1.30.14 Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):





Etruscan_Phrases
Indo-European Table 1

by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)





Table 1 Index (Recommend opening this page to facilitate navigation through Table 1)

This table began as a comparison of Etruscan words to other Indo-European words, and it is clear that the linkage to Etruscan illuminates some new patterns in Indo-European word relationships. Perhaps in the final analysis of this work we will learn more about the placement of certain languages within the Indo-European family. More so, it may be that Etruscan provides us a bridge into the past, allowing us to see the formative stage of some of the languages. After all, Etruscan is a language frozen in time, having been unread and untouched, as it were, for these past two thousand years. The reader should also note that the Etruscan vocabulary upon which this table is based is a working vocabulary. It is composed from extant Etruscan writings. The table is not, therefore, an artificial compilation of word relationships of one language to another; rather it is an expos. I have exposed two classifications or orders of languages which have an affinity to Etruscan. The first order I have colored in red to expose western Indo-European, Latin relationships. Another order I have colored in blue to expose Indo-European languages favoring an eastern relationship. The blue links may, in fact, expose an older, perhaps Eastern, branch which would have included Greek, Sanskrit, Etruscan, French/Gaelic and Albanian sources. Those words colored in green show a group that appears to be in the middle of the original Indo-European family based in the steppes of Russia, north of the Black Sea. Although the traditional view in classifying Indo-European languages is through the assortment of Satem and Centum languages, this table may put that order in question, particularly with regard to Albanian and French. The table will continue to grow in length as more words from the Etruscan vocabulary are added. The table has been summarized as Indo-European Table 2.

It should be noted that the foundation of the Etruscan vocabulary is based upon the isolation of individual words and phrases without at first regard for meaning and the establishment of grammatical patterns, where shifts in the affix of words could be discerned. These shifts resembled the Indo-European declension pattern, and the over-all pattern was and continues to be that of a language related to Latin.

The next step in analyzing the Etruscan scripts was to apply a comparative translation to Latin, French, Italian and English; the result being the Vocabulary / Glossary. Once a working vocabulary had been established, allowing consistent translations of words and phrases from one script to another, creation of this table became feasible. And as this table takes form a more refined translation of the Etruscan scripts will be obtained. While Etruscan is a dead language and there is no Rosetta Stone available so far, to assist in the translation, we do know that a fair translation is possible with confirmation of consistent shifts from the related languages to Etruscan.

What is also quite evident through this table is the proximity a language may have to Etruscan. When we see what appears to be a "borrowed word" in Etruscan from another language, we realize that any borrowing that may have taken place in the exchange would have ocurred more than two thousand years ago. Again, the Etruscan language ceased to exist by the time of Cicero. No one in his time could speak or read Etruscan. Yet, he took pride in his Etruscan hereitage. He was born 106 BC, in Arpinum, Latium (now Arpino, Italy) and died Dec. 7, 43 BC.

No language is separate from its artifacts, and perhaps the most significant artifact we can realize from an ancient civilization is its own record. The Etruscan tombs left enormous treasures, filling museums and private collections world wide, but in spite of all the beautiful works they left behind, there is no curator alive today who can tell you what the Etruscans actually thought. A curator or teacher can quote Cicero, perhaps the greatest Roman statesman, but no curator or educator can quote a writing of one of his ancestors. But now we are in a position to do that.

This table already shed light on a curious, often repeated phrase involving the appellation, ATIIERI, ATIIERIE, ATIIERIV, etc. The appellation appeared to be, "Ati gerius" and I translated it as being the ancestoral patriarch Attis/Atys of Lydia, and the devotees in the script being the sons/daughters of Atys. Applying the Albanian word for father, Ate, and Albania njeri, beginning, leaves also the translation, "father of the beginning," i.e., god. Atys, the consort of the mother-goddess Cybele, was a vegetation god of Asia Minor (Phrygia) who symbolized rebirth and the renewal of the seasons. The diety became popular in Rome in the 2nd century AD. Atys, a king of Lydia, is also the name of the father of Tyrhsenus, who led half of the Lydians in their realm to Italy, as a result of a drought following the Trojan war. The Greeks called the Etruscans by the name of Tyrrhenians or Tyrsenians, after the name of the Etruscan leader, Tyrsenus.

When we attempt to reconstruct the diffusion of the Indo-European populations from the steppes north of the Black Sea into Europe and Asia, we have very few things to use. There are artifacts and myths, and if we are lucky a sample of their clothing and remains. We can reconcile those things to the historical records ancient writers, such as Herodotus, left behind. We also have the corpus of sacred texts from various groups. In India there are the Vedas, written in Sanskrit, a dead language (like Latin) that recall stories dating circa. 1,200 BC. The verbal record of Homer, the "Iliad," dating from about 600 BC, tells a little about the Mycennean civilization and the great war involving Troy, a story dating from about 1,200 BC. We have the Persian sacred texts called the Avesta, or Zend-avesta, which is the sacred book of Zoroaster, a Persian prophet of 628 BC. The Mycennean civilization left a body of scripts, known to us as "Linear B," which turns out to be a corpus of tablets, dating about 1,200 B.C., found in ancient Greek fortifications containing inventories and communications involving warfare. Archeological remains of cities from 1,200 BC to about 800 BC reflect a Meditteranean littoral under siege. The ancestors of the Indo-Europeans were quite warlike and continue their warring tradition to this day. Their religion reflected this.

Perhaps in their struggle to eke out a livlihood as a pastoral folk, the ancestors of the Indo-Europeans became more philosophical about life, death, duty and patronage and the affects man could have upon the gods who seemed to control all things. Living in small clans and villages they were destined to be more democratic, relying upon a council of elders to regulate their routines. Heading up each group would be an elected chief or regent.

Among the earliest Indo-Europeans there were the Kurgan folk who lived on the steppes north of the Black Sea about 3,500 BC, arriving in the Aegean and Adriatic regions about 2,300 BC. The Kurgans buried their dead in mounds, or barrows. The word kurgan means barrow, or artificial mound, in Turkic and Russian. A similar people were the Scythians, a red-headed people whom Herodotus describes in considerable detail. They also practiced mound burials, and the practice spread to Italy, among the Etruscans, and up the western coast of Europe, from Spain to Britain and Germany. The remains of many of their barrows, which have been eroded, can be seen as dolmens to this day. These people spent a lot of their time piling up stones, creating great stone alignments and barrows, the most famous of which is Stonehenge, dating from about 3,000 BC. Along the Mediterranean littoral the Indo-Europeans built great cities, the earliest of which were of the Hittites, whose capital, Hattusus, was just north of what is now Ankara, Turkey. They became a dominant power by 1,340 BC., involving themselves in a great battle, the battle of Kadesh, with Egypt (Seti I and Ramses II) in 1299 BC. By 1190 BC, about the time of the Trojan war, the Hittite empire ceased to exist.

While it is tempting to think that all of the "barrow" folk were Indo-Europeans, there are barrows, or dolemns, found in many places of Asia, including Korea and Japan. Some of the people who left these barrows, beginning about 5,000 B.C., may be Indo-European kin-folk.

The languages selected for comparison to Etruscan include the peoples discussed above. The early Hindu language, Sanskrit, Avestan (early Persian), Serbo-Croatian and Belarussian (old Slavic languages), Sudovian (believed to be an old Baltic language), Greek, Albanian (also believed to be an old branch of the Indo-Europeans), Latin; and Scottish Gaelic, Breton Gaelic, French and Italian form another group for comparison. English serves a particular measure in the comparison since it contains many borrowed words from the Gaelic and "Romance" languages. The foundation of English is low German and its relationship to Albanian in the working vocabulary of this table is interesting. The table is in several sections. Another language, Romanian, is being added to the Indo-European Table, courtesy  of Constantin Cucu, whose contribution we have recorded as etruscan_glossaryA-Constantin.xls. The basic glossary, Etruscan_glossaryA.xls is the most current document - updated before all other documents - to reflect changes in the Etruscan vocabulary.



Table 1: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. To open the next section of this table click here, section Table1A.
Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian. Except for family relationships and numbers this table is alphabetical.
See also Etruscan Phrases Glossary.html

Sanskrit

Avestan & Armenian*

Slavic & Baltic

Greek & Albanian

Latin

other

English

Etruscan

A quick look at Etruscan words that appear to be of the family, numbers, etc. Alphabetically arranged Etruscan words begin below, at the yellow bar

matR^i,
maataa
, ambaa;
zuzU [f]
mother.

barethrishva
(Avestan)
mdar (Persian)

majka (Serbo
Croatian)
maci, matka
(Belarus)
mate (Baltic
Sudovian

mana, mitera (Greek)
mm, nn
(Albanian)

mater, matris [f]

mthair (Scott)
mamm (Breton)
mam-au [f] (Welsh)
mre [f], maman [f] (French)
madre [f]; mamma [f] (Italian)
mcar (Tocharian)
na (Lydian)
matar (Phrygian)
xna, a mother (Lycian)

mother [<OE
modor]; mama

matra, Script R426,
matro, matru,
(matrv)
,
Script R487

(matro8), Script R459

uras [n], uraska,
adj. breast

sine, pestan, breast (Persian)

hrudzi [f.pl.], chest, breast (Belarus)

mastos, stithos,
breast (Greek)
kraharor; gjoks;
gji; sis; zemer;
ndjenja breast,
(Albanian)

mamma-ae [f],
breast

brest-iau [f] (Welsh)
petto [m], breast
(Italian)

mamelle [f] (French)

breast [<OE breost]

mam, Script M67;
mamar, Script AD-1

pita, pitaa
pitR^i
, father

pitar, patar,
ptar
, father
(Avestan)
pedar [n], father
pedari kardan
[verb] (Persian)

otac, father (Serbo-Croatian)
aciec, aciec, baka,
father
(Belarus)
tavas, father, (Baltic-Sudovian)
te.tis, father
(Baltic-Lithuanian)

pater, tetta, father (Greek)
baba, ate, father
(Albanian)

patria-ae [f],
fatherland

athair-ar (Scott)
tad-au [m] (Welsh)
tad (Breton)
padre [m], father;
patria [f], fatherland
(Italian)
pre [m], father,
patrie [f], fatherland;
tte, head, leader,
summit (French)
pcar, father, (Tocharian)
tedi, a father,
teTTi, paternal
(Lycian)
tati, (Hititte)

father [<OE faeder], fatherland

patre, Script Q53,
Q162, Q171, Q209,
Q243, Q416
patrebum, Script
R258; see also:
teto (tetv)?
Script Q202, R294
ate, ates, atia, ati;
see Note (2)

bhratar,
bhraatR^i bhraataH

dadr; bardar
(Persian)
W-yeghpatr;
E aghper
(Armenian)

brat (Serbo
Croatian)
brat (Belarus)
brate, brother;
bratrikai, brothers
(Baltic-Sudovian)

phrater (Greek)
vlla (Albanian)

frater-tris, fratres,
fraternitas-atis,
fraternus-a-um

brawd (brodyr) [m],
brother, friar,
berethren (Welsh)
brthair, pl. brithrean,
brthaireil
(Irish)
breur, breudeur
(Breton)
fratello [m] (Italian)
frre [m] (French)
bra' (Illyrian)
pracar (Tocharian)
brafrer, member of
a commune,
(Lydian)

brother [<OE
brothor]

frater (8rater), Script
R-1, R100, R156

FRATeR
(8RATeR), Script
R164, G-1

fratro (8ratrv)
Script
Q243, Q294, R88, R565
fratrom (8ratrvm), Script Q320
fratros (8ratrvs)
, Script Q424, Q468, Q521, Q551, R229

aatmaja,
kishora tanuuja, suta

puthra [-] son,
child (Avestan)
farzand, pesar,
zd (Persian)

sin (Serbo
Croatian)
syn (Belarus)
sunus, son;
vaikas, boy helper
(Baltic-Sudovian)

gios (Greek)
bir, dial
(Albanian)

filius

ab (ap) [m] son;
bachgen (bechgyn)
[m], boy, son, lad;
mab (meibion) [m],
boy, son, man, male
(Welsh)
maab (Breton)
figlio [m] (Italian)
fils [m] (French)
se, soy
(Tocharian)
kzzta (Lycian)
namuwai, a son
(Hittite)

