6.15.2022 Etruscan Phrases showing Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns and vocabulary.
Translation of short inscriptions.

Translation of Short Inscriptions

 by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)

About the Translation


6.06.09 – The words for the translation below are selected from the vocabulary, accessed through Indo-European Table 1. Characters which are underlined are difficult to read and may not be correct. This page has been updated to reflect current results from our etruscan_glossaryA.xls and Grammar. Those who would enjoy a more detailed examination of the translation pages(>Short_Scripts.f.html) ought to open the Etruscan_glossary.A.xls spreadsheet and look up Etruscan words from it to appreciate the usage of the word(s) in the various Etruscan texts. The glossary contains over 2,000 separate words and shows how Etruscan nouns and adjectives decline and verbs conjugate.

Script A An inscription on the location of Tanaqil's tomb. Tanaqil was the wife of Tarquin the Great (Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, 5th king of Rome), from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii. She was a highborn and ambitious Etruscan woman who urged her husband to move from Tarquinia to Rome in order to advance his fortunes. Her training in the Etruscan art of augury often aided her husband in his affairs. At his death her strong-mindedness and quick thinking assured the throne to their son-in-law, Servius Tullius, in accordance with her husband's wishes. She is seen in another script, DL, "Divinination Lesson.html" a mirror showing the divining of a liver before Tarquin, with the god Veltune (FELTVNE) who is naked and observing the augur examining a liver. Next to the augur is Tanaquil, next to her is Tarquin, holding a staff, and next to him is another naked god holding a branch with a sprig growing below his feet. Above his head is the word, RARLR or DARLR.
I) TANCHVILVS (TANVILVS MAS NIA Le [Translation: behold! (L. en! ecce!) the point, pile (L. sudis-is; Fr. soute, f.., store-room; It. sotto., adv. , prep. under, below) Tanaquil Masnial (person's name). This may be the wife of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome. "Tanaquil, a highborn and ambitious Etruscan woman, urged her husband to move from Tarquinia to Rome in order to advance his fortunes. Her training in the Etruscan art of augury often aided her husband in his affairs. At his death her strong-mindedness and quick thinking assured the throne to their son-in-law, Servius Tullius, in accordance with her husband's wishes. " (2) Masnial, name, may refer to a modern form, as in the name of the Neopolitan insurgent Tommaso Antiello Masaniello (1620-1647).

P-1 – ACIE ZEVS [Translation: Achaea('s) Zeus] Note: The word IKIHII, Script T below, a possible variant of Achaea. Alternatively this could be "water of Zeus" (L. aqua-ae, water). The "C" often equates to the "q," rather than a "k" or "ch." On the other hand Greeks were referred to as Achaeans. Homer generally referred to all the Greek forces as Achaioi, but also listed the Myrmidons and Hellenes, who were led by Achilles. (2)

AB-1 – MI MVLV LARI SALE FEL KAINASI (Text from Archaeologica, "Scritti in onore di Aldo Neppi Modona / A cura di Nelide Caffarello," L. S. Oshchki, Firenze, 1975, p. 207) [Translation: to myself, mine, my (L. meus-a-um; mihi, Dat. It. mi, myself)) I construct/stir/toil (L. molior-iri) of the gods (L. Lar, laris) of the hall (It sala, f.), or alternatively, you go up (It. salire, sale, he goes up; L. salio, salire) of the great Chaina himself , itself (It. si)]

Note: LARI is one of the words on the Piacenza Liver. FEL KAINA may be Vulcan (L. Volcanus-i (Vulcanus-i). This may also refer to Chianciano Terme. The website of its museum says:

"Chianciano Terme stands on a hilltop overlooking to the west the fertile Chiana valley, already mentioned by Latin authors for its varied and abundant crops. In the vicinities of the present Chianciano, close to the ancient road that connected Northern Etruria's inland to the coast, a rather sizeable Etruscan settlement must have developed that controlled this important route running through the Astrone Valley. The presence of warm healing springs in the area must also have played a role in the development of the Etruscan Chianciano, since the area was a centre of the cult worship of Apollo as early as the 5th century B.C." [See http://www.chianciano.com/museo/etrusco/museo-uk.htm and http://www.tuscanholidays.net/villas-tuscany-chiana-valley.htm]
CHIANA declines as CHIANE at TC109.

