right to left) AF....E CH..SVM..............(Line unreadable)
CP-115 (Left to right) RI EL BALEM............(Line unreadable)
CP-118 (Line unreadable)
CP-119 FANIFE ANVS .........(Line unreadable)
CP-124 ES CI
The name Aø (APH ) is recognizable in the text, in particular in line CP2-59 and following the word TEI (L. dea, diva, f. goddess), the same appellation is found on the inscription from Santa Marinella (Aph.html). The Pyrgi gold tablets mention the goddess Aph in the context of the controversy (polemic) of Aph.
The name of Pisa/ the people of Pisa (PISI) is also mentioned in this text (line CP2-20) and the name appears as well in the Tavola Cortonensis which is a declaration of war.
CP2-1 TEIS LIAE LAIS ARV RI8V SI8I RAN SVS TER CVCVIA IK VPER PRECIT HIPA RI8; Translation: god (L. m. deus, divus) favorable (L. laevus-a-um) you permit (Fr. liasser) to plow/cultivate (L. aro-are) the stream (L. rivus-i) if (L. sive & seu) the kidney (L. renes-um, m. pl. the kidneys) double (It. m. sosia) thrice (L. ter) you collect here/now (Fr. ici, adv.) to be busy in worship (L. operor-ari) you pray to (L. precor-ari) the horse (hippo) of the river (L. rivus-i). Note: The Greek word for "horse" is "hippo" and it survives in Latin, French, Italian and English in the word "hippodrome". See my vocabulary & Index. In French the word also survives as an adjective, "hippic", meaning "equine". Of interest is that the hippopatumus was the symbol of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth. One of her names, "Apet", is curiously close to "Aph". Here is how the Social Science Lab web site at the University of Colorado describes her:
(Taueret, Taurt, Apet, Opet; Greek Thoueris, Thoeris, Toeris)
"The Great One". Egyptian hippopotamus goddess and protective deity of childbirth. She was depicted with the head of a hippopotamus, the legs and
arms of a lion, the tail of a crocodile, human breasts, and a swollen belly. This appearance was meant to frighten off any spirits that might be harmful to the child. She was often depicted holding the Sa amulet symbolizing protection. As a protective deity of childbirth she was often depicted in the
company of the dwarf god Bes, who had a similar function. Taweret was most popular among ordinary Egyptians as a protectress. Pregnant women
commonly wore amulets bearing the goddess's image.
CP2-16 (most of the line unreadable) IK SAFE AP LINIA; Translation: here (Fr. ici) you rage/take violent action (L. saevio-ire-it-itum) in connection with the boundary (L. f. linea-ae)
CP2-20 (words unreadable) RIV SVS CVRI CA PISI AS LVS CVRS ERIC NAI; Translation: the double (It. sosica) brook (It. m. rio) flowed (It. correre; Fr. courir) as far as (L. qua) Pisa/the Pisans; the whole unit divided into twelve parts (L. as, asgis) I shine (L. Luceo, lucere, luxi) (or light) you hurry/flow (It. correre; Fr. courir) to raise (L. erigo-rigere-rexi-rectum) the births (Fr. adj. né, born). Note: NAC and NAI in other scripts seem to be used both in the context of a noun, "born/risen". Connecting Aph with childbirth not only reconfirms her relationship to Artemis as the ancient Greek/Spartan Aphaea, but also to Artemis' Latin Equivalent, Diana. Diana was an ancient Italic goddess and originally a deity of the Latins or Sabines. She was the patroness of wild things and of birth, both human and animal. She is associated with the ancient "mountain-mother" type fertility goddess and thus connects to Artemis. Diana was the patron goddess of the Roman plebeians. She was also associated with a diety named Virbius who may have had a relationship to the Attis-Adonis type of consort who usually attended a mountain-mother goddess. Recognizing these relationships we see in the Tavola Eugubine repeated epitaphs including the name ATI, Atys, who is mentioned as a patriarch. Aph and Atys may thus be associated in Etruscan mythology. Virbius was worshipped at Troy and in Sparta as a consort of Artemis/Diana. He was a son of Theseus, who was before becoming a deity, Hippolytus. Believing that Hippolytus had raped his wife Phaedra, who had hanged herself because Hyppolytus had spurned her (as he was dedicated to Artemis), Theseus called upon the sea god Poseidon to apply one of the three curses promised to him. Hippolytus' horses were frightened by a bull raging out of the sea, and he was dragged to his death. He was revived by Asclepius, according to some writers, and migrated to Aricia, Italy where he became king and instituted the worship of Artemis/Diana. In Troy girls would cut off their hair before marrying and dedicate their locks to Hippolytus. As mentioned he was also worshipped at Sparta and his constellation in the sky is Auriga, the Charioteer.
CP2-32 AMICI TIN Aø (APH) A RIV VSCA CA TIE TFE ETVF VNI EMICI RIV NAC ME IS PAC IC E; Translation: the friends (L. amicus-i) of the god Tini of Aph to the brook (It. m. rio) of the Oscans (L. Osci-orum) by which the day (L. m. or f. dies-ei) you watch over (L. tueor [or tuor] tueri, tuitus and tutus, dep. and tueo-ere); you brought forth (L. edo-edere-didi-ditum) Vni (the goddess equivalent to Latin Juno); she sprang forth (L. emico-micare-micui-micatum) from the born (L. nascor-i) brook (It. m. rio) to me she/it/that thing I make peaceful/fruitful (L. paco-are) here (Fr. ici) from (L. e, ex) here
CP2-59 (most unreadable) RIV ANEI TEI Aø (APH) 8A; Translation: the brook (It. m. rio) of the Anei (a people from whom the river--L. Anio-enis, a tributary of the Tiber--is named?) the goddess (L. f. dea, diva; It. f. dea; Fr. f. deesse) Aph changes/divides (L. vario-are). Note: we have ANE, ANEI and ANIA, the last of which appears to be the Etruscan word for the Anio river. Because in other scripts I found it exceptional to find variant spellings of the same word, I have reason to believe that ANEI and ANIA are separate words. It is also noteworthy that in this text we can verify that TEI is the word for goddess.
I lament that I cannot read much more of the text, since it seems to be a genealogy of Etruscan gods and goddesses all of whom appear from the text to have been born from the goddess Aph. For a more complete description of her open the Aph.html below. It also lists territories and would be a nice geography lesson of what the Etruscan world was like at the time of the writing of the Capua tile. If anyone can supply me with a better image of this tile please contact me.
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