son [<OE sunu]

filos, filus (filvs),
Script AN-1;
filoi, filui (filvi),
Script L44

aatmajaa, kishori
tanayaa
duhitaa [f],
sutaa

dukhdha
[duxdhar]'
doxtr
(Persian)

pastorka, step
daughter (Serbo
Croatian)
dacka [f.] (pl.):
docki (Belarus)
dukte (Baltic
Sudovian)

kori, thygatera
(Greek)
bij, vajz
(Albanian)

fila-ae

nighean (Scott)
merche-ed [f], girl,
daughter, maid,
woman (Welsh)
merc'h,-ed (Breton)
figlia [f] (Italian)
fille [f] (French)
ckcar, tkcer
(Tocharian)
cbatru (Lycian)

daughter [<OE
dohtor]

file, Script Z629,
AH-1

mayaa, mayi,
me (mine),
maaM (me)
maamakaM
(from me)
svaaM (of myself)

maiby [ma]
(my), mvya
[
ma], mm
[azem] (me)

me, mene, meni,
mi, mina,
moj
[mine] (Serbo
Croatian)
ja (Belarus)
men, min,
meim (i);
maja (i), my
(Baltic-Sudovian)

dikos, mou,
(Greek)
mua, m, ma,
un (Albanian)

me
meus-a-um, my,
mine

agam, at me; chugam,
domh, to me;
mi, I &
me,
mo, my (Scott)
fi, fy ('m, 'n), i,
mi,
myfi (Welsh)
me, I, me (Breton)
me, meco (Italian)
me, moi (French)
mi, mine (Lydian)
amu, mu,
mi, mu
(I, me, my Carian)

by me, to me, me,
my [< OE min], me
[<OE me], mine
[<OE min], myself

mi, me, mia; me,
mine;
mek, of me,
from me

x

azem

x

un (Albanian)

ego

fi, i (Welsh)
unan (Breton)
io (Italain)
je (French)

I [<OE ic], pronoun

iko (ikv); see
un, une, uni,
uno (vn - vnv)?

x

n [azem]
(Avestan)
mle m -mn,
barye m
(Persian)

nusun (Baltic
Sudovian)

mas, emas (Greek)
jon, yn (Albanian)

nos

hon, hor, hol, our
(Breton)
ein (Welsh)
noi, us; nostro,
nostri, nostra, nostre
(Italian)
nous, us; nos, our
(French)

our [<OE ure]

nos (nvs)
Script Z133
ione? Script Q607,
Q253, R219
ionas? Script Au76

sva

xod, xis, xixtan,
self (Persian)

ja, sam (Serbo
Croatian)
samalubny,
selfish (Belarus)
-si, refl.
(Baltic-Sudovian)

idios (Greek)
vete, vetvete,
uni
(Albanian)

se, sese, sibi, sui

hun, hunan (hunain),
self (Welsh)
unan (Breton)
-si, meco, refl.
pron. (Italian)
se, meme, refl.
pron. (French)
s'fa (refl. pron.
Lydian)
sfes, refl. pron.
(Carian)
uwe, a person,
uedri, a
community
(Lycian)

self [<OE self] refl. pron.

sa, Script Z522,
Z842, Z1317, TC12,
TC28, TC201,
TC307, K107,
Au17, AN28,
Se, Script K86,
K124
se, Script Z103,
Z1310, J23, K6,
Q805, R22, R114

sese, Script Q424,
Q661, Q767
si, Script Z72,
Z103, Z144, Z234,
Z300, Z844, Z880,
Z1793, TC170,
TC220, J18, K20,
K46, K124, AL-1,
AN41

eka, ekaM, ekaH

ava, yum
(Avestan)
yek, tak, harkas
(Persian)

covek, they: ona,
one,
oni
(Serbo-Croatian)
adzin (Belarus)
ainas (Baltic-
Sudovian)

enas (Greek)
nj, one; njri,
pron. (Albanian)

unnus-a-um

un, adj. (Welsh)
unan (Breton)
un. uno, una
(Italian)
un (French)
sas, se, s.eme,
sana (Tocharian)
sta (Lycian)

one [<OE an]

un, on (vn);
see also ec, ece?

dve (two)
dvi (two, both)

dva [-]
bish, adv.
twice, double
(Avestan)
do (Persian)

dva, dve,
dvoje (
Serbo-Croatian)
dva
(number)
dva, dzvie,
dvuch, dvoje

(Belarus)
dvai (Baltic-
Sudovian)

duo (Greek)
dy (Albanian)

duo-ae

dwy [f], dau [m],
two, pair (Welsh)
div (f.), daou
[m] (Breton)
due [m] (Italian)
deux [m] (French)
wu, wi
(Tocharian)
tuwa (Lycian)
tuwa (Hittite)

two [<OE twa]

tfa Script
AH3?,
tfe Script Z1021,
Z1846
tue (tve)
Script Q74?
du (Script F)?

tri, trayaM,
trayaaNaaM,
traye, trishhu
(in the three)

tishr [thri]
(Avestan)
se (Persian)

troje, trojica
(Serbo-Croatian)
try (Belarus)
tris (Baltic-
Sudovian)

tris (Greek)
tre, tri
(Albanian)

tres, tris

tr (Scott)
tri, adj. tair [f],
(Welsh)
teir [f],
tri
(Breton)
tre (Italian)
trois (French)
tri, tre
(Tocharian)
tre, trije
(Lycian)
thri (Phrygian)
tri (Hittite)

three [<OE thri]; third [<OE thridda]

tre, Script N87,
N294, N453, N469,
N476, N505, Q11,
Q21, Q33, Q46,
Q127, Q767, R5,
R108,R661; MS13
trei, Script Z72,
Z180, Z347, Z1027
tres, Script Z290,
Z872, Z945, Z990,
Q376, Q763
tri, Script N230,
N232, N244, Q232,
L71;
tria, Script Q551;

trikRtvas, thrice

thritm
[thritya]
thrish,
thrice (Avestan)
sebarbar, sel,
segne (Persian)

treci, trejci, third (Belarus)
tirtas, third
(Baltic-Sudovian)

treis fores,
thrice;
trito, third (Greek)
triher
(Albanian)

ter

treas; trian, a
third part (Scott)
trydydd (trydedd)
[f], third (Welsh)
terzo (Italian)
troisime
(French)

three times,
thrice [<OE thriga];
third [<OE thridda]

ter, Script Q311, R49, R619

tArtIya, the third
part

sevom, sevomi,
yek sevom, third
(Persian)

treci, trejci
(Belarus)
tirtas, third
(Baltic-Sudovian)

trito, third (Greek)
i tret, adj. third,
(Albanian)

tertius-a-um, third;
acc. n. sing. tertium,
for the third time;
abl.
tertio

treas; trian, a
third part (Scott)
trydydd (trydedd)
[f], third (Welsh)
terzo [m], adj.,
third (Italian)
trois, troisime [m],
adj. third (French)

third, for the
third time,
thirdly

terti, Script Z1600
Z1644, Q551
tertie, Script Q127
terto (tertv),
Script Q871

chatuH, chatus.h,
chatvaaraH

cathru, cathware
(Avestan)
cahr (Persian)

cetiri (Serbo-
Croatian)
catyry (Belarus)

tessera (Greek)
katr (Albanian)

quattuor

ceathramh,
the fourth;
ceithir, four
(Scott)
pedwar (pedair) [f] (Welsh)
quattro [m]
(Italian)
quatre [m.] (French)
twar (Tocharian)
teteri (Lycian)

four [<OE feower]

catra? (Script Q488);
see also
katro, Script Q84,
Q253, Q273,
katres, katrom

pa.ncha, paJNcha

paca [pacan]
(Avestan)
panj (Persian)

pet (Serbo-
Croatian)
piac (Belarus)
penkei, penkis
(Baltic-Sudovian)

pente (Greek)
pes (Albanian)

quinque

coic (Irish)
cig (Scott)
pump (pum) [m],
five (Welsh)
pemp (Breton)
cinque (Italian)
cinq (French)
pa (Tocharian)

five [<OE fife]

pet? Script TC260,
Z1227?

shhaD.h, shhaN.h

sas (Persian)

sest (Serbo-
Croatian)
sesc (Belarus)
ushai, ushas
(Baltic-Sudovian)

hex (Greek)
gjasht (Albanian)

sexus

s (Scott)
chwech-au [m], adj.
(Welsh)
sei [m] Italian
six [m] (French)
s.k (Tocharian)

six [<OE siex]

heks; (sei? Script F)

sapta

hapta [haptan]
(Avestan)
haft (Persian)

seda (Serbo-Croatian)
siem (Belarus)
septinei, septinis
(Baltic-Sudovian)

epta (Greek)
shtate (Albanian)

septem

seachd (Scott)
saith, adj. (Welsh)
sept [m] (French)
sette [m] (Italian)
s.pt, sukt
(Tocharian)

seven [<OE seofan]

saphta? Script
N357, epta? see
SEPDIV

ashhTa

ashta (Avestan)
hast (Persian)

osam (Serbo-Croatian)
vosiem (Belarus)
astonei, astonis
(Baltic-Sudovian)

ochto Greek)
tet, tetm
(Albanian)

octo

ochd (Scott)
wyth-au [m]
(Welsh)
eizh (Breton)
huit (French)
otto (Italian)
okt, okt
(Tocharian)
aitta (Carian)

eight [<OE eohta]

octito? (vctitv)
Script N403
teto? (tetv)
Script Q202,
R294;
See Note (3)

x

navaca
(Avestan)
noh, noht
(Persian)

dzievia (Belarus)
nevinei
(Baltic-
Sudovian)

ennea, ennia
(Greek)
nnt (Albanian)

novem

naoi (Scott)
naw [m] (Welsh)
nove (Italian)
neuf (French)

nine [<OE nigon]

no?, (nv, ny)
Script J48;
niv (nif)
Script J43;
nia? Script AP-1,
Aph-1)

dasha

dasa [dasan] (Avestan)
dah (Persian)

deset (Serbo
Croation)

deka (Greek)
dhjet
(Albanian)

decem

deich, ten;
deicheamh, tenth
(Scott)
deg-au [m] (Welsh)
dek (Breton)
dieci (Italian)
dix, (French)
s'k, s'ek
(Tocharian)

ten [<OE tien]

tecum (tecvm)?
Script Z1615, Au13
tikam (ticham)?
R286

shataM

saite [sata]
satem
(Avestan)
sad (Persian)

sto (Serbo-Croation)

he-katon (Greek)
njquind, quind
(Albanian)

centum

ceud (Scott)
cant (can), cannoedd,
cantoedd [m]
(Welsh)
cento (Italian)
cent (French)
kant (Breton)
knt (Tocharian)

hundred [<OE
hundred]

sto (stv)?
Script Q303;
satan, satane?
Script Q33
cuetu (cfetv)?
Script Z1137

Etruscan words in alphabetical order

abhyantara, interior,
included by, within,
in

andar, dar, tu, in;
besuye, be,
suye, to; ruye,
bar, on; barye,
barye inke,
darpey, for; az,
from (Persian)

da, to, in; na, at,
on, in; (Belarus)

mesa, in; se, at; eis, pros, na, mechri, to;
apo, from;
apo, para, peri, ek, of;
pano, epi, eis, pros, kata, on;
gia, dioti, for; para, konta, plision, dia, apo, by;
mazi, me,
with (Greek)
brenda, n, m, me, ndr, per, in; me, tek, n moshn, ndaj, te, n, nga, pas, pr, at;
drejt, te, deri, tek, gjer, nga, n, to; prej,nga, sipas, from
(Albanian)

a

i, mewn, o, fewn, yn, in (Welsh)
a, ad (Italian)
(French)
anda, in, inside
(Hittite)

in, at, to, from,
of, on, for, by,
with

a, Script Z92,
Z1153, Z1372,
Z1553, TC61,
TC90, TC108,
TC127, J-8, J19,
J25, J29, J36, Au90,
Au102, AF13,
AN12, AN102,
N21, N206, N371,
N711, Q376, Q388,
Q701, Q717, R381,
R499, R542, R584,
AH-9

x

b, hamrhe,
with (Persian)

da, to, in; biez
(biaz),
without; z (sa),
from, with
(Belarus)

mazi, me,
with (Greek)
m, n ann e;
sipas, nga, with
(Albanian)

a, ab, abs

da [din, dit, dezha,
dezhi, dimp, deomp,
deoc'h, dezho ou
dezhe
], to; gant
[ganin, ganit, gantan,
ganti, ganimp,
ganeoc'h, ganto ou
gante], with; eus,
digant, from
(Breton)
at, hyd, i, tan, wrth,
to; a, chyda, efo,
chan [gan], gyda,
wrth, with; (Welsh)
con (Italian)
avec, par,
(French)

to, from, with [<OE with];
possibly water;
see
ap below

ap, Script Q253,
Q396, Q767, Q908;
see
ap below

x

o, va, and; niz,
hamconin, ham,
also (Persian)

x

kai, and; episis,
also; pragmati,
pragmatika, indeed
(Greek)
dhe, e (Albanian)

ac, atque

a, ac, and (Welsh)
ha, hag, and; ivez,
also, neither
(Breton)
e, ed (Italian)
et (French)

and, and also,
and indeed

ac, Script Z54,
Z432, Z1183, Au-1, TC46, Au95, K161
ak, Script Z489,
Z508, Z1139, XQ-1