AD-1 MI MAMAR CES FEL THIE NAS [Translation: to myself (It. mi) Mamar I stop (stop, cease (L. ceso-are) the great of the days (L. dies-ei, m.) born ( L. nascor-i, natos and [gnatus); or possibly the great Thienas, Dienas, person's name.] Note: Mamar may be Mermerus, the elder son of Medea and Jason or possibly the grandson. Medea was gifted in making poisons. Medea and Jason had two sons, Pheres and Mermerus who were abandoned by Medea at the altar of Hera after her murder of Corinth's king and his daughter. The two children had innocently carried a poisoned robe to the king's daughter, Glauce. The Corinthians stoned the two children to death. The art of making poison was passed down to the son of Pheres, Mermerus, who was the king of Thesprotian Ephyra. He passed the art down to his son Ilus. Ilus, king of Ephyra, refused to sell arrow poison to the young Odysseus.

AE-1 NAS: ARNOLARIS AL: FILAO: [Translation: born (L. nascor-i) Arno, name of gens and of chief river in Etruria (L. Arnus-i, m.) of the gods (L. Lars, Laris) to him (It. al) son (L. filius-i)]

AE-6 IYC KaNAL RIP [Translation: of a knight (L. eques-itis) or I yoke, bind (L. ugo-are) the channel (L. canalis-is; It. canale, m.) bank, shore (L. ripa-ae) ]

Script AF (left) Pillaster, tomb of the Clautie, Caere, 4th Cent. B.C.
AFLE: LARIS ALCLENAR STA Le)CNSVTHI CERI KVNCE [Translation: to the gods (L. Lars, Laris) the prince (L. aule) of him (It. al) to Clenar (person's name; see CLENeRVN, K64) he stands, stations (L. sto, stare) there (Fr. la); CN; underneath, below (Fr. soute, f.; It. sotto., adv. , prep. under, underneath, beneath, below; L. sudis-is, point, pile) you bewailed (L. queror, queri) the sea-shell? (L concha-ae)]

SANIS FA RVI CESV [Translation: he goes away (L. abeo, abi-itum) to us (It. ce) to Attica (L. Attica-ae) healthy/sound (pl.) (L. sanus-a-um) you go? second pers. It. & Fr. aller, va?) of the king (Fr. roi, m.); to cease work/rest (L. cesso-are)]

AF-20 CLAF TIE THVRASI [Translation: the staff, club (L. clava-ae; It. clava; clavus-i, nail, spike, tiller, helm, stripe of purlbe worn by senators and knights) of the day (L. dies-ei, day; diu, by day; diutiuus, longer; Welsh, dydd; Scot, di) of the Thorasi, name; Re: Dores-um, wife of Nereus; meton., the sea]]

Note: This pillaster from the tomb of the Clautie in Caere confirms the word and its meaning of Suthi, also used in Script A-2 which identifies the place of Tanaquil's tomb (Script A, above).

AG-1 FEL A TIES: FEL RVDVS LEMNISA: CELA TI: CESV [Translation: the great (Fel) at (L. a) the day (L. dies-ei, m. or f.); alternatively this could be Fel Aties (the great Attis / Atys, pl.; See the Atyad Dynasty, Lydia the great Rudus (L. rudis-e, rough, raw, uncultivated, unrefined, unskilled, awkward) the Lemnian (L. Lemnos [us]-i; adj. Lemnius-a-um, Lemnian) you (pl.) hide (L. celo-are; celati, 2nd pers. pl.); to cease work/rest/stop / I stop? (L. ceso-are)]

AT-1 (was AH-1 )
RAFeN (or RAUN) RVS: 8ELCIA Le: 8ELCES: ARNO AL: LA ROIAL: FIPENA Le SER RES: CVRNAS: PVIA [Translation: they ravish , seize (L. rapio, rapere; third pers. pl, rapiunt) the country (L. rus, ruris); (the town of) Velcha (Vulci, on the river Fiora) there; the Velches (People of Velches, Vulci?); the (river) Arno to the, to it (It al); there (It. la) the king (Fr. roi ) to it (It. al) or alternatively royal: royal, regal, kingly) Vipena (Vipinnas) I connect, join (L. sero, serere, serui, sertum) the matter/thing (L. res, rei); the horn/courage (L. cornu-us) afterwards (It. poi; Fr. puis)]

Note: This text links directly to an inscription above warriors in the Francois Tomb of Vulci. Here we are told that Vipena is of the royalty of Vulchi. It is also implied that they had influence from the Arno river to the Poe (which doesn't make sense, since Vulchi was in the far south of Tuscany, on the Fiora river.

