9.25.18 Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):

Indo-European Table 1

by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)

Table 1 Index (Recommend opening this page to facilitate navigation through Table 1)

This table began as a comparison of Etruscan words to other Indo-European words, and it is clear that the linkage to Etruscan illuminates some new patterns in Indo-European word relationships. Perhaps in the final analysis of this work we will learn more about the placement of certain languages within the Indo-European family. More so, it may be that Etruscan provides us a bridge into the past, allowing us to see the formative stage of some of the languages. After all, Etruscan is a language frozen in time, having been unread and untouched, as it were, for these past two thousand years. The reader should also note that the Etruscan vocabulary upon which this table is based is a working vocabulary. It is composed from extant Etruscan writings. The table is not, therefore, an artificial compilation of word relationships of one language to another; rather it is an expos. I have exposed two classifications or orders of languages which have an affinity to Etruscan. The first order I have colored in red to expose western Indo-European, Latin relationships. Another order I have colored in blue to expose Indo-European languages favoring an eastern relationship. The blue links may, in fact, expose an older, perhaps Eastern, branch which would have included Greek, Sanskrit, Etruscan, French/Gaelic and Albanian sources. Those words colored in green show a group that appears to be in the middle of the original Indo-European family based in the steppes of Russia, north of the Black Sea. Although the traditional view in classifying Indo-European languages is through the assortment of Satem and Centum languages, this table may put that order in question, particularly with regard to Albanian and French. The table will continue to grow in length as more words from the Etruscan vocabulary are added. The table has been summarized as Indo-European Table 1.
It should be noted that the foundation of the Etruscan vocabulary is based upon the isolation of individual words and phrases without at first regard for meaning and the establishment of grammatical patterns, where shifts in the affix of words could be discerned. These shifts resembled the Indo-European declension pattern, and the over-all pattern was and continues to be that of a language related to Latin.
The next step in analyzing the Etruscan scripts was to apply a comparative translation to Latin, French, Italian and English; the result being the Vocabulary / Glossary. Once a working vocabulary had been established, allowing consistent translations of words and phrases from one script to another, creation of this table became feasible. And as this table takes form a more refined translation of the Etruscan scripts will be obtained. While Etruscan is a dead language and there is no Rosetta Stone available so far, to assist in the translation, we do know that a fair translation is possible with confirmation of consistent shifts from the related languages to Etruscan.
What is also quite evident through this table is the proximity a language may have to Etruscan. When we see what appears to be a "borrowed word" in Etruscan from another language, we realize that any borrowing that may have taken place in the exchange would have ocurred more than two thousand years ago. Again, the Etruscan language ceased to exist by the time of Cicero. No one in his time could speak or read Etruscan. Yet, he took pride in his Etruscan hereitage. He was born 106 BC, in Arpinum, Latium (now Arpino, Italy) and died Dec. 7, 43 BC.
No language is separate from its artifacts, and perhaps the most significant artifact we can realize from an ancient civilization is its own record. The Etruscan tombs left enormous treasures, filling museums and private collections world wide, but in spite of all the beautiful works they left behind, there is no curator alive today who can tell you what the Etruscans actually thought. A curator or teacher can quote Cicero, perhaps the greatest Roman statesman, but no curator or educator can quote a writing of one of his ancestors. But now we are in a position to do that.
This table already shed light on a curious, often repeated phrase involving the appellation, ATIIERI, ATIIERIE, ATIIERIV, etc. The appellation appeared to be, "Ati gerius" and I translated it as being the ancestoral patriarch Attis/Atys of Lydia, and the devotees in the script being the sons/daughters of Atys. Applying the Albanian word for father, Ate, and Albania njeri, beginning, leaves also the translation, "father of the beginning," i.e., god. Atys, the consort of the mother-goddess Cybele, was a vegetation god of Asia Minor (Phrygia) who symbolized rebirth and the renewal of the seasons. The diety became popular in Rome in the 2nd century AD. Atys, a king of Lydia, is also the name of the father of Tyrhsenus, who led half of the Lydians in their realm to Italy, as a result of a drought following the Trojan war. The Greeks called the Etruscans by the name of Tyrrhenians or Tyrsenians, after the name of the Etruscan leader, Tyrsenus.