AhvAnay, -yati

bang zadan,
xndan, call;
farxndan,
summon (Persian)

klika, v.imp.,
kliknu, v.perf.
call; nazyvacca,
v.imp., be called
rajcca, v. imp. consult, ask (Belarus)

klitevo, kalo,
summon (Greek)
bj thirrje, thrras,
thrres, ftoj n
gjyq, summon;
brtas, ftoj, thrras,
caktoj, them,
konsideroj, thrres,
shqyrtoj,
quaj,
pezulloj, call
(Albanian)

accio-iare -ivi -itum;
calo-are, to call;
convoco-are
, to call
together;
summoneo [subm-] -ere, to remind secretly

 auguro-are,
prophesy, to wish

galw, galwad [m.n.],
call;
galw, to call
(Welsh)
citare,
convocare,
summon; diritto, di,
vt., chiamare,
gridare, call (Italian)
convoquer, sommer,
summon;
apeller,
call;
raconter, to
recount, tell (French)
werija, to speak, call;
lamen, to name, to
call; harti, to call
(Hittite)

to call [<ON kalla],
to summon

to prophesy

aca, Script Z572,
TC46, Au67, Au90:
ace, Script J40-8
aci, Script Z582, AB-1;
acie, N149, R219, R238, P-1
ACeR, M71
acern DL-2, to prophesy
acis, Script R349, NC-3

x x x x aqua-ae;, water, sea, lake
Fr. eau water aciu, N74

nibha, samaka, like,
equal to

barbar,
hampye,
hamt, equal;
tarz, hamvr,
level; barbar
kardan, to level
(Persian)

rowny, adj., equal
(Belarus)

sygkrino,
paraballo, compare;
epipedos,
isopedos,
isopedono, level
(Greek)
krahasoj, prqas,
compare;
drejtoj,
rrafshoj, sheshoj,
niveloj, shkatrroj,
make level
(Albanian)

acquo-are

cyfartalu, to equalize
(Welsh)
uguagliare, pareggiare,
to equalize (Italian)
galiser, niveler, to equalize (French)

to make level,
compare, make
equal, equalize

aces, Script N462;

x

x

x

x

Achaia or Achaia-ae [f]

x

Achaia

acie, Script N149,
R219, R238
Achie, CP35

x

x

x

x

aqua-ae, water

x

water, sea, lake

aciu (ACI8), Script N74

aGga, aGgati, move; mIv, mIvati, pp. mUta
& mIvita, push, move;

bordan, takn
ddan, to move
(Persian)

pierasielicca
(v.perf.) - move;
rusy (v.imp.),
kranucca (v.perf.),
move (something);
ruch [m.],
movement
(Belarus)

lviz, gjallroj,
zhvendos, detyroj,
transportoj,
mallngjej,
transferoj,
vrtitem, move;
lvizje, e ecur, ecje,
gjest,
mocion,
zbrazje, veprim,
marionet, shkres,
motion
(Albanian)

ago-agere

mudo, syflyd,
symud, cyffroi, to
move (Welsh)
muovere, commuovere,
incitare, indurre,
spostare, trasferire,
proporre, to move, vt.;
muoversi, mettarsi, cambiare, alloggio, traslocare, partire, avanzare, proseguire, caminare, to move, vi. (Italian)
mouvoir, remuer,
transporter,
dmanager, proposer,
mouvoir, s'loigner,
reculer,
mlanger [to
mix], to move (French)

to set in motion,
move

AKaPa, Script N160, M24;
akim, Script Z681

x x x x agrarius-ium, Nom. Pl. N. ia x of the public lands - relating to land, a general distribution of public land AKARAI, J41-8

agrahAra [m], land
held by Brahmins
kSauNI, [f], earth, land ku [f], earth, soil, land;
maNDala [f], ring,
disk, circular area of
king's neighbors

zamin, xoski,
bum, land; xk,
zamin, kesvar,
territory;
meydn, dast,
zamin, field
(Persian)

kra [m], land; pole,
field (Belarus)
acru, land; agrar, related to land (Romanian)

gi, xira, edafos,
apobibazomai,
land; chorafi,
agros,mfield (Greek)
tok, dhe, terren, t that, truall, vis,
pron, shtet, vend
(Albanian)

ager, agri; see also
terra-ae [f]acne

tir ar [n], arable land;
bro, gwlad, tir
(Welsh)
agro [m], land, field
(Italian):
agricole, adj.
agricultural (French)

land [<OE land], territory, a
cultivated field,
terra

aker, Script N173,
N435; S-18
akro (akrv), Script
R65
akrare, akrara, CAB-2?

siddhAdeza [m],
prophecy;
siddhidarzin, adj.
prophet of good
tidings

peyqambari,
pisguyi,
prophecy
(Persian)

prarok [m],
prophet (Belarus)

mantis, mantevo,
problepo,
profitevo, augur
(Greek)
parathem;
profetizoj (Albanian)

auguro-are

proffwydo, to
prophesy (Welsh)
augurare, to wish,
fortell, bid (Italian)
augur [m] augur
(French)

to prophesy
[<Gk. propheteia,
prophecy], act
as an augur

acern, Script DL-2

tulaa
x x x acquo-are

to make level, make equal, compare

aces, Script N462

zyena [m], eagle,
falcon, hawk,
military
array

oqb, homy,
dlman (Persian)

arol [m], eagle
(Belarus)

aetos, eagle (Greek)
shquiponj
(Albanian)

aquila-ae

eryr-od [m], eryres
au
[f], eagle (Welsh)
aquila [m] (Italian);
aigle [m] (French)
haras (Hittite)

eagle?

acil, Script Z591,
Z1161, Z1168,
Z1662;
ACILaR, Script
Z812, Z826;

aavhayati x aci, aici, here (Romanian)
x accio-aire
x to call
Achaea?; note, "ie" suffix denotes proper name
aci, Z582, AB-1
Acie, N149, R219, R238, P-1
x x x x aquila-ae x eagle
acil, Z591, Z707 Z1161, Z1168, Z1662, K164
majarī, maidservant of Krisna x x x  ancilla-ae
x maidservant
 acila, CJ-1
uttararuupaM x
x
x
aquilonius-a-um
x northern
acilone (acilvne), Script K64
ak, to move tortuously (like a snake); aṅk, to move in a curve; aṇṭh, to go, move, tend

x

x

merge (Romanian)

ago-agere


x

to move, set in motion


akim, Z681
apah x x x aqua-ae x water, sea, lake
aciu, aciv (aci8), Script N74
x x
Ahile (Romanian)
x x x


Achilles

Achle (AKLE) Script MM-2, CG-1, DP-1, LM-4?
Achl
Script CH-2
Achvle Script CQ-2
x x x x x x Achloser, name of Briseis, concubine of Achilles? ACHLVSR, CQ-3
x x x x x x
Agamemnon, king of Mycennae
Achmemnon (AKMEMNVN) Script DM-6, CG-3
x x x x agnatio-onis; Nom. Single x of (related by) males, a name Agnus
Acnas, Au60

avi, favourable, kind, sheep [m], ewe;
petva [m] ram,
sheep;
ajāvi, sheep, cattle
meshhaH

barre, lamb;
guspand, sheep;
mis, ewe
(Persian)

jagnje (Serbo
Croatian)
jahnia (Belarus)
kame (Baltic
Sudovian)
oaie, oi sheep, sheeps (Romanian)

arni, lamb (Greek)
qengj, qingj, lamb;
dhen, sheep
(Albanian)

agnae-ae (f), agnus-i
(m)
anninus-a-um, of a lamb

oen [n], lamb; oena,
to lamb;
dafad [n],
defaid [f]
, sheep
(Welsh)
bwrwaora [f.],
chaorach, pl., a
sheep;
uan [m]
lamb (Scott)
agnello [m] (Italian)
agneau [m] (French)
xabwa, a sheep
(Lycian)
hawi, a sheep
(Luwian)

lamb; ewe, female
sheep [<OE
eowu]; ram, male
sheep [<OE
ramm]; to
wean [OE wenian]


acne
, Script L15;
akne, Script R258,
R334;
aknem, Script R306?
aknesem, Script
Z1153
akneo (aknev),
Script R49;
akni, Script Z990,
Z1153, Z1792
agnina, K85

x x x aksos (Greek)
acetum-i
aceto (It);
vinaigre (Fr.)
vinegar

aks, Script OU-3

saha

b, hamrhe,
with (Persian)

z (sa), from, with
(Belarus)

mazi, me,
with (Greek)
me, n ann e,
sipas, n lidhje me,
nga (Albanian)

ad

a, chyda, efo,
chan [gan], gyda,
wrth, with (Welsh)
gant [ganin, ganit,
gantan, ganti,
ganimp, ganeoc'h,
ganto ou gante], with
(Breton)
con (Italian)
avec (French)

with [<OE with]

ad, Script J48

DhAla [n], shield;
carman [n], skin,
leather, hide, shield

separ, shield;
panh ddan, to
shield (Persian)

tarca [f], shield
(Belarus)

prostasia, aegis,
shield (Greek)
mbroj, ruaj, mburoj, shield;
mbroj, ruaj, to,
shield (Albanian)

aegis-idis [f]

aes [f], astalch [f],
tarian-au [f] (Welsh)
scudo [m], shield;
difesa [f], defense
(Italian)
bouclier [m],
[English
target <
OFr. targe, light
shield ]; (French)

aegis, shield

AEKiS, Script Z40

x x x x x
Aesacus, son of Priam by Arisbe who prophesied destruction of Troy
AECAI, DM-6
x x x x Aequi-orum, people of central Italy x x AECIH, J34-1
dwapara (Dwarpa Yupa, Bronze Age)
x x x aes, aeris
x bronze, metal
AES, DM-6; see ais
x x x x x x Aph, goddess
AF, XS-5 (see APH)

Rtu [m], epoch;
kAla, age, era, period
of time of ruler

zarvan, age;
vm, dowre,
epoch (Persian)

viek [m], age
(Belarus)

x

aetas-atis [f], age, of
human life, either a
lifetime or a time of
life, age

oed-au [m], age
(Welsh)
bloaz, age (Breton)
agio, [m] ease,
comfort, time (Italian)
ge [m], age, period,
epoch (French)

age [<Lat. aetas], epoch?

age (AGE), Script R248, R334
ages (AGES), Script R661

haa

h, hn, al, oh!
(Persian)

x

x

ai, oh!, interjection
of grief

o, och, ow! (Welsh)
ahi, ah!, aha! ouch! oh! (Italian)

interjection, oh!

ai, Script Z530,
TC71, TC127,|
TC260, Au55, Au71, BS21, XE-9

x x x Ajax (Romanian)
x x Ajax
Aifas (AIFAS), VA-1, DC-1, DC-3

prema

x

x

x

amo-are

amare, to love;
amico, amica, friend (Italian)
aimer, to love; like (French)

to love

AIMeR, Script S22

viha, air, sky;
dyupatha [m], the
air, heavenly path

hav, bd, vy,
air (Persian)

pavietra, air
(Belarus)
aer, air (Romanian)

aer (Greek)

aer, aeris [m],
the lower air, the
atmosphere
aerius [aereus]-a-um, lofty, person's name

aer [m], awyr [f]
(Welsh)
aria [f], air; tune
(Italian)
air [m], air
(French)

air [<Gk aer]

airon, (AIRVN) L12

ka.nsya; lohaja, adj.
made of copper or
iron; tAmrica, adj.
made of copper;
tAmra [n], copper or
copper vessel; kaMsa
[m], brass vessel;
ayas, metal, iron

mes, copper;
berenj, brass
(Persian)

mesing, brass
(Serbo-Croatian)
miedz [f] copper,
varijan, copper;
miedz [f], copper
(Belarus)
kasaje, brass; umha
[m] brass (Baltic
Sudovian)

prountzos, brass;
mprountzos,
bronze (Greek)
bakr, copper;
kazan, bronze
(Albanian)

aes, aeris

copr [m], copper;
efydd [m], bronze,
copper, brass
(Welsh)
umha [m] brass,
copar; air [m]
copper (Scott)
rame [m] copper;
bronzo [m] (Italian)
cuivre [m], copper;
bronze [f], bronze
(French)

copper [<Lat
Cyprium (aes)
metal of Cyprus],
bronze [<Ital. bronzo]

ais, Script Z525,
Z263, Z432, Z614,
Z681, Z887, Z1080,
Z1274, Z1410,
Z1591, Z1864, XQ-4, J41-12 see Note (9)

grISma [m], summer

tbestn,
summer
(Persian)

leta, summer
season (Belarus)

ver, periudh lulezimi, summer (Albanian)

aestas-atis [f],
summer, summer
weather, heat

haf-au [m] (Welsh)
Hav (Breton)
estate [f], summer
(Italian)
t [m], summer
(French)

summer [<OE
sumor]?