AJ-1 MELIARNOIPVIAAMCESPIIPS [Translation: the honeys/sweetnessess (L. mel, mellis) of the Arno (L. Arnus-i, m. chief river of Etruria; people of the Arno?) afterwards/then (It. poi; Fr. puis) in a friendly manner (L. amice and amiciter); the hopes (L. spes-ei, f.) or I hoped (L. sperare) I myself/of my own accord (L. ipse-a-um)] Note: The IA sufix in PVIA coincides with noun, gen. endings.

AJ-9 LAYO ALSFA Le CEAFILLXII CICLF[Translation: to bathe/wash (L. lavo, lavare, lavere, lavi, lautum or lotu or lavatum) at the/at it (It. al) she joins together (L. suo, suere, sui, sutum) there (Fr. le, la) to us (It. ce); she lived/possessed (L. habeo-ere-ui-itum) 68 [years] of which, that (L. qui, interog.; qui, quae or qua, quod) I am named (L. clueo-ire)]

AJ-18 NARANA CNVSARCE [Translation: I say/make known (L. narro-are); Anna of Cnaeus you lead (Gr. archo, to command, rule; archon, leader; L. auctor-oris, originator).

Note: The colon in AJ-1, ME: LI, is not a punctuation mark, since the dot (
) is the punctuation mark used throughout the text. ARCE declines and its declensions are used extensively throughout the Etruscan texts in the context of a leader.

AK-1 ITVN TVRV CE FENE LAPE (or LATE) LINAS TI NASC LINII ARAS [Translation: they go (L. ito-are) to look after (L. tueo-ere) of us (It. ce); you come (L. venio, venita, veni, ventum); you totter, waver be about to fall, sink, (L. labo-are) or alternatively you glide, fall down, fall away, decline, make a mistake (L. labor, labi, lapsus) or you praise/commend (L. laodo-are) of Linas (person's name) yourself (It. ti) I am born (L. nascor-i, natos and [gnatus] of the Linii (family of Linas) of the altars (L. ara-ae)] Click on image for larger view.

Script AL, Aule Metelis, from Sanguineto, Italy, near Lake Trasimene, 1st. c B.C.
METELISFEFELES IR LeCLENSI [Translation: the prince (L. aule) himself , Metelis
you carry (L. veho, vehere, vexi, vectum) perhaps (L. ve, perhaps) or Felsi, place? or skirmishers, light-armed infantry (L. veles-itis or velites) to go (L. iri) there (le) of the Clensi (peoples' name)]

AL-8 Le ERES : TECESANS LeV_ _ _?  [Translation: you err, wander (L error-are) you cover, bury (L. tego, tegere, texi, tectum) the healthy (L. sanguis-itis, m. and sanguen; It. sangue, m.; Fr. sang, m.; or healthy (L. sanus-a-um) there (le); ........... ]

AL-15 TVRINES KIS FLICS ...[Translation: the people of Turin (L. Augusta Taurinorum) whom (L. quis, quid; It. chi, Fr. qui) I change, alter, bend (L. flecto, flectere, flexi, flexum) (1)

The script is located on the rear, bottom of the toga of the orator, Prince Metelis..

Script TA. This script is in the "Tomb of the Augurs," Tarquina. The inscriptions cannot be easily read and were only visible to me through a watercolor of the mural in a book by Frederik Poulsen, Etruscan Tomb Paintings, Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1922. The painting is part of a collection Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. The frescos in the Etruscan tombs have been deteriorating, and it may be that the early water-colors will be our final point of reference on the inscriptions in various Etruscan tombs. Artists, by their nature, copy what they see, and in this case the artist saw an inscription the camera several years later could not copy. The right hand figure has the following inscription to the left of his head:

Translation: [the priest (It. abate [m], abbot, priest; Fr. abbé [m], abbot), he stands (L. sto, stare, steti, statum; It. stare; Fr. stationner) to pass (It. passare; Fr. passer)]

The left-hand person has an illegible inscription to the right of his head:

TA-4: TAN......

The word APA is used in other scripts and appears to be a verb.