When we attempt to reconstruct the diffusion of the Indo-European populations from the steppes north of the Black Sea into Europe and Asia, we have very few things to use. There are artifacts and myths, and if we are lucky a sample of their clothing and remains. We can reconcile those things to the historical records ancient writers, such as Herodotus, left behind. We also have the corpus of sacred texts from various groups. In India there are the Vedas, written in Sanskrit, a dead language (like Latin) that recall stories dating circa. 1,200 BC. The verbal record of Homer, the "Iliad," dating from about 600 BC, tells a little about the Mycennean civilization and the great war involving Troy, a story dating from about 1,200 BC. We have the Persian sacred texts called the Avesta, or Zend-avesta, which is the sacred book of Zoroaster, a Persian prophet of 628 BC. The Mycennean civilization left a body of scripts, known to us as "Linear B," which turns out to be a corpus of tablets, dating about 1,200 B.C., found in ancient Greek fortifications containing inventories and communications involving warfare. Archeological remains of cities from 1,200 BC to about 800 BC reflect a Meditteranean littoral under siege. The ancestors of the Indo-Europeans were quite warlike and continue their warring tradition to this day. Their religion reflected this.
Perhaps in their struggle to eke out a livlihood as a pastoral folk, the ancestors of the Indo-Europeans became more philosophical about life, death, duty and patronage and the affects man could have upon the gods who seemed to control all things. Living in small clans and villages they were destined to be more democratic, relying upon a council of elders to regulate their routines. Heading up each group would be an elected chief or regent.
Among the earliest Indo-Europeans there were the Kurgan folk who lived on the steppes north of the Black Sea about 3,500 BC, arriving in the Aegean and Adriatic regions about 2,300 BC. The Kurgans buried their dead in mounds, or barrows. The word kurgan means barrow, or artificial mound, in Turkic and Russian. A similar people were the Scythians, a red-headed people whom Herodotus describes in considerable detail. They also practiced mound burials, and the practice spread to Italy, among the Etruscans, and up the western coast of Europe, from Spain to Britain and Germany. The remains of many of their barrows, which have been eroded, can be seen as dolmens to this day. These people spent a lot of their time piling up stones, creating great stone alignments and barrows, the most famous of which is Stonehenge, dating from about 3,000 BC. Along the Mediterranean littoral the Indo-Europeans built great cities, the earliest of which were of the Hittites, whose capital, Hattusus, was just north of what is now Ankara, Turkey. They became a dominant power by 1,340 BC., involving themselves in a great battle, the battle of Kadesh, with Egypt (Seti I and Ramses II) in 1299 BC. By 1190 BC, about the time of the Trojan war, the Hittite empire ceased to exist.
While it is tempting to think that all of the "barrow" folk were Indo-Europeans, there are barrows, or dolemns, found in many places of Asia, including Korea and Japan. Some of the people who left these barrows, beginning about 5,000 B.C., may be Indo-European kin-folk.
The languages selected for comparison to Etruscan include the peoples discussed above. The early Hindu language, Sanskrit, Avestan (early Persian), Serbo-Croatian and Belarussian (old Slavic languages), Sudovian (believed to be an old Baltic language), Greek, Albanian (also believed to be an old branch of the Indo-Europeans), Latin; and Scottish Gaelic, Breton Gaelic, French and Italian form another group for comparison. English serves a particular measure in the comparison since it contains many borrowed words from the Gaelic and "Romance" languages. The foundation of English is low German and its relationship to Albanian in the working vocabulary of this table is interesting. The table is in several sections. Another language, Romanian, is being added to the Indo-European Table, courtesy  of Constantin Cucu, whose contribution we have recorded as etruscan_glossaryA-Constantin.xls. The basic glossary, Etruscan_glossaryA.xls is the most current document - updated before all other documents - to reflect changes in the Etruscan vocabulary.
     Because of current research into the comparison of Finno-Uralic, Georgian (Kartvelian) and Hurrian-Urartian to the Indo-European family, we have inserted words from these groups as available. We have colored words that are similar. Words in blue could be related to Sanskrit, those in red we relate to Latin/Etruscan; those in Green tend to represent Western European (Celtic, Germanic/English, Slavic, Baltic, Finnish-Uralic. Other relationships are shown in purple and ochre. The colors facilitate visualiation of the various mixing of the languages cited.

Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. To open the next section of this table click here, section Table1A.
Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian. Except for family relationships and numbers this table is alphabetical (see the Etruscan column)
See also Etruscan Phrases Glossary.html


Avestan, Persian  Hurrian,  Georgian

Slavic, Baltic Finnish-Uralic

Greek, Armenian*
& Albanian





matR^i, maataa, ambaa;
zuzU, mother.

barethrishva, mother
mdar, mother (Persian)
დედა, deda, mother (Georgian),

nēra, mother (Hurrian)

majka, mother (Serbo-Croatian)
maci, mother (Belarusian)
maika, mama, mother (Croatian) 

maci, matka, mother (Belarus)

mate, mother (Baltic-Sudovian) 
māte, mother (Latvian)
mamă, mami, mother (Romanian)
iti (s: female (human) who

parents a child, mama, mama


μαμά, mammitera, mother (Greek)
մայրիկ, mayrik, mama,
Մայրը, mayry, mother 
mama, mama,
mm, parent, nn, mother

mater, matris, mother, mamma-ae, breast
mamillia-ae, breast, teat

mthair, mama, mother (Irish)
mthair, mama, mother (Scott)
fam, mama, mother (Welsh)

mer, maman (French)

mcar (Tocharian)
na (Lydian)
matar (Phrygian)
xna, a mother (Lycian)
annas, Hittite

Mamu, name?
mum, mom, momma, ma, mother?

mother [<OE

mamu or mami (MAMY) Script XM-5

mater, XB-8 XB-10, XB-12
, Script R426,
matro, matru,
Script R487

matrob (MATRO8), Script R459

uras, breast, uraska,
adj. breast
; stana, the breast
of a woman;
kuca, the female breast

sine, pestan, breast (Persian)
neyer-ni, zizzi (Hurrian)
, mkerdis, breast (Georgian)

pectus, breast, cit,tit (Croatian)
hrudzi, breast (Belarusian)
[f.pl.], chest, breast (Belarus)

piers, breast (Polish)
krūts, breast (Latvian)
rinta, breast; tissi, tit (Finnish-Uralic)

mastos, stithos,
breast, χτύπημα,
chtpima, tit (Greek)
kraharor; gjoks;
gji; sis; zemer;
ndjenja breast,


briste, breast (Scott)
cche, breast (Irish)

breast, chest;
bron -nau, nydd, breast; dwyfron
nau, breast, chest; mynwesau, breast,
bosom (Welsh)

petto , breast

mamelle, breast
tētan, breast (Hittite)

breast [<OE breost]

mam, Script M67;
mamar, Script AD-1
or mami (MAMY) XM-5

pita, pitaa
, father

pitar, patar,
, father

pedar, father
pedari kardan [verb]
attai, father (Hurrian)
baba, father წინაპარი, tsinapari, ancestor,
mama, father (Georgian

бацька, baćka, father,бацькаўшчыну, baćkaŭčynu, fatherland (Belarusian)
otac, father, domovina, fatherland (Croatian)
aciec, aciec, baka, father
tavas, father, (Baltic-Sudovian)
te.tis, father
tēvs, father, tēvzeme, fatherland (Latvian)

Tată, father, PATRIE, fatherland (Romanian)
is, father, isnmaa, fatherland (Finnish-Uralic)