Ait, XB-10; J23-6
aito, aitu (aitv)
,
Script N311, N378

x x x x Pluto, Hades
x Hades AITA, PH-2
x x x x Aetine-es x Medea
Aiten, L34
x x x x x x Jason
Aeitheon (AEITHVN), DF-4

x

x

al, to him (Romanian)

x

alius-a-ud, adj. and
pron. another, other, different

al, to the (Italian)

to him, to her? to
it? another?

al, Script Z180, TC22, TC180, TC137, TC266, TC279, TC283, TC290, TC327, MG-1, Au43, Au51, Au57, M32, AF-4, AE-4, AT-7, AJ-10, AL-1, AN20, HT-5, VP18, J40-13
Note (7)

x x x x ala, ae, wings


x wings, poet., of the oars of a ship, squadron alae, TC142


kanchna, someone
prachalita,something

kasi, yek kasi,
someone; yek
cizi,
something (Persian)

x

kapoios, someone;
kati, something
(Greek)
dikush, ndondri, dika, someone (Albanian)

Balae-arum [f.pl];
aliquo, some,
whither, in some
direction or way;
aliqua, by some
road;
aliqui, aliquae
or aliqua, aliquod,
pron. someone,
something, anyone,
anything

qualcuno, someone;
qualche cosa,
something (Italian)
quelqu'un, someone;
quelque chose, pron.
something (French)

in some way,
someone,
something?

alc, Script AN20, DN-20,TC281, TC321, PN-1, J40-15
alkos, alkus (ALKVS)
Script Z1088,
Z1097, Z1410,
Z1654
ALQO (ALQV), J42-14
alce, Script FT-1, AN27
alci, AN27
(See alto)

x x x x x x Alcesti, daughter of Pelion, wife of Admetus, who offered to die on behalf of him ALCeSTI, V8

parajana, stranger; parakīya [mfn],
belonging to another,
stranger, alien,
hostile, an enemy

bigne, nszgr, adj. bigne [n]; biruni,
bigne, nszgr,
foreign (Persian)

cuzy, adj. foreign,
strange (Belarus)
aliena (to be alien; alina (to alleviate, comfort)

x

alieno-are, to
transfer to another,
etc.; alienus-a-um,
belonging to
another; alienus, a
stranger

alienare, to alienate
(Italian)
aliner, to alienate
(French)

alien, belonging to
another, to
transfer to
another, estrange,
foreign?

aleni, Script M45

chad, to nourish;
niija, to wash,
cleanse; nijyate, to
nourish; paripuS, to
nourish, foster

xork, parvares,
parvr, nourishment
(Persian)

karmic, to feed
(Belarus)
hali, to eat (Romanian)

trefo (Greek)
mbaj gjall, ushqej
(Albanian)

alo, alere, alui, altum
[for alitum]
, to
nourish, support,
rear, feed; hence in
gen. to strengthen,
increase, promote

nutrire, alimentare,
to nourish (Italian)
nourrir,
alimenter,
fomenter, entretenir,
to nourish (French)

to nourish

ale, Script Z622,
Au49, DN-1
ALeR, Script M67

anya, bhinna x x x alis, alid, old form of alius -a- aliud x of another, other, different alis, TC141
x x x x x x Alisa, name
Alisa,
x x x x almus-a-um, Abl. Single -e x nourishing, kind alme, J36-3
kaTutA, visara x x x aloe-es x aloes, bitterness alose (ALVSE), J22-3
x x x x Albanus-a-um, of Alba; Alba-ae
Alpes-ium, Alpes, albus -a-um, white, dead, pale or bright; sometime making bright; fig. fortunate

x Alba, oldest Latin town
Alpes-ium, Alpes
Alp, BE-25
Alpan, BE-14
edhita, grown, increased
x alt, someone; inaltu, inaltul, inalti, grown, great, high (Romanian)
x altus-a-um
x grown, great
alto, altu (altv), Script Q871
alti, Script Z1654

sneha, love
prema, divine love;
adveṣṭṛ, not an enemy, a friend; abhyantaraka, an intimate friend; anīcanuvartin, a faithful lover or husband

cakana [kan]
k [-], kam (Avestan)
esq,
dosram,
love [n]; dust
dstan, to love
(Persian)

ijubav, ijubiti,
voleti
(Serbo-Croatian)
kachac, v. imp.,
kachannie, lubow [f.] (Belarus)
amice, friend (Romanian)

agapo, agapi
(Greek)
dua, dashuroj,
pllej, to love;
dashuri, love
(Albanian)

amo-are, to love;
amicus, amica, friend

anwyledd [m],
anwyliaeth [f],
anwyliant [m], love,
fondness; serch,
affection;
cariad-au,
strong love (Welsh)
gaol [m.] love,
fondness, beloved
object; gaolach, adj.
loving, beloved,
grdhaich, va.
love (Scott)
karout (Breton)
amare, to love;
amico, amica, friend
(Italian)
aimer, to love; like;
ami, amie, friend
(French)
tunk, love
(Tocharian)
asi (Hittite)

to love; see also AIMeR

am, Script Z161, Z1628, Au27, N230, Au98, XA-35
ama, Script Z1227, K26, Q521, Q551, Q775, R584, R607, TC329, K178, CP-20
AMaPa, Script
Q351, Q424, J8, N216, Q84, Q95, R499, R644;
AMaPEN
, Script
R394;
amar, Script M78, Q692, AO-1
ame
, Script TC127, TC161, K6, Au35, Au46
amem, Script N173;
AMiCE, AJ-4
amo (amv), Script
Au95, N173

sakhi, mitra

x

x

x

amicus, amica, friend

see above

friend

ami, Script Z1359; PA-4;
amie, AR-3

x x x x x x
Amphiaras, Greek seer

Amphiare; CI-1, DC-5; See also Hamphiare

yadvaa, kachchith

y, y inke, xh,
or; y, xh, y,
whether
(Persian)

abo, conj. or,
abo....abo,
either....or; albo, or
(Belarus)

an, ean, kata poso; i, eite, or
(Greek)
a, ose, apo,
prpara; or
(Albanian)

an

ai, new, ynteu, or
(Welsh)
se, sia; o, or
(Italian);
si que, soi que,
whether;
ou, or
(French)

conj. or, whether

an, Script Z10, Z19, Z224, Z439, Z681, Z648, Z1662, Z1809, Z1835, AN42, N100, N462, Q253, Q360, Q369, Q396, Q416, Q813, Q863, R359, R394, R542, K20; MS20

x

x

Ana, name (Romanian)

x

Anna-ae [f], sister
of Dido;
Anna
Perenna
, an Italian
goddess

x

name, Ana?

Ana, Script AJ-17;
AO-3; see Note (5)
Anas, Au22, L51

kaTi [f], hip; nibha,
samaka, like,
equal to

crband, bande
rn, kafal, hip;
niz, hamconin,
ham, also
(Persian)

navat, adv. even
(Belarus)

xischio, gofos, hip;
episis, also;
pragmati,
pragmatika,
indeed
(Greek)
kllk, ij, legen,
kulm catie, hip
(Albaninan)

coxendix -icis [f],
hip; etiam,
praeterea,
quoque,
etiem, also

clun-iau [f], hip,
hefyd, also, too,
moreover (Welsh)
anca [f]; hip; anche,
adv., also (Italian)
hanche [f], hip; aussi, also (French)

hip, haunch; adv.
also, too, even,
like

anc, Script Z516,
Z598

x x
Anca, name (Romanian)
x Ancus-i (name)

x Ancus
Anchas, name referring to Zeus as swan chasing Nemesis
Anca, Script RA3
Anchas, Script CX-1

virut [f], a snake or
worm; svaja [m],
viper; phaNi [m],
serpent; ajagara [m],
large serpent, boa

mr, snake,
serpent (Persian)

vuz [m], vuzaka
[f], snake (Belarus)

fidi, snake (Greek)
gjarpr, snake,
serpent
(Albanian)

anguis-is, snake

neidr, nadroedd,
nadredd [f], snake
(Welsh)
serpente [m]; (Italian)
serpent [m] (French)

snake, the
constellation
Drako or Hydra
the Serpent

ancuis (ancfis) Script
Z10

x

x

x

x

Anio-enis and poet Anienus-i [m]

Anio (Italian)

river Anio?

Ania, Script Z1578
Aniia, Br-4

akṣaya, aabda varsha

saredha [-]
(Avestan)
sl (Persian)

godina (Serbo-
Croatian)
sioleta, adv.
this year (Belarus)
metan
(Baltic-Sudovian)
an, ani, year(s) (Romanian)

etos, chronos
(Greek)
mot, vit
(Albanian)

annus, anni

blwyddyn [f]; year;
eleni, adv. this year
(Welsh)
bliadhna [f.], pl.
bliadhnachan (Scott)
anno [m]
(Italian)
anne [f] an
[m] (French)
borli, forli, brvs'
(Lydian)
uitti, a year (Hittite)

year

anna, Script K1,
K26;

anas, Script Au22;
ane
, Script Z648;
ani, Script Z92,
Z489, Z508, TC248, AN-1, AN12, AN31

x x x x Anienus, name, of the river Anio (L Anio-enis and poet. Anienus-i) x x Aninies, PL-2

anupad, anvAlabhana, handle;
daNDa [m], stick,
club, pole, handle;
avarsa [m],
opportunity,
occassion

daste, dastviz,
handle; raftr
kardan, to handle
(Persian)

akazija, nahoda
[f], opportunity,
occassion (Belarus)

cheirizomai,
cherouli, handle
(Greek)
dorz, dorez,
bisht, mundsi,
vegj, titull, handle;
mundsi, shans,
opportunity
(Albanian)

ansa-ae [f];
manubrium [f],
handle

carn-au [m], hoof,
hilt, haft, handle;
coes-au [m.f.],
handle, stem, stalk;
teimlo, to handle;
achlysur-on [m],
occasion, cause,
reason, opportuity
(Welsh)
manico [m], handle;
occassione [f]
opportunity (Italian)
manche [f], handle;
occasion [f],
opportunity
(French)

handle [<OE handlian], an
opportunity,
occasion [<Lat. occido -cidere -cidi -cisum, to fall down]

ans, Script R447,
TC176

a, akama, akrta, akhata

pis az, before
(Persian)

pierad, in front of,
before (Belarus)
ante, before, naintea, before, in front of (Romanian)

prin, brosta,
protytera,
proigoumenos,
protou (Greek)
prpara, adv.,
conj.; para,
prpara, prball,
prep. before
(Albanian)