Funerary inscriptions in the Tomb of "Aninas," Tarquinia (Script AN):

Script AN(1): AN-1 ANI NAS: ARNO: FELVS: [Translation: name, Ani, born (L. nascor-i, natos and [gnatus]) of the Arno (L. Arnus-i, m. chief river of Etruria, now the Arno); of the fleece, hide (L. vellus-eris)]

AN-5 ORAK FILVS: ATIA Le: AFILS XXXIX [Translation: I demand (L. proco-are) of the son (L. filius-i, m.) of Atia there; she possessed/lived (L habeo-ere-ui-itum) of 39 (years)]
Note: ORAK - The R and A seem to have been written over, as if a spelling error had ocurred.

Script AN(2): AN-12 ANI NAS: FEL: FELVS: A PANES: SVR NVS [Translation: name, Ani, born (L. nascor-i, natos and [gnatus]) great of the fleece,
hide (L. vellus-eris)
to (L. a) name, Panes, or alternatively, you compose, fasten (L. pango, pangere) of sister (L. soror; It. suora, f. Fr. soeur, f.) our (L. nos; Fr. nos; It. nostro, nostri, nostra, nostre)] Note: the phrase, great of the hide may be an expression referring to a great writer, since sheep skin (vellum) was used to write upon.

AN-20 AL øA (PHA) ESI: SCVRPI: CATES: TEFS: A _ _AF ALCE [Translation: to her (It. al, prep. to the) the goddess Pha you went out (It. escire [uscire]; L. exeo-ire-li-[ivi]-itum) of the month of the Zodiac, Scorpio (about October 24-November 29; in Babylonia it is regarded as the 8th month, October-November; L. Scorpio-onis and Scorpios [-os] -i; Scorpius was responsible for killing the hunter Orion and the two constellations never appear at the same time in the sky. When Scorpius rises Orion is setting. Its brightest star is Antares, "rival of Ares, Mars.");

of the family of Cato; god, (L. m. deus, divus) ......of something/someone/anyone (L. aliquis, aliquid)]

AN-28 AFILS XXXXIII SA SVRI: CERIS VNCE [Translation: she lived/possessed (L. habeo-ere-ui-itum) 47 (years) herself (L. se, or sese, acc. sing. and pl. sui, genit., sibi, dat. se or sese, abl.) smiled (L. risor-oris; It. sorridere; Fr. souire); the goddess Ceres (L. Ceres-eris) you anoint (L. ungo [unguo] ungere; It. ungere; Fr. oindre)]
AN-35 SANIM ............unreadable.

Script AN(3): AN-34 ANI NAS: LARO FELVS: ARS NAL [Translation: name, Ani, born (L. nascor-i, natos and [gnatus]); the ghost (L. arua [larua]-ae, f.) of the the fleece, hide (L. vellus-eris) the skill/character (L. ars-tis, f.) of the passage money (L. naulum-i)]

AN-40 A PANES: SVRvM SIS CFS ICV CATES [Translation: to (L. a) Panes, or alternatively, you compose, fasten (L. pango, pangere) of the sisters, sister (L. soror; It. suora, f. Fr. soeur, f.) you wish (L. vis) Cus to strike, slay (L. icio or ico, ici, ictum) of the family of Cato]

AN-47 AN: FAC Le: LAFV TN: RAF SI [Translation: whether (L. an) I make/do (L. facio, facere, feci, factum) there (le) to bathe (L. lavo, lavare, or lavere, livi, lautu or lotum or lauatum) of TN (abbreviation for the god Tini); I snatch away/hurry along (L. rapio, rapere, rapui, raptum) herself (It. si; L. se, or sese, acc. sing. and pl. sui, genit., sibi, dat., se or sese)]

AN-54 SAM SVRI CENKVN_ _ _ _ _ _CIFAS [Transaltion: the leg (It. zampa, f.; Fr. jambe) you smiled (L. risor-oris; It. sorridere; Fr. souire) Cenchun, name or alternatively, they think, estimate (L. censeo, censere) .........of food (L. cibus-i, m.) or alternatively the citizens (L. civis-is)]

AN-59 AFILS Ki XXVI [Translation: she lived/possessed (L. habeo-ere-ui-itum) some (L. quae, or qua) 26 (years)]

Inscription from Pesaro of L. F. Matius, Fulguriator, an augur who interpreted lightening bolts

Latin inscription (top) Matius L. F. he would stand (L. sto, stare, steti, statum, stet, 2nd Pers.subj.) the prophet/seer (L. haruspex-spicis, m.) the priest who interpreted omens from lightening (L. fulgurator-oris, m.)