 πατέρας, patras, pater, tetta, father

, hayry, father
baba, ate, father

pater-tris, father

athair-ar (Scott)
athair, father, athartha, fatherland (Irish)
tad-au, father (Welsh)
tad, father (Breton)
padre [m], father;
patria [f], fatherland
pre [m], father,
patrie [f], fatherland;
tte, head, leader,
summit (French)
pcar, father, (Tocharian)
tedi, a father,
teTTi, paternal
abi, abu, atta, attas (Hititte)

father [<OE faeder], fatherland

patir (PATYR), XM-11,
, Script Q53, Q162, Q171, Q209, Q243, Q416
patrebum, (PATRE8VM) Script R258 )
See also, TETA, J42-9,  teto (tetv), Q200, R294; J36-13, baba, Script XA-25, XE-1, Script Q, R
ate, N160, N349, Q44, XV-7, R122 ates, N462, R359, XA-1, XN-1 atia, AN-5, BS-7, DE-5 ati, Q-11, AM-5, J42-14, atie, BS-22  

bhraatR^i bhraataH

brātar, Avestan
, dzma, brother, ძმები, dzmebi, brothers (Georgian)

ena, (Hurrian)


brat (Serbo
брат, brat, (Belarusian)
brat (Belarus)
brate, brother; bratrikai, brothers
brālis (Latvian)
veli  (Finnish-Uralic)

αδελφός, adelfs Greek)
, yeghbayr,
brother (Armenian)
vlla (Albanian)

frater-tris, fratres,

brawd (brodyr) brother, friar,
berethren (Welsh)
brthair,  brother (Scott)
brthair, pl. brithrean,
breur, breudeur
fratello, (Italian)
frre [m] (French)
bra' (Illyrian)
pracar (Tocharian)
brafrer, member of a commune,
es, brother,
DUMU.MUNUS, brother (Hittite)

brother [<OE

brater (8rater), Script
R-1, R100, R156
, MS-14
(8RATeR), Script
R164, G-1

bratro (8ratrv)
Q243, Q294, R88, R565, G16
bratrom (8ratrvm), Script Q320
bratros (8ratrvs)
, Script Q424, Q468, Q521, Q551, R229

putrau, son, aatmaja,
kishora tanuuja, suta

puthra [-] son,
child (Avestan)
farzand, pesar,
zd (Persian)
fudki, futqi, fitēqi (Hurrian)
, shvili, son (Georgian)

sin (Serbo
oni su, son (Croatian)
dlia (Belarusian)
syn (Belarus)
sunus, son; vaikas, boy helper
tie ir (Latvian)
poika (Finnish-Uralic)

gios (Greek)
, vordin, son
bir, dial (Albanian)


t siad, son, buachaill, boy (Irish)
maen nhw, son, ab (ap) son; bachgen (bechgyn) boy, son, lad;
mab (meibion) boy, son, man, male (Welsh)
maab (Breton)
figlio [m] (Italian)
fils [m] (French)
se, soy
kzzta (Lycian)

son [<OE sunu]

filos, filus (filvs),Script AN-1;
filoi, filui (filvi), Script L44

duhitṛ, daughter
aatmajaa, kishori
duhitaa [f],

dota, Avestan
dukhdha [duxdhar]'
āl-a, ali, ala (Hurrian)
asuli, daughter



дачка, dačka (Belarussian)
dacka [f.] (pl.): docki (Belarus)
dukte (Baltic-Sudovian)
meita, daughter (Latvian)

tytr, Finnish-Uralic)


κόρη, kri, thygatera
, dustry, daughter
bij, vajz (Albanian)


inon, daughter (Irish)
nighean (Scott)
merche-ed [f], girl, daughter, maid, woman (Welsh)
merc'h,-ed (Breton)
figlia [f] (Italian)
fille [f] (French)
ckcar, tkcer
cbatru (Lycian)
 girl, daughter, MUNUS KU,
NIN, sister (Hittite)

daughter [<OE

file, Script Z629, AH-1, CBK-1,

mayaa, mayi,
me (mine),
maaM (me)
(from me)
svaaM (of myself)

mi, [me] main, [mine] Avestan
(my), mvya
ma], mm
[azem] (me)
u-u-we, mine, u--ta, u-da, to, '-iffə, -iffē-, -iffu-suffix, my (Hurrian)
, me, (Georgian)