ante, adv.; antea,
before, formerly


cyn, soon; gerbron
[ger], before (Welsh)
devanti a, prima di; (Italian)
avant, devant (French)

before, sooner
[<OE sona] than

ant, Script N391;
anta, Script R363, R664

atikram, vakSayati, to cause to strengthen, excel;
pUrva, being before,
earlier, to the east,
preceding, ancient

zud, pisin, early;
bartari, xubi,
excellence; besyr
xub, vl, sarmad,
excellent (Persian)

daskanaaly, adj.,
perfect, excelent
(Belarus)
anterior, before (Romanian)

yperecho,
ypertero, aristevo,
excel;
proigoumenos
anterior (Greek)
lpas, dallohem,
shquhem, excel
(Albanian)

anto -ire -

blaen, adj. anterior;
rhagori, to excel
(Welsh)
anterior, adj. earlier,
fore, front (Italian)
anteriur-e, adj.
previous, former,
anterior, prior

to go before, excel

anta, Script N363,
R664;
anter, Script N74,
R349;
anto (antv), Script
G39;
antor (antvr), Script R56, R72

ambu salila; vAr [n],
water

aiwy, ap, fsh
(Avestan)
b (persian)

navodniti,
voda (Serbo
Croatian)
vada [f.] (Belarus)
undan, water;
apis, river
(Baltic-Sudovian)
apa, water (Romanian)

nero, potizo
(Greek)
burim, source;
uj, water; to
water,
ujis, to
water (Albanian)

aqua; water
poto-potare-potavit
potatum and
potum,
to drink;
a, ab, abs, prep.
from, away from,
after, of

dwfr {dyfroedd
[m]}(Welsh)
brn [m], birn, g. v. fresh water;
uisge [m] (Scott)
dour (Breton)
eau [f] (French)
acqua [f] (Italian)
ap, (Illyrian)
wr (Tocharian)
kofu (Lydian)
xabe, a river (Lycian)
hapi, a river
(Luwian)
watenas,
watar;
ekw-, akw-, to drink (Hittite)

water [<OE
waeter]

ap, Script Q253,
Q396, Q767, Q908
apa, Script AF-1;
ape, Script Q253,
Q263, R121, R128, R142, R156, R294;
S50
apen, Script Q460
api, Script N670,
N700, N738; MS24
See below

tyaj.h; gAtave, caradhyai, to go

W-ts'ke; E-toghe
(Armenian)
aviti [av], to go,
to come (Avestan)
raftan, sodan, to
go; vgozrdan,
rah kardan,
hestan, to leave
(Persian)

oti'ci, razi'ci se,
depart (Serbo
Croatian)
pakidac, v. imp.
palinuc, v. perf.,
leave (Belarus)

afino, go; anachoro,
depart (Greek)
ik, largohem, go
away, Albanian

abeo, abi-itum, to go away; ire, to go;
vadare, to go fast;
L. beo-bere; to drink water; It. bere; PIE*ap, hap, water

cerdded, to walk,
perambulate, go
(Welsh)
falbh, to go away,
fuadaich, to drive
away; theirig, va.
irr. to go; triall, to
set out journey
(Scott)
mont, to go
(Breton)
andare, to go; andarsene, to go away (Italian)
aller [fut.irai, iras, ira, irons, irez,iront],
to go; partir, to go
away (French)

to go away; note S50 is used in the context of departing;
to drink water: Etr. apen may be 3rd pers. plural "they drink, go away"

apa, Script AF-1; ETP114*
ape, Script Q253,
Q263, R121, R128,
R142, R156, R294;
S50

apen
, Script Q460;
api, Script N670,
N700, N738, MS24

adhvaryu, a priest who would measure the ground,  build the altar, prepare the sacrificial vessels , fetch wood and water, light the fire, & bring the animal and immolate it while reciting the Vedas



x




popa, pope, priest (Romanian)




x




sacerdos




abate, It.;

abb, Fr.




priest?




apa
, Script AF-1; ETP114*

x

x

x

x

x

x

Aph; appears to
be an Etruscan
goddess of fertility

Aph, Script Au102, N123, Q433, Q475, R306, R314, R437, R447, R521, R596

anutāpana, anuśoka x x x dolere It. affano
sorrow, uneasiness
Aphano (APHANV) AC-4
x x x x abeo-ire, 2nd pers. abis
x go away? Apis-is, Egyptian ox-god
Apis, XV-11

hvu, hvute; hvauti,
hvate,-ti, hide from,
refuse, deny

napaziroftan, dariq
kardan, to refuse
(Persian)

admawlac, v.imp.,
admovic, v.perf.
piarecyc, v.imp.,
deny (Belarus)

arnoumai, deny
(Greek)
mospranoj,
refuzoj,
mohoj, kundrshtoj
refuse (Albanian)

abnuo-nuere-nui

gomedd, to refuse,
deny, forbid;
gwrthod, to refuse,
deny, decline,
forsake;
naca-u, to
refuse, deny,
repulse;
nogio, nogi-,
refuse (Welsh)
negar, rinnegare,
smentire,
refiutare
(Italian)
neir
, dmentir,
refuser (French)

to refuse [<Lat.
refundo -fundere
fudi -fusum
, to
pour back, make
overflow]
by a
jesture, deny

apne, Script Z629, AH-1
apni, Script L38
apnis, Script TC71

x x x x  
Apollo-inis
x

Apollo

APvLO (APLV), CAA-4, CT-2
APVLV CD-1, SD-1, DQ-1

dṛḍhīkṛ, corroborate, anuman, to approve, abhyanuj_Apana,
to make acceptable to another corroboration

tasvib, pasandes,
approve [n];
paziroftan, to
accept (Persian)

pryjmac, v.imp.,
pryniac v.perf.,
accept, receive
(Belarus)

egkrino,
epidokimazo,
approve; idryo,
egkathisto,
establish (Greek)
miratoj, plqej, to
approve (Albanian)

approbo-are

arddelu, to claim,
own, approve;
profi,
to taste, try, feel,
approve (Welsh)
approvazione,
approbation;
approvare, to approve
(Italian)
approbation [f],
approbation;
approver, to
approve (French)

to approve of,
assent to, prove,
establish, to make
acceptable to
another; see
merit
[<Lat. meritus]

aprob (aprv8),
Script N268, N341

x

x

x

x

x

x

Apronai, woman's
name, probably
Ronai

Apronai,
Script BS-5;
See also Ronai

vap, vapati, -te, to
shave, shear

tarsidan, to shave
(Persian)

halic, v.imp.,
ahalic, v.perf.,
shave (Belarus)

ftheiro, abrade
xyrizo, xyrizomai,
xyrisma, shave
(Greek)
gdhend,
rruaj,
kosit, rruhem, qeth,
to shave (Albanian)

abrado -radare -rasi
rasum; apparatus
um
[m], apparatus

eillio, elli, to shave,
razor (Welsh)
apparato [m],
decoration, display;
radere, to shave
(Italian)
appareil [m],
apparatus;
raser, to
shave (French)

to scrape off,
shave; squeeze
out; apparatus,
sp. of splendor,
magnificense,
pomp

aprato (APRaTV),
Script N216

nAdhas, refuge, aid;
ajira, area, court; aṃsa, corner of altar
ara, spoke of a wheel, or spoke of altar shaped like a wheel

panhgh, panh,
refuge; mashat,
meydn, vln,
area (Persian)

awtar [m.] altar (Belarus)
altare, altar
(Baltic-Sudovian)

thysiastiro, bomos (Greek)
altar (Albanian)

ara, f., altar
area-ae, f. a level
place, court-yard

allor-au [f], altar;
arwynebedd [m],
area (Welsh)
altair (Scott)
altare [f] altar;
area [f] area (Italian)
autel [m], altar;
aire
[f], area (French)
aara, a yard, estate (Lydian)
qrbblali (Lycian)
harpali, a religious thing (Hittite)

altar [<Lat. altaria-ium, an erection upon an altar, high altar], refuge area

ar, Script Z842, Z1662, TC66, N206, Q821, AR-1, NC-1, SM-1, BS-6, AR-1, BT27, AC-2, CP55; see Note (6)
ara, aras?, ari? see ar below

kSetram, prepare or
till; lAGgala, plough [n]; sIra, plough, plow -ox [m]; skR, prepare,
cultivate (land), adorn,
think of; vap, vapati,
te, sow, throw out,
scatter seed, cast dice;
roheyati & ropayati,
te, raise up, erect,
plant, sow, heal, cure

krayeiti, to
sow, cultivate
(Avestan)
xis, plow [n],
soxm zadan, to
plow (Persian)

arac, v. imp.,
plough (Belarus)
artahas (Baltic
Sudovian)

kallievgo, cultivate
(Greek)
lroj, plugoj
(Albanian)

aro-are, to plow;
ara, f., altar

aradr [f], plow;
arddu [aredig], to
plow;
garddio, to
garden (Welsh)
r, va. plough, till,
cultivate;
r,
ploughing, tilling
cultivating (Scott)
coltivare,
arare, vi., vt. (Italian)
cultiver, cultivate;
labourer, to plow
(French)

to plow, [<OE
ploh], cultivate;
garden [<ONFr.
gardin]

altar

ar, Script Z842,
Z1662, TC 66,
N206, Q821;
ara, Script Z40,
Z1274, Z1386,
K31,TC80, VF-2,
XE-8;
arai, S40;
aras
, Script K31;
ari, Script TC220,
N63
aro (ARV) Script Q283, Q488
aros (ARVS), Script Z1153

x

x

x

x

aurum-i, gold, anything made of gold

auro [f], gold
(Italian)
or [f], gold (French)

gold, golden

ara, Script Z40,
Z1274, Z1386,
K31,TC80, VF-2;

dharmastha [m], judge;
vettR, knower,
witness; karmasAksin,
witness; aparokSay,
yati, to witness

dvar, ddvar,
judge [n]; ddvari
kardan, to judge;
govahi, govh,
witness [n]; govh
budan, to witness;
miynj, arbitrator
(Persian)

suddzia [m], judge
sviedka [m, f]
witness (Belarus)

dikastis, kritis,
dikazo, krino, judge
diaititis, arbitrator,
(Greek)
gjkats, gjyqtar,
arbitr, vlersues,
njohs, judge [n];
gjkoj, dnoj me,
jam
arbitr,
mendoj, vendos,
vlersoj, to judge
(Albanian)

arbiter-tri [m]

barnwr [m], judge;
beirniad [m],
adjudicator, arbiter,
critic, judge;
tyst-ion
[m], witness;
tystio,
to witness (Welsh)
arbitro [m] (Italian)
arbitre [m] (French)

judge, witness,
arbitrator

arberture (ar8ertvre),
Script N417, R20, R77, R349, R417, G12, G25, G35

cApa, [m]; dhanva
[m], astra [m],
dart, bow, arrow;
bANAsana, bow

ta'zim, farnmes,
kamn, bow;
kamn, tq, arc
(Persian)

schilacca, v.imp.,
schilicca, v.perf.,
bow; uklon [m]
bow (Belarus)
ark (Baltic
Sudovian)

toxo, arc (Greek)
harc
(Albanian)

arcus-us [m]

bwa, bow, arch, arc
(Welsh)
bogha [m] (Scott)
arco
[m] (Italian)
arc [m] (French)

bow, [<OE boga] arch, arc

arc, Script TC127,
TC236, TC260, PL-10

akoṭa, aṅka, aṅkas, ac, sidh, sedhati, -te

xam kardan, kaz
kardan, to bend,
curve; bzdstan,
jelowgiri kardan,
prevent (Persian)

uhinac, v.imp.,
uhnuc, v.perf.;
bend, deflect;
pavarot [m], curve
-way, street;
supracdziejnicac,
v.imp., prevent
(Belarus)

empodido,
paarempodizo, to
prevent;
gyros,
circle; archann-ontos, ruler, magistrate; archo, to command, rule, reign (Greek)
lakoj, prkul,
bindem, thyej,
vendoj, to bend;
kthes, brryl,
grafik, bend [n],
(Albanian)

arceo-ere, to shut in
arca-ae [f] a chest or
a money-box or
coffin; also a cell;
arcus-us [m] a bow,
arch, arc; esp. the
rainbow;
arcuo-are, to bend
or shape like a bow;
gyrare, to revolve, circle or spiral

anelu, to bend, aim, attempt; to bend,
bow, stoop, curve,
step, stride;
gwyro,
to swerve, curve,
digress, slope, list,
stoop, bend, duck
(Welsh)
curvare,
arcuare, to bend (Italian)
arquer, to bend,
curve, arch (French)

to bend, to arch, to
curve, to
bend, to
camber? to shut in;
to keep at a
distance, hinder,
prevent, keep
away

arcas, Script AJ17, VG-11;
arce, Script N53,
Q117, Q521, Q683,
R499
arces, Script N31,
N290, N320, N341, N500, N529, N561,
N598, N632, R278,
arcia, Script N21,
N53, N280, N476,
N522, N660, Q65,
R370, R457
arkia, XA-2
arcis, Script N63
arcio (arciv), Script N304, N333, N543, N582, N632 Q723, R270
arcamen, Script Q331;
arkani; Script Q871
see
arco below

x

x

x

Argos

Argos and Argi-orum

x

Argos, capital of Argolis in the Peloponese?