Script AP-1 – AVA (A8A), IPS ERFR NIV SFIS TRYINFI 8eRVNIA Ce [Translation: A8A, farewell, hail!, L. ave, avete, IPS, himself or the master, L. ipse-a-um, to uproot, rescue, L. eruo -ere, to weave, L. neo-nere-nevi-netum, Ind. Pres. 1st Pers. Sngl. neo, SUIS (MFIS) you join together, suo, suere, sui, sutum,  Ind. Pres. Suis, the Trojans (L. Nom. Pl. Troiani, Troinui; of Verona, 8eRVNIA Ce; of Verona to us (It. ce). Note the "ia" suffix is a common suffix of proper names.

Script HA, on an augur (haruspex) Vatican Museum (left):
HA-1 – TN: TURCE (TVRCE) FEL SUEITUS (SFEITVS) [Translation [TN, an abbreviation used also in the Zagreb Mummy Script; Torce (name, possibly having to do with to twist, L. torqueo-torquere, to curl, twist, wind) the great Sueitus (name, based on L. suesco, to be accustomed; or Suebi-orum, a German people; or related to Roman name, Suetonius-i, ]

(Right) Script LF, bronze in the Louvre, Museum:

LF-1: TV
SVRISA [Translation: you (L. tu) Surisa, name or alternatively, you smiled (L. risor-oris; It. sorridere; Fr. souire) yourself (L. se, sese)]
See SVRI – AN-30

Script AM, "Battle of the Amazons," Sarcophagus from Tarquina, Archeological Museum, Florence. Photo from Skira, Inc., Etruscan Painting, 1952. This painting obviously involves a woman and warriors, and the text should explain who is involved and what is happening in the scene. The woman does not appear to be wearing armor, and the semi-naked warrior in blue also has no armor, has a Phrigian helmet, and brandishes a sword towards the woman. On the other side of the woman is an armored soldier pointing a spear at the woman. The armed man, carring a bow, on the far right is actually leading the group away. The scene suggests the capture of the woman, not necessarily a battle. It may depict an abduction.

When Etruscan murals depict mythological scenes, they tend to be familiar to Greek stories. Thus, we should be able to relate this scene to a Greek myth, particularly an abduction, and probably relating to the Trojan War.

As of 8.22.06 – The first word is huc (L. huc, here is) and the next word would call for a name, and the suffix, ai, suggests a proper name, as in the name of Helen in the Divine Mirror.html: ELINAI. Here, the word appears to be CRAI. Also, we have the name CNEI, whose suffix suggests a feminine name, as in PHERSIPNEI (Persephone, Queen of Hades; See Etruscan Mural, Orcus.gif). In this version the names Crai and Cnei are not familiar to me. If ASV is Asius, brother of the famous Hecuba – known also as Hecate – then we should be able to find somewhere a story of him abducting a beautiful woman. Hecuba was the wife of King Priam and she was one of the Trojan women who were abducted by the Greeks (she became the slave of Odysseus). On his homeward voyage he stopped on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese, ruled by King Polymestor, a former Trojan ally. Hecuba discovered that Polymestor had treacherously murdered her son Polydorus for his gold. She lured the king to her tent and blinded him, after killing his infant sons. Shortly thereafter Hecuba was transformed into a fiery-eyed dog. The dog's grave became well known to sailors as Cynossema or Cyneus. According to the lost epic "Sack of Ilium," Apollo brought Hecuba at last to Lycia. Cnei may thus be the name of Hecuba, as Cyneus. If ASV is Asius, it would not be likely that he would be participating in the abduction of his sister, Hecate. If the warrior on the left, with the spear, is Asius, he could be defending Hecate (Cyneus, CNEI) against king Crai.

The abduction of the Trojan women was a popular theme in mythology.

The woman appears to be holding a sword in her right hand and defending herself. She does not have her right breast exposed, as was the custom of the Amazons (They cauterized the right breast of young women so to not interfere with shooting an arrow, according to Herodotus). Strapped to her side appears to be a scabbard for the sword. If we compare this scene to the painting on the opposite side of the sarcophagus (Amazons.gif), it is clear that the scene involves an Amazon in battle with warriors. In this panel, however, the warrior seems to be wearing a Phrygian style helmet. Cmpare his helmet to those of the armored soldiers.

This might be the "Battle of the Amazons" when they invaded Athens. Theseus had abducted Antiope (or Hippolyte) who was either the Amazon queen or her sister, and took her to Athens. The Amazons invaded Athens in pursuit of their queen.