мне, mnie, me, шахта, achta, mine (Belarusian)
mi, me,
rudnik, mine (Croatian)
men, min,
meim (i); maja (i), my
mani, me, raktuves, mine
minulle, me, kaivos, mine (Finnish-Uralic)

μου, mou, me, δικος μου, dikos mou, mine (Greek)
, indz, me, իմը, imy, mine (Armenian)
mua, m, ma,
m, me, imja, mine (Albanian)

meus-a-um, my,

dom, me, mo, my, mianach, mine (Irish)
agam, at me; chugam, domh, to me;
mi, I & me, mo, my (Scott)
fi, fy ('m, 'n), i,
mi, myfi, pwll, mine (Welsh)
me, I, me (Breton)
me, me, meco, with me, il mio, mine (Italian)
me, me, moi, mine (French)
mi, mine (Lydian)
amu, mu,
mi, mu (I, me, my Carian)
mi, mis, yah, am-mu (Hittite)

by me, to me, me, my [< OE min], me
[<OE me], mine
[<OE min], myself

mi, me, mia; me, mine; mek, of me, from me


I, ies (Avestan)
azem (Persian)
ove, 1st Pers.; fe, feve 2nd Pers. (Hurrian)
, me, (Georgian)

ja, I, (Croatian)
Я, ja, I, (Belarusian)
es, I, (Latvian)
we, I, minut (Finnish-Uralic)

εγώ, ego (Greek)
, Yes, I (Armenian)


fi, i (Welsh)
M, I (Irish)
Mise, I (Scott)
unan (Breton)
io (Italain)
je (French)
uk, am-mu, mu (I, me)  (Hittite)

I [<OE ic], pronoun

iko (ikv);Q433, Q442, Q481, N11, N41, N139, N216, N230, N244, N491, N513, N549, N573, N600, N625, N656, N699, N729 see
un, une, uni,
uno (vn - vnv)?


n [azem] (Avestan)
barye m (Persian)
mle m -mn (Hurrian)
ჩვენი, chveni, our (Georgian)

nusun (Baltic-Sudovian)
na (Belarusian)
nae (Croatian)
mūsu (Latvian)

meidn (Finnish-Uralic)

μας, mas, emas (Greek)
, mer (Armenian)
jon, yn (Albanian)


hon, hor, hol, our
r (Irish)
ar n-inntinn (Scott)
ein (Welsh)
noi, us; nostro,
nostri, nostra, nostre (Italian)
nous, us; nos, our

our [<OE ure]

nos (nvs)
Script AN-19, T-4, VP-4, XW-4
ione? Script Q607,
Q253, R219
ionas? Script Au76


azem, Avestan
xis, xixtan,
self (Persian)
e-di (Hurrian)
, tvit, self (Georgian)

сам, sam, self (Belarusian)
ja, sam (Serbo-Croatian)
sam (Croatian)
-si, refl.
sevi, self (Latvian)
itse, min
, minuus (Finnish-Uralic)

εαυτός, eafts (Greek)
inky, self (Armenian)
vete, vetvete,

se, sese, sibi, sui

fin, self (Irish)
fhin, self (Scott)
hunan (hunain),
self (Welsh)
unan (Breton)
-si, meco, refl.
pron. (Italian)
se, meme, refl.
pron. (French)
s'fa (refl. pron.
sfes, refl. pron.
uwe, a person,
uedri, a
-a-, him, her, it
-an, him, her, it
-ssi, he, she, it
-ssi-> he, she, it  
-si-, him, her it
-sis, -ssi, his, her, its
-sse,  -ssett, his
-ŠU, his, her
-SU, his
-ZU, his

self [<OE self] refl. pron.