arco, arcu (arcv), Script R314;
arcos, arcus (arcvs), Script TC-7

anuśuṣ, to dry up, zyAna, adj. dry;  ajira, atasa, air

hav, bd, vy, air;
bdras, vent [n];
surx kardan, to
vent (Persian)

pavietra, air
(Belarus)

exaerizo, aerizo,
ventilate (Greek)
ajros, ajroj, hedh
pr diskutim,
ventilate
(Albanian)

areo-ere

awyro, to air,
ventilate, aerate
(Welsh)
aerare, to air,
ventilate (Italian)
arer, to air, ventilate
(French)

to be dry?
to ventilate?

are, Script Z769

x

x

x

x

Aurelius-a-um

x

name, Aurelius-a
um?

arelis, Script Z963

eS, eSati, to creep or
slide;
tsar, tsarati, to
creep, steal, sneak
upon

x

x

erpo, sernomai,
creep (Greek)
kacavirrem,
zvarritem, eci
kmbadoras, lviz
ngadal, ngjethem,
to creep (Albanian)

erepo -repere -repsi-reptum

cripio, to scratch,
claw, climb, creep;
cropian, to creep,
crawl, grope (Welsh)
trascinarsi, striciare,
arrampicarsi (Italian)
ramper (French)

to creep [<OE creopan] out, creep up or over

arepe, Script N290, N444, R278

x

x

x

Erebus (Greek)

Erebus-i [m], god of the underworld; the underworld;
Erebeus-a-um, adj.

x

Erebus, the god of
the underworld

Arepes, Script N31, N500, N561, N598, N632

x

x

x

Ares

Ares-is [m] (Latin Mars, Martis [old form Mavors]

x

Ares, Greek god of war, Lat. Mars

Ares, Script N529
Aris, Script XM-1 (See Etruscan Marti, Marties)

x

x

x

x

x

x

name?

Ariphmo (ariphmv), Script R644

x x x x x x unknown name?
Aritisi, Script AV-1
āyudhin, weapons, astrakāra, maker of weapons, astragrāma, collection of different weapons, kṛtāstra, skilled in archery; kasutari, short spear
x x x


arma-orum

x


arms, weapons



armai, Script S-37

āyasī, armour for body, breastplate; kaṭitra, armour for hips or loins; jagara [m], armour;
kANDIra, armed
with arrows; cApin,
armed with a bow;
dhAlin, armed with a shield;
kaṅkaṭaka, armour, mail

zereh, gordi, zin,
armour (Persian)

zeby uzbraja
(Polish)
uzbrajeennie,
armament
(Belarus)

oplismos, panoplia, thorakisi,
oplizo, armour
(Greek)
korac [usht.],
parzmore, mjete t
koracuara, forca t
blinduara, armour
(Albanian)

armo-are

arfod [f], stroke of a weapon, battle,
fight, armour (Welsh)
armare (Italian)
armer (French)

to arm, fit out

armone (armvne), Script Q53

x

x

x

x

Arnus-i, Arno, chief river of Etruria

x

the river Arno?

arn sa, TC103
arna
, Script Z737;
arno (arno), Script
AE-2, AN-3, AT-6;
arnoi (arnoi), Script AJ-2;
arnoi (arnvi), Script Au102
arnois, L47

x x x x x x Arnth, name
Arnth, MA-1
kSetram, prepare or
till; lAGgala, plough
[n]; sIra, plough,
plow -ox [m]; skR,
prepare, cultivate
(land), adorn,
think of; vap, vapati,
te, sow, throw out,
scatter seed, cast
dice; roheyati &
ropayati, te, raise
up, erect, plant,
sow, heal, cure




krayeiti, to
sow, cultivate
(Avestan)
xis, plow [n],
soxm zadan, to
plow (Persian)




zeby
ora (Polish)
arac
, v.imp., to
plough (Belarus



agroktima, farm;
kalliergo, cultivate
(Greek)
lroj, hapbrazda,
plugoj, kridhem,
rrzoj (Albanian)







aro-are


aradr [f], plow;
arddu [aredig], to
plow;
garddio, to
garden (Welsh)
r, va. plough, till,
cultivate;
r,
ploughing, tilling
cultivating (Scott)

arare, soiciare
(Italian)
labourer, sillonner
(French)



to plow [<OE
ploh], cultivate;
garden [<ONFr.
gardin], farm,
cultivate; transf. to
plow the sea;







aro (ARV), Q283, Q488
aros (ARVS) Z1153

paittala, raitika, raitya  brazen, made of brass

x

x

i tunxht, i pacip
[fig.], adj.
(Albanian)

aeripes

de cuivre, d'airain,
adj. (French)

brazen-footed

arpe, Script Q183,
Q713, R530, J48

akṣīka, tree; kūpadanḍa, mast

deraxt, tree; dirak,
dakal,
Tir, tir,
mast (Persian)

drzewo, tree (Polish)
dreva, tree; liipa
[f], lime-tree
(Belarus)

dentro, tree; arpa
harp (Greek)
dru, pem; direk, mast (Albanian)

arbor [arboris] oris,
tree;

lyra-ae [f]
, lyre

coed-coeden [f], tree;
coed, wood, woods; pren, wood;
telyn-au
[f], harpe, lyre
(Welsh)
albero [m], tree,
mast;
arpa [f], harp (Italian)
arbre [m], tree; harpe [f], harpe (French)
taru, (Hittite)

tree, mast, any
wooden object?

arpo (arpv) Script
R88, L44

ṛbhu, clever, skillful;  kuśalatā [f], ability, skill, cleverness;
prāvīṇya,
cleve
rness,
skill

zebardsasti,
ostdi, krdni,
skill; honar, fan,
art (Persian)

zrecznosc skill
(Polish)
vieda [f], skill,
knowledge, know
-
how; mastactva ,
art (Belarus)

epidexiotita,
epitideiotita, skill;
techni, art (Greek)
aftsi, mjeshtri,
ustallk, zotsi,
art,
teknik (Albanian)

ars-artis f]

elfyddyd-au [f], art,
craft, skill; medr-au
[m], skill, ability,
cleverness;
sgil [m?],
ploy, strategem,
resource, wile, trick,
wheeze, skill
(Welsh)
arte [f] skill (Italian)
arte [m], skill
(French

skill [<ON skil],
method,
technique [<Gk.
tekhne, skill] an
occupation, in pl.
works of art

ars Script AN31

x x x



Artemis




Diana
x

Artemis, virgin goddess of childbirth, huntress, sister of Apollo

Artume (ARTVME, ARTVMS, ARTVMEI) CAA-3
Artumes (ARTVMES) CO-1, CAA-3
Artumis (ARTVMIS) DQ-2


x

x

x

as-asgis [m]

x

a whole unit,
divided into 12
parts

as Script N74,
Q531, Q692, Q755, R607, Z984

mātrīkṛ, to adopt as a mother; sutatva, to adopt as a son; anukR,
to follow, imitate
equal, adopt

paziroftan, extiyr
kardan, to adopt
(Persian)

prystasowvac,
v.imp., prystavac,
v.perf., adopt,
accomodate
(Belarus)

yiotheto, adopt
(Greek)
birsoj,
adoptoj,
miratoj, prvetsoj,
pranoj, to adopt
(Albanian)

ascio-scire, to adopt

mabwysiadu, to
adopt, affiliate
(Welsh)
addotare (Italian)
adopter (French)

to adopt [<Lat. adopto-are]

asa Script Q424,
Q775, R596, R607, R653, Z638, Z1345,
Z1784 ;
ase, Script TC46, Q416, R381

ārya, a respectable or honourable or faithful man , an inhabitant of āryāvarta

x

Azija [f] (Belasrus)

Azi (Albanian)

Asia-ae

x

Asia?

Asi, Script S-1:
Asia Script N647
Asie, Script BS-11 (Compare to ELINEI, ELINAI)

akṣāralavaṇa, better food - not containing acrid substances; agdhād, eating food that is not yet eaten; adana,  act of eating; adya, fit for eating


x



x



x



esca-ae



x



food?



aska
, Script PE-3

x

x

x

x

x

'x
Aso, name, Asius, a Trojan ally, younger brother of Hecuba.

aso (ASV)
, Script AM-4
adhiṣṭhā x x x adsto-stare
x to stand
ast, VG-4
astin, XB-21

x

x

ojciec, father
(Polish)

ate, father (Albanian)

x

x

King Atys
(Attis), of King
Atys

Ate Script N160,
N349, Q46;
ates, Script N462,
R359
Atia, Script AN-5:
Ati, Script Q11, AM-5
Atie, Script BS-16;
see Note (8)

atha, then, moreover; athaca, moreover and likewise; athāpi, therefore, thus, so much the more

x

x

x

at, ast
, moreover; ac, atque, indeed


x

moreover, indeed

at
 
Script Au54, XW-5

triy, to try;
adhyavaso, to
attempt,
accomplish, determine,
consider, ascertain

kusidan, zmudan,
ddrasi kardan, to
try; zmun,
zmyes, test [n]
(Persian)

proba, attempt;
prbowa (prba;
wyprbowywa),
try (Polish)
sproba [f],
attempt, test, try;
pasprobavac,
v.perf., to try
(Belalrus)

prospatho,
epicheiro, dokimazo,
prospatheia (Greek)
gjykoj [dreijt.],
provoj, mendoj,
prpiqem, lodh,
orvatem,
mundohem, ngjroj,
v n
prov, tentoj,
pastroj;
prov,
prpjekje,
tentativ, try [n]
(Albanian)

attento or attempto
are

ceisio, ceisi, cais, to
seek, ask, request,
try, attempt, assay,
endeavour, fetch,
procure, buy;
profi,
to prove, feel, essay,
demonstrate, try;
treio, trei-, to try,
ebb [<Engl.
try];
trethu, to try, tax,
assess, rate, levy
(Welsh)
tentare, to attempt
(Italian)
tenter, to attempt
(French)

to try [OFr.trier,
to pick out], test,
essay, tamper
with, attack,
prove
[<Lat. probo-are,
to make or feel
good, approve
],
probe

atento (atentv)
Script Q263, Q369

sukRSNa [m.f.n.],
very black;
andhakAramaya,
[m.f.n.] dark; tamas,
darkness, led into
dark, gloom,
darkness of hell

siyh, tire, black;
trik, tariki dark,
(Persian)

czarny , black
(Polish)
corny, adj. black;
ciemra [f.],
darkness, ciomny,
adj. dark (Belarus)

skoteinos, dark;
dilitiriodis,
poisonous (Greek)
bloz, e zez,
zezak, black; errsi,
muzg,
nat,
injoranc, hije,
terr,
padij, dark
(Albanian)

ater, atra, atrum;
niger -gra -grum
,
black

du [m], black
(Welsh)
nero [m], black
(Italian)
noir, adj. black;
atrophier, to
atrophy (French)
dankui, dark
(Hittite)

dead black [OE blaec], dark,
clothed in black;
dark, gloom, sad,
malicious,
poisonous

ater Script N404;
atro (atrv), Script
N311

x

x

x

Athin (Albanian)

Athena or Athena; Athenae-arum [f.pl.], of Athens

x

of Athena; Athens?