Later the Amazons fought the Trojans led by young King Priam, and the Mygdonians and Phryigians. Perhaps because the Amazons hated the Greeks more than they did the Trojans, their queen, Penthesileia, came to the aid of Priam late in the Trojan War. She was killed by Achilles, but only after inflicting much damage on the Greeks.

It would make sense that both scenes on the sarcophagus represent both phases of the incident: the abduction of Antiope by Theseus and the Amazon attack on Athens to recover her. Since both the Greeks and Trojans wore crested helmets according to the Iliad the warriors could be either Greek or Trojan.

The text should provide a clue to the scene, which battle of the Amazons is involved. Sometimes there is a recognizable correspondence of Greek names to the Etruscan spelling and thus we would look for familiar names involving the Amazons. Other names, such as those seen on the Divine Mirror.html, like the Etruscan Turan, who is the Greek Aphrodite, Roman /Venus, or Tinia who is the Greek Zeus, the Roman Jupiter, are not similar.

Only the characters Asius (ASV) and Cyneus / Hecate (CNEI) seem to have a bearing in this Etruscan scene. If Hecate is the woman in the scene, then her abductor would be Odysseus, whose name is not mentioned. If the woman is an Amazon, she would have to be a famous Amazon, but no name in the script coincides with those names listed above. In the conflicts involving the Amazons, Hercules (Etruscan, Hercle) or Theseus (Etruscan, These) were the abductors of Antiope, and their names are not in this panel. So this is not the abduction of Antiope. If the woman is Penthesileia, then something close to her name, and particularly the name of Achilles, should be mentioned. I thus lean towards the theme of the "Abduction of the Trojan women," with this scene relating to Hecuba. The opposite panel contains no text but certainly appears to relate to the Amazon revenge attack on Athens.

(1) AM-1 HVC CRAI: RVI: ASV ATI: TIFI CNEI: LAR RIAL [Translation: Hither is, to this place (L. huc) Crai the king (L. rex, regis; It. re, Fr. roi). Aso (Asius, a Trojan ally. Asius was the younger brother of Hecuba and son of Dymas, king of the Phryigian tribe who lived on the Sangarius River. He led that nation's forces in the Trojan War) of the Ati (sons of Atis). He carried away (L deveho -veheree -vexi -vectum) or alternatively divine (L. divus-a-um) of Cnei: of the god (L. lar) royal (L. regalis)] Note: A letter faces towards the word it belongs when there is a chance of confusing it with the following word; i.e., HVC CRAI and not Ce CRAI. AI is a genitive suffix identifying proper names.

Script T

Inscribed funerary stele, illustration of the Vetulonia "Warrior's Tombstone"
Museo Archologico,
Florence. 6th-7th century B.C. From The Etruscans, Massimo Pallottino, Indiana University Press, 1975 This I have identified as Script T. Compare his armour to that used in the Illiad of Homer.

The script, called the Avle Feluske stele, is not of Avle Feluske. It is: of AULE SeRELUS:

SeRELVS KESTVS NVS NI _ _ _ _ _PANATAM MINIMV Le VBAN IKIHII _ _ _ _SIS The last part of the script is not readable. As will be evidenced in this site the scripts used The S is a . The S is a .

The other "S" in the script is the S. [Translation: Prince (L. aule) Serelus a lamentation (L. questus-us); our (L. nostri) .ni..of the deities (L. Penates-ium) the least (It. minimo; L. minimus) there (la). They die, go to meet (L. obeo-ire) of Achaia (L. Achaia-ae) ....I wish, will (L. sis).


(1) AL16 should read KIS (IS). AL17-AL18, FLICS, appears to be L. flecto, flectere, to bend, change or possibly L. flo, flare, flavi, flatum, to blow, to cast metals . The "V" or "B" is an "8." AL9-AL10, 8eLERES (Veleres), is a common name/ephitet to script Z, the Zagreb Mummy with about 18 usages. This script will be updated as I learn more about the vocabulary.

(2) From The Meridian Handbook of Classical Mythology, New York, by Edward Tripp, 1970.

lorence. 6th-7th century B.C. From The Etruscans, Massimo Pallottino, Indiana University Press, 1975 This I have identified as Script T. Compare his armour to that used in the Illiad of Homer.

 To study the vocabulary to which the words above relate click here, Indo-European_Table_1 . 

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