sa, ScriptZ522, Z842, Z1317, TC28, TC201, TC229, TC304, K103, Au17, AN30, TC28, J42-5
SeMS13, S-2, K61, K125, Z24, R147, TC288, TC290, Au-102, J40-16, Script
se, Script Z77, Z102, Z1310, K11, K122, Q59, Q64, Q75, Q90, Q805, R26, R127, BT31, Au40, BB-3, J35-6
sese, Script Q424,
Q661, Q767
si, Script Q56, Q283, Q303, , R53, R195, G13, G45, R176, TC179, K46, K52, M50, AB-6, AN-53, PG-1, ZB-1, Z79, Z104, Z139, R176, Z975

eka, ekaM, ekaH

ava, yum
yek, tak, harkas
ukki, Hurrian
, erti, one (Georgian)

адзін, adzin (Belarusian)
covek, they:
ona, one, oni
jedan, one (Croatian)
adzin, one (Belarus)
ainas (Baltic-Sudovian)
vienu (Latvian)
yksi (Finnish-Uralic)

enas (Greek)
nj, one; njri,
pron. (Albanian)


un, adj. (Welsh)
aon, (Irish)
unan (Breton)
un. uno, una
un (French)
sas, se, s.eme,
sana (Tocharian)
sta (Lycian)
*ās (Hittite)

one [<OE an]

un, on (vn);Z54, Z206, Z913, Z980, Z1041, Z1057, Z1586, Z1607, Z1623, N681, N714, J29, Au86, AF-1, AN49, PO-14, J26-3

dve (two)
dvi (two, both)

dva [-] bish, adv.
twice, double
do (Persian)

, ori, two (Georgian)

tin(i), wo? (Hurrian)

kilallān, two, pair, both, pron. (Akkadian)

dva, dve, dvoje (Serbo-Croatian)
dva (Croatian)
два, dva (Belarusian)
dva, (Belarus)
dvai (Baltic-Sudovian)
divi (Latvian)
kakkonen (Finnish-Uralic)

duo (Greek)
երկու, yerku
dy (Albanian)


dwy [f], dau [m],
two, pair (Welsh)
dh, two (Irish)
dh, two (Scott)

div (f.), daou
[m] (Breton)
due [m] (Italian)
deux [m] (French)
wu, wi
tuwa (Lycian)
tuwa, dān, (Hittite)

two [<OE twa]

tua, (tfa) Script
AH-3, K152, D-12
tue, (tfe) Script Z1024, Z1846
tue (tve)
Script Q70
tuo (tvo), ON-2
du (Script F)?

tri, trayaM,
traye, trishhu
(in the three)
tishr [thri]
se (Persian)

kig(a), kig(e) (Hurrian)

სამი, sami, (Gerogian)

troje, trojica
тры, try (Belarusian)
try (Belarus)
tris (Baltic-Sudovian)
trīs (Latvian)
kolmonen (Finnish-Uralic)
tris (Greek)
yereky, three (Armenian)
tre, tri (Albanian)
tres, tris tr (Scott)
tr cinn (Irish)
tri, adj. tair [f],
teir [f], 
tre (Italian)
trois (French)
tri, tre
tre, trije
thri (Phrygian)
tēries, three (Hittite)
three [<OEthri]; third [<OE thridda] tre,Script N87, N297, N453, N469, N476, N505, Q15, Q21, Q29, Q40, Q46, Q128, Q767, R13, R661, PQ-15 BT34
trei, Script Z72,
Z180, Z347, Z1027
tres, Script Z290,
Z872, Z945, Z990,
Q376, Q763
tri, Script N240, N244, Q237, Q239, L55
tria, Script Q551, DE-8

trikRtvas, thrice

thrish, thrice (Avestan)
sebarbar, sel,
segne (Persian)

kigade (Hurrian) სამჯერ, samjer, thrice (Georgian)

treci, trejci, third (Belarus)
trojčy, thrice (Belarusian)
trivarst,  thrice, trīs reizes (Latvian)
tirtas, third (Baltic-Sudovian)
kolmasti, third (Finnish-Uralic)
treis fores,
trito, third (Greek)