Athinem Script L-7

x

x

x

x

x

x

Atys, consort of the
Phrygian goddess
Cybele. Atys (Attis)
was a son of Nana,
was castrated as a
result of Cybele's
jealousy and changed
into a pine tree.
Atys, king of Lydia,
father of Tyrsenus,
father of the
Tyrrhenians
(Etruscans)

Ati, Script AM-5

x

x

x

x

Atys + gero-onis [m] a carrier

x

of Atys, carriers of Atys?

Atiieri Script R-1, R22;
Atiieria, Script Q11,
Q24; see Note 1)
Atiierie, Script
R100, R114, R219,
R229, R238;
Atiierier, Script
R405, R114;
Atiiries, Script
Q453;
Atiierio (Atiieriv),
Script Q243, R88,
R181, R195, R565,
G21; See Note (10)

vahya [n], portable
bed or litter; vah,
vahati, -te, to conduct, carry, lead; nirvoDhR,
going to carry away

bordan, hamrh
dstan, bedus
gereftan, to
carry (Persian)

niesci, v. imp.,
pryniesci, v. perf.,
bring, carrry
(Belarus)

metafero, carry
(Greek)
mbart,
mbaj, shpie, mbahem,
transportoj, kam,
sjell, prmaj
(Albanian)

aveho-vehere-vexi-
vectum
; porto-are,
to carry;
transporto
are
, to move, carry

arwain, to lead,
carry;
cario, cludo,
cywain, to carry,
bear; (Welsh)
transportare, portare, condurre, sopportare,
consequire, to carry
(Italian)
porter, emporter,
emmener; entraner, to carry away; continuer,
to carry on (French)
arnumi, I bring
(Hittite)

to carry [<NFr.
carier] off, bear
away

afef (AVEU), Script
Z1300

prākkalpa, former age or era

x

x

x

aevitas-atis [f] =
aetas-atis [f]

eta (Italian)
ge [m] (French)

age [<Lat. aetas],
lifetime

afetus (AVETVS),
HT-5


atilaulya, excessive eagerness or desire

x

x

x

aveo-are
, to desire
avis-is, bird

x
to desire, to; possibly birds but as 3rd Decl.Gen. pl.-um, ium, or Acc. sing.
avim (A8IM)
,
L-71

aṅgas, bird,
avaḍīna
, flight of a bird

x

x

x

aevum-in, n.a.; aevus-i, m. avis-is, bird, bird of omen, omen

eternita, f. (Italian)
ternit [f.] (French)

eternity; probably bird, omen

afis (AFIS),
S-10, S-30, PL-8, *ETP326

inu, in, i3nvati, ino3ti,
send forth, give out,
favor, possess,
dispose of, force,
overwhelm, destroy,
remove, stir up;
vah,
vahati, -te
, conduct,
carry, marry, bear,
support, wear, have;
vanIvAhya3te, pass
by, spend time
jii, jiiv.h, to live

geredhmahi
[garedh], hold;
jv [jva] m.,
alive (Avestan)
dstan,
vdr
kardan,
ngozir
budan, to have;
zende, rowsan,
live [n],
zistan,
zendegi kardan,
to live (Persian)

imati, posedovati,
to have, possess;
ziv, zivahan, ziveti
to live (Serbo
Croatian
utrymlivac,
utrymowvac, v,
imp., utrymac, v.
perf., hold,
maintain
zyc, v. imp. to
live, (Belarus)

katecho, echo, to
have; zo, alive;
bios, life (Greek) i
gjall, i hedhur, i
ndrgjegishm, adv.
kam,
posedoj, to have, possess
gjall, to live
(Albanian)

habeo-ere-ui-itum,
to have; possess
vivo, vivere, vixi,
victum
, to live

cael, caffael; meddu,
to have, cadw, to
keep, hold;
bucheddu, bydio,
byw, oesi, to live
(Welsh)
itich, inhabit, dwell,
va. (Scott)
beva, to live
(Breton)
avere, to have,
vivere, to live
(Italian)
avoir, to have; vivre,
to live
(French)
s'ol, s'aul, life
(Tocharian)
tarb-, trfno, to have
ama, to live (Lydian)

to have [<OE
habben], hold
[<OE healdan],
possess [<Lat.
possideo -sidere
sedi -sessum
];
to live,
exist

avil (AFIL), Script AN11, Z102, M-1, AJ-14, AV16, Au43, Au65
avils (AFILS), Script Z84, Z103, Z300, Z953, M74, AN-5, AN28, AN55;
avilsae (AFILISAE), Script M38

ugracaya [m], strong
desire; iSTu [f], wish, desire; hayi [m.f.],
wish, desire;
dhanAyA; desire of
wealth, covetnouss
atilaulya, excessive eagerness or desire

meyl, km, desire
[n], rzu kardan,
to desire (Persian)

x

epithymia, desire
(Greek)
dshir e madhe,
etje, qejf, lutje,
krkes,
dshir
seksuale
, desire [n]
(Albanian)

aveo-are, to desire
aevum-in,
n.a.; aevus-i, m. avis-is, bird, bird of omen, omen


awydd-au [m],
desire, appetite,
avidity;
awyddu, to desire; deisyfu, to desire, wish, crave, entreat, beg (Welsh)
desiderare, bramare,
augurare, auspicare
(Italian)
dsirer, souhaiter
(French)

to long for, desire
[<Lat.desidero
are
]

av (A8), Script N100, N112, N160, Q863;
avim (A8IM), Script L71

pitaamahi, mother's,
maternal uncle [m];
maataamahi, mAtRka,
the mother or
grandmother
; nanA,
[f] mother (fam.
expression).

mdare bozorg,
grandmother
(Persian)

baba (Serbo
Croatian)
babka [f] (Belarus)

gigia (Greek)
gjyshe (Albanian)

avia-ae [f]

henfam-au, mam
-guod
, neiniau [f]
(Welsh)
seanmhair [f] (Scott)
mamm-gozh (Breton)
nonna [f] (Italian)
grand-mre [f] (French)

grandmother, an
ancestor

ava (A8A) Script
Z981, AP-1;

pitaamaha, aśrumukha
maataamaha

pedare bozorg,
grandfather (Persian)

deda (Serbo
Croatian)
dzied [m],
pradzied [m], great
grandfather
(Belarus)

pappous (Greek)
babagjysh,
gjysh
(Albanian)

avus-i [m]

tad-cu, taid (Welsh)
seanair [m] (Scott)
tad-kozh (Breton)
nonno [m] (Italian)
grand-pre (French)
huha, a grandfather
(Hittite)

grandfather, an
ancestor

avo (A8V), Script
K13, K92, K131;
see Note (4)






x





x





x





x





x





x





name
avona (A8VNA), Script K89
avonas (A8VNAS), Script K12, K175:
avones (A8VNES), Script K57
(See similar declension, RASNA, RASNE, RASNES)

AzIyas mfn], very
quick; nivasita
[mfn], lived, dwelled

tond, cbok,
biderang, adj., tond,
cbok [n], quick
(Persian)

chutki, sparki, adj,
quick, rapid, fast
(Belarus)

grigoros (Greek)
vrik (Albanian)

cito, adv., quickly

vivo [m] (Italian)
vite, adv. vif,
vivant [m] (French)

quick

avil (afil); see avil
above

adhipati

ahu, paiti [-],
husband, lord;
ztay [zta],
of noble lineage;
ssta [sstar]
[m], tyrant, ruler
(Avestan)
xodvand,
farmnrav,
sahryr,
lord; shzde, prince
(Persian)

Gospod, vlast
knez, kraljevi'c,
princ, prince
(Serbo-Croatian)
kniaz [m]
(Belarus)
vaispatis, elder,
leader of a clan
(Baltic-Sudovian)

kyrios, afentis,
archontas (Greek)
feudal, zot, zotri,
Burr, lord;
princ,
qeveritar, prince;
klerik, prift, urate,
priest (Albanian)

aule, lord
clava-ae, f. staff or
cudgel;
claviger-geri, the
key-bearer of Janus;
designo-are, to
designate
; princeps
cipis
, first,
foremost, leader

flath, flaith, chief,
prince; morair,
prionnsa [m];
tighearna [m]; triath,
lord, chief (Scott)
signore, padrone,
sovrano, lord; capo,
head, chief [m]
(Italian)
seigneur, matre,
lord; chef, chief [m]
(French)
wl, walo, prince
(Tocharian)
alus', klave (priest,
Lydian)
alu, (priest,
Phrygian)
alwu, magic, isha,
owner, master
Hittite)
tali, tas-, tesni, tah-,
teseti
, priest ut,
uten, priest; (Lycian)
kave (priest, Carian)
(Hittite)

lord, prince (feudal
[<Lat. feudalis?
])

avle, Script K46, AF-1, AL-1, TC90, TC241, TC279;
avles, Script TC90
aule (AFLE)
,
Script T-1;
auli (AFLI)*,
Script DL-4:

clav (CLA8),
claveki (cla8eki)?
tas, tesena, TESeN,
TESeNE
,
See arce for
archontas

*used in the plural at Script DL : AFLI TARCHVNVS

dhanAyA; desire of
wealth, covetnouss;
gardhita [mfn],
greedy; parigRddha
[mfn], very greedy

z, zvari, greedy
(Persian)

x

aplistos, greedy
(Greek)
lakmitar, makut,
babzitur, llups,
nepsquar, gryks,
greedy (Albanian)

avaras-a-um

avere, to have; avido,
adj. greedy, eager
(Italian)
avide, adj. greedy,
eager, eager for;
avidit
[f], avidity,
greediness,
eagerness (French)

covetus, greedy

avra, (A8RA),
Script H-3, L-5
avras (A8RaS),
Script M24, M74
a8erom, a8erum,
(A8ERVM)
, Script
N100

sauvarNa [f], golden, made of gold;
kaladhauta, golden

zarin, zargun,
golden (Persian)

zioty, golden
(Polish)
zalaty, adj., golden
(Belarus)

chrysafenios, pou
miazei me chrysafi
golden, (Greek)
art, i art, florinjt, i
florinjt, golden
(Albanian)

auratus-a-um

euraid, adj., golden
(Welsh)
aureo, adj., gold,
golden (Italian)
or [m], adj., gold
dor, adj. golden
(French)

golden, adorned
with gold

auratom, auratum
(AFRATVM)
, Script Z1146


x

x

x

x

x

x
Papa (Attis, also called Papas, husband of Cybele, Mater) baba (BABA), XA-25;
BaBA, XE-1

AmA, to bleat at;
mA, to sound, roar,
bleat, esp. of cows,
calves;
anumā, to roar or bleat towards

x

x

belazo, belasma, to bleat (Greek)
blegrij, to bleat
(Albanian)

Balae-arum [f.pl];
balo-are, to bleat

belare, to bleat (Italian)
bler, to bleat (French)

holiday resort in
Campania;
to bleat?

bale (BALE), Script L59

abhitaḍ, to beat, thump, hit, wound
x x x battuo [batuo]-are x to beat, knock batyn, BATYN, XL-3

balaa (force),
balaM (army)

hanay [han], an
army; enemy;
spdhem, an army
peshanhu
[peshan], battle,
strife (Avestan)
jang, kesmakes,
setiz, war [n]; artes,
lasgar, seph, army
bahs kardan,
goftogu
kardan, peykr
kardan, to argue
(Persian)

rata, war (Serbo
Croatian)
vajna [f.],
vojska, army
(Belarus)
karja, battle;
kar'aut, to battle;
karas, war;
bila,
axe (Baltic
Sudovian)

polemos, polemo;
oplismos,
panoplia, thorakisi,
oplizo, armour
(Greek)
luft, war; luftoj, to
war; ushtri,
army; debat,
polemik,
controversy,
dispute
(Albanian)

bello-are, belior-ari;
bellum-i,
[old form
duellium], war;
arma
orum
; tela-orum,
armour
vasa-orum, war
materials,
equipment

arm, airm, armailt,
army;
rmunn, a
warrior; cog, va.
fight, carry on war;
cmhraig, va. fight,
combat (Scott)
polemica [f] polemic,
controversy; guerra
[f] war, warfare;
armatura [f] arms
(Italian)
polmique [f]
polemic,
controversy;
guerre [f] war;
guerroyer, to wage
war;
armure [f]
armour (French)
laka, a battle,
wazzis, an
army, wazala, a
warrior (Lycian)
lahha, a campaign
(Hittite)

to wage war

BeLE, Script M13;
BeLeM, Script M67
(for reference):
PVLVMiK
,
Script Au, TC
armo (armv)
Script Q53

sumAnasa, adj.,
good-minded;
cAritrya [n],
good conduct

xub, nik, niku, good, adj. (Persian)

dabro [n], dobry,
adj. good (Belarus)

kalos, agathos,
good (Greek)
mir, adv., e mir,
dobi, prfitim
(Albanian)

bene, adv.

bene, adj. good
(Italian)
bien [m] good
(French)
wasnu, the good
(Hittite)

good, excellent,
well? of
merit

BeNI, Script M78;
beno (BENV), Script R181, R204, G30

nau [f] boat, ship,
vessel; tarika [m]
ferry-man [f] boat

kastiye kucak, qyeq,
boat; kasti, ship;
ferestdan, to ship
(Persian)

karabiel [m], ship,
boat, craft
(Belarus)
aldija, vitline, boat;
vitine, aldine,
sailboat (Baltic
Sudovian)

phoio, fortono,
ship,
barka,
karabi, ploio, boat
(Greek)

bark
, vark
(Albanian)

navis-is [f] ship
navicula-ae [f] boat

bta-ichean [m.] (pl),
boat (Scott)
barca [f] nave [f]
ship, boat, vessel
(Italian)
barque [f], navire
[m] ship, vessel
(French)

boat, barque
[<Lat. barca]

berca, Script R459, R542

paripAna [n], a
drink or beverage

nusbe, smidani,
drink [n]; smidan,
to drink (Persian)

zeby pi to drink
(Polish)

pitvo
, drink; pic, v.
imp., drink
(Belarus)

poto, pino, drink
(Greek)
pi, thith (toka
ujin),
pi pije
(alkoolike)
(Albanian)

poto, potare,
potavi, potatum and
potum

bere, (Italian)
boire (French)
ekw, akw, to drink (Hittite)

to drink?
Veros, common Roman name, as Lucius Aelius Caesar, adopted son of Hadrian

beros (bervs), Script R426
BiR, Script MS-18

taD, tADayati, beat,
strike, hurt, hit; vadh (vadhati), to strike, destroy, kill

soml, abxtar, north; sarzanes kardan, saxt zadan, to trounce;
zadan, sekast ddan, to beat (Persian)

pownac [f], north;
bic, to beat, trash (Belarus)

Boreas, north wind, (Greek)
dnoj, rrah, zhdp,
shaj, trounce
(Albanian)

Boreas-a-um;
buris, the crooked
hinder part of a
plow;
verbera-are,
to beat, whip,
thrash with words,
to assail, lash

battere, to beat
(Italian)
bourrer, to stuff,
cram, ram into, beat,
to trounce (French)

Boreas, the north
wind, north?
to beat, trounce?

Boris (bvris) Script M19

bhratar,
bhraatR^i bhraataH

dadr; bardar
(Persian)
W-yeghpatr;
E aghper
(Armenian)

brat (Serbo
Croatian)
brat (Belarus)
brate, brother;
bratrikai, brothers
(Baltic-Sudovian)

phrater (Greek)
vlla (Albanian)

frater-tris, fratres,
fraternitas-atis,
fraternus-a-um

brawd (brodyr) [m],
brother, friar,
berethren (Welsh)
brthair, pl. brithrean,
brthaireil
(Irish)
breur, breudeur
(Breton)
fratello [m] (Italian)
frre [m] (French)
bra' (Illyrian)
pracar (Tocharian)
brafrer, member of
a commune,
(Lydian)

brother [<OE
brothor]

FRATER or BRATER (8RATER), Script R-1, R100, R156
FRATeR or BRATeR
(8RATeR), Script
R164, G-1

FRATRO or BRATRO (FRATRV))
Script
Q243, Q294, R88, R565
FRATROM or BRATROM (8RATRVM), Script Q320
FRATROS or BRATROS (8RATRVS)
, Script Q424, Q468, Q521, Q551, R229

x x x x Brutti (Brutti &
Britti) -orum
x name, Brutus;
people of
Southern Italy
BRuTOSY, Script F28

Notes:

* All ETP numbers from http://etp.classics.umass.edu/
(1)
Based upon the suffix, "ia" used in the Divine_Mirror.html, for people, Tinia, (god Tini) Elenia (Helen of Troy) and Acaia, it is probable that the suffix relates to personal names, perhaps as a genetive ending.
(2
) Ati is the word for father in Turkish.
(3
) According to the Iliad, when listing the allies of the Trojans who came to help them in the war against the Achaiains (Greeks), the Carians, who lived along the southeastern coast of Turkey, are listed as being of "barbarian speech." Note, then, the similarity of Carian speech, in this case involving the word eight, to English.
(
4) While this should be obvious to our readers by now, tad-cu is used in south Wales and taid in north Wales. The Bretons, who use tad-kozh, came from south Wales, and tad-kozh is probably the older form.
(5) Script AO, an inscription on the lintel of a tomb in Orvieto, says, "AMAR LE ANA TE," "to love there Ana your" (to love your Ana there). See Miscellaneous_Short_Scripts.html. The name, Ana, appears in several scripts.
(6) Scripts AR, NC and SM, Miscellaneous_Short_Scripts.html, reflect nearly identical scenes on cinerary urns. These scenes appear to be of Polynices and Eteocles, the classic tale of the sons of Oedipus, king of Thebes. The two sons had agreed to rule Thebes jointly after their father's disgrace, but Eteocles did not honor the bargain and banished his brother. This quarrel, the result of Oedipus' curse on his sons, resulted in the war of the Seven Against Thebes and the death of the brothers at each other's hands. Eteocles was succeeded on the throne by his son Laodamas, or by Creon who was perhaps acting as regent for the boy. While the themes of the urns are the same, they were not made from the same mold, since there is a change in costumes for the four characters in each scene (two women who appear to be prostitutes), the attacker and the attacked. Click on the thumbnail to view the two scripts: It is interesting that the character in Script AR is depicted with a missing hand. Was he a thief? Yet, the inscription on his urn seems to call him "a friend royal." He looks like he was a good looking young man.
(7) The use of AL is curious, and it certainly cannot be "to the, at the" as in Italian, since Etruscan does not use the word, 'the." In the Hermene Script, HT, it is the last word in an inscription on a tile that appears to be identifying the place of Hermes. "alius" seems to be the appropriate word in the context of the usage, "vastness of Hermenes god to the rebirth of another." In the Etruscan banquet scenes, etc., there is an offering of an egg. This appears in the scene of Uni Suckling Hercules, where she is giving Hercules, whom she tried to destroy, life (Uni, as Juno and Hera, were the goddesses of childbirth). The egg is a symbol of life, rebirth, to Christians and other faiths. In the Miscellaneous_Short_Scripts_a.html we can see how important the egg is in the afterlife. It is part of the banquet offerings, along with the drink which may be like Soma, the drink of Indra and the gods. Hermes is a god who carried the departed soul to the abode of the afterlife. He also is identified with the invention of writing, the bringer of knowledge, and would be so as the messenger of the gods.
(8) An appelation in the Tavola Eugubine is ATIIERIV, with declensions, "Atigerius." This compares to the Rig Veda's appelation concerning its founding fathers or patriarchs. We have three expressions hinting at the source of this term. The first is that referring to the Adityas, the gods who reign in the highest heavens, with Aditi meaning "eternity or eternal" (Rig Veda Book 1, XIV.3). According to Professor Mller's translation of the Rig Veda 1.230, 'Aditi, an ancient god or goddess, is in reality the earliest name invented to express the Infinite; not the Infinite as the result of a long process of abstract reasoning, but the visible Infinite, th endless expanse beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky.' One of the famous early sages or reciters (Rsis) of the Rig Veda was Atri (Rig Veda Book 1, XLV.3). Coincidentally, the sons of Atreus , Agamemnon (the king of Mycenae) and Menelas, they and their sons being called Atreidae, are called to mind, since they engaged the sons of Atys (King Priam and his allies) in the Trojan war. The other, frequently mentioned ancient family in the Rig Veda is the Angirases (Rig Veda Book 1, I.6). It may be that the Etruscan memory together with that of the Illiad and the Rig veda, recall two ancient Indo-European ancestors of a tribe preceeding the Greeks, Etruscans and Aryans of the Rig Veda. My source on the Rig Veda is Ralph T. H. Griffith, "Sacred Writings, Hinduism: The Rig Veda," Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992 and Motilal Banarsidass Publishers PVT. LTD. I highly recommend it, particularly with regard to Griffith's footnotes. A copy of the Rig Veda and other Sanskrit literature may be read at: http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/.
Not to confuse things, but Ati is also a name for "king" in the "Hymn to Osiris Un-Nefer," "Egyptian Book of the Dead, Book 1." Early Greek mythology recalls that one of the first kings of Argos was Danas, from Egypt. He and his brother Aegyptus were twin sons of Belus, who ruled the vast territory of Egypt. The brothers each had fifty children by many wives. Danas had only daughters, while Aegyptus had only sons. Belus gave Libya to Danas and Arabia to Aegyptus. Mixed in the episode are the Melampodes who occupied a portion of the lands and was conquered by Aegyptus. Subsequently Aegyptus named the lands after himself. Then apparently Aegyptus had his eyes on Danaus' inheritance, and fearing his brother's plot to kill him Danas made an arrangement with the goddess Athena to sail with his daughters to Argos. There are several versions of the story, as to how the Argives claim inheritance from Danas, but the versions come down to the fact that only one of the 50 daughters produced progeny to inherit the Argive throne. It seems that Danas, suspecting a plot to overthrow him, persuaded his daughters to kill their husbands. Only one daughter, the eldest named Hypermnestra, refused to kill her husband, Lynceus, because he had respected her virginity. Lynceus inherited the throne of Argos from Danas.
   The Trojan war was launched from the area, Argolis, on the Gulf of Argolis which included the cities of Argos, Tyrns, Mycennae, etc. The people in the Illiad who invaded Troy are referred to by the names of "Argives" and "Danans" and the terms were often applied to the Greeks as a whole. After the period of the Trojan war the area came under attack, as evidenced by the Mycennaean tablets called "Linear B" and with the destruction of their citadels the Mycennaean (Danan) dominance of the Mediterranean came to an end (circa. 1180 B.C.). The Etruscans, as sons of Tyrsenus, son of Atys, may have inherited the "Mycennaean" legacy carrying on the art and technology continuing it from their new base in Italy. The name, Argos, beyond being the name of one of the towns, became the symbol of the area encompassing the citadels of the Argolis, and one of King Agamemnon's titles, as king of Mycenae, was "king of Argos," the supreme commander over all the forces from the Gulf of Argolis. The story of Danas and his daughters is related by several sources. Aeschylus, in his play, The Suppliants, recalls the daughters of Danas supplicating King Pelasgus for asylum from Aegyptus. To read the play click on The Suppliants.
(9) I was curious at the expression in the Rig Veda regarding battling against a hundred "iron castles." A specific reference is in the Rig Veda, Book IV.27.1, " A hundred iron fortresses confined me.." which compares to Book II.14.6, "...who as thunder demolished Sambara's hundred ancient castles.." Not being able to imagine "iron castles" erected in the Bronze Age (~1,500 B.C., when the Rig Veda was supposedly created) I consulted Capeller's online Sanskrit Dictionary (http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search.html) and it revealed that "ayas" is the word for iron, metal, but the word no doubt referred to bronze before iron was widely used. I can visualize the authors of the Rig Veda gazing upon walled cities whose gates or edifices might have been faced with bronze or metal sheeting. See also Book 1, Hymn LVI.3, "the iron one," i.e., the thunderbolt.
(10) The Rig Veda addresses its [most] ancient, priestly family as the Angirases. See Book 1. LI.3. This name is remarkebly close to the Atiierie.
(11) We used the following current websites in compiling translations (some sites used from 2004-2006 are no longer online) :
Sanskrit: http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/mwquery/
(12) Update: September 2011> reconciling Indo-European Table to Etruscan_GlossaryA.xls.

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