երիցս,yeritss, thrice (Armenian)
triher (Albanian)

ter tr uairean thrice (Scott)
tr uair, thrice (Irish)
trydydd (trydedd)
[f], third, dair gwaith, thrice (Welsh)
terzo, third; tre volte, thrice (Italian)
troisime, third; trois fois, thrice

three times,
thrice [<OE thriga];
third [<OE thridda]

ter, Script Q311, R49, R619

tArtIya, the third
sevom, sevomi,
yek sevom, third (Persian)
ha-kig-am-ha, x three (Hurrian )
, mesame, third (Georgian)

treci, trejci
treci, third (Belarusian)
treais, third, (Latvian)

tirtas, third
kolmas, third (Finnish-Uralic)

rito, third (Greek)
երրորդ, yerrord
, third (Armenian)
i tret, adj. third,

tertius-a-um, third; acc. n. sing. tertium,
for the third time; abl.

treas; trian, a
third part (Scott)
trydydd (trydedd)
[f], third (Welsh)
terzo [m], adj.,
third (Italian)
trois, troisime [m], adj. third (French)
tēries, three (Hittite)

third, for the
third time,
terti, Script Z1600
Z1644, Q551
tertie, Script Q127
terto (tertv),
Script Q871

chatuH, chatus.h,

cathru, cathware
cahr (Persian)
tumn(i), (Hurrian)
otkhi, four (Georgian)

cetiri (Serbo-Croatian)
čatyry (Belarusian)

četri (Latvian)

nelj (Finnish-Uralic)

tessera (Greek)
չորս, chvors, four (Armenian)



the fourth;
ceithir, four

pedwar (pedair)
[f] (Welsh)
quattro [m]

quatre [m.] (French)
twar (Tocharian)
teteri (Lycian)
meyawes, four (Hittite)

four [<OE feower]

catra? Script Q488;
see also (probably town, fort)
katro, Script Q84, Q253, Q273,
katres, Q107
(katrvm) N112, Q-4

pa.ncha, paJNcha

paca [pacan]
panj (Persian)
nari(ja (Hurrian)
, khuti, five (Georgian)

pet (Serbo-Croatian)
piać (Belarusian)
piac (Belarus)
penkei, penkis (Baltic-Sudovian)
pieci (Latvian)
viisi (Finnish-Uralic)

pente (Greek)
հինգ, hing, five (Armenian)
pes (Albanian)


coic (Irish)
cig (Scott)
pump (pum) [m],
five (Welsh)
pemp (Breton)
cinque (Italian)
cinq (French)
pa (Tocharian)

five [<OE fife]

pet? Script TC253, Z1227?
Script TC260,

sas, six, shhaD.h, shhaN.h

siks, (Avestan)
ee (Hurrian)
, ekvsi, six (Georgian)

sest (Serbo-Croatian)
esć (Belarusian)
sesc (Belarus)
vushai, vushas (Latvian)
ushai, ushas (Baltic-Sudovian)
kussi, (Finnish-Uralic)

έξι,  xi (Greek)
վեց, vets, six (Armenian)
gjasht (Albanian)


s (Scott)
s (Irish)
chwech-au [m], adj. (Welsh)
sei [m] Italian
six [m] (French)
s.k (Tocharian)

six [<OE siex]

heks; Script Z1177, Z1359
heksr, (galley, L hexeris) Script Z158, Z974


hapta [haptan]
haft (Persian)
ind(i (Hurrian)
, shvidi, seven (Georgian)

seda (Serbo-Croatian)
sedam (Croatian)
siem (Belarus)
сем, siem (Belarusian)
septinei, septinis

seitsemn (Finnish-Uralic)

επτά, ept (Greek)
yot (Armenian)
shtate (Albanian)


seachd (Scott)
seacht (Irish)
saith, adj. (Welsh)
sept [m] (French)
sette [m] (Italian)
s.pt, sukt

seven [<OE seofan]

septa? Script


ashta (Avestan)
hast (Persian)
kir(i/a)? (Hurrian)
, rva, eight (Georgian)

osam (Serbo-Croatian)
osam (Croatian)
vosiem (Belarusian)
vosiem (Belarus)
astonei, astonis
astoņi (Latvian)
kahdeksan (Finnish-Uralic)

οκτώ, okt Greek)
յոթ, yot, eight (Armenian)
tet, tetm


ochd (Scott)
ocht mbliana (Irish)
wyth-au (Welsh)
eizh (Breton)
huit (French)
otto (Italian)
okt, okt
aitta (Carian)

eight [<OE eohta]

octito? (vctitv)
Script N403

See Note (3)


noh, noht
tamr(i) (Hurrian)
, tskhra, nine (Georgian)

dzievia (Belarus)
dzieviać (Belarusian)
devet (Croatian)

deviņi (Latvian)
yhdeksan (Finnish-Uralic)

enna (Greek)
ինը, iny, nine (Armenian)
nnt (Albanian)


naoi (Scott)
naoi (Irish)
naw [m] (Welsh)
nove (Italian)
neuf (French)

nine [<OE nigon]

no?, (nv, ny)
Script J48;
niv (nif)
Script J43;
nia? Script AP-1,


dasa [dasan] (Avestan)
dah (Persian)
eman (Hurrian)
, ati, ten (Georgian)

дзесяць, dziesiać, ten
deset (Croatian)

desimtis, ten (Latvian)
kymppi (Finnish-Uralic)

δέκα, dka (Greek)
տասը, tasy, ten (Armenian)
dhjet (Albanian)


deich, ten;
deicheamh, tenth
deich (Irish)
deg-au [m] (Welsh)
dek (Breton)
dieci (Italian)
dix, (French)
s'k, s'ek

ten [<OE tien]

tecum (tecvm)?
Script Z1615, Au13
tikam (ticham)?


saite [sata]
sad (Persian)
eman-am-h-a? (Hurrian)
, as, hundred (Georgian)

sto (Belarusian)
stotina (Croation)
simts, hundred, Latvian
sata (Finnish-Uralic)

εκατό, ekat (Greek)
հարյուր, haryur, hundred (Armenian)

njquind, quind


ceud (Scott)
cad (Irish)
cant (can), cannoedd,
cantoedd (Welsh)
cento (Italian)
cent (French)
kant (Breton)
knt (Tocharian)
MĒ, Hittite

hundred [<OE

sto (stv)?
Script Q303;
satan, satane?
Script Q33
cuetu (cfetv)?
Script Z1137

Etruscan words in alphabetical order

abhyantara, interior,
included by, within,

tu, to, aet, at, Avestan
, dar, tu, in; besuye, be,
suye, to; ruye,
bar, on; barye,
barye inke,
darpey, for; az,
from (Persian)
, parglebshi, within (Georgian)

da, to, in; na, at,
on, in; (Belarus)
у, u, at, in (Belarussian)
pie, at, uz, to, on, for, in, per, at  (Latvian)
luona, -lla, -ll (Finnish-Uralic)

στο, sto, at mesa, in; σε, se, in; eis, pros, na, mechri, to;
apo, from; apo, para, peri, ek, of; pano, epi, eis, pros, kata, on; gia, dioti, for; para, konta, plision, dia, apo, by;  mazi, me, with (Greek)
ին, in, in, ժամը,
zhamy,at  (Armenian)
brenda, n, m, me, ndr, per, in; me, tek, n moshn, ndaj, te, n, nga, pas, pr, at;
drejt, te, deri, tek, gjer, nga, n, to; prej,nga, sipas, from


i, mewn, o, fewn, yn, in (Welsh)
a, ad (Italian)
andan, in, inside

in, at, to, from,
of, on, for, by,
see ap below

a, Script Z92,
Z1153, Z1372,
Z1553, TC61,
TC90, TC108,
TC127, J-8, J19,
J25, J29, J36, Au90,
Au102, AF13,
AN12, AN102,
N21, N206, N371,
N711, Q376, Q388,
Q701, Q717, R381,
R499, R542, R584,
see ap below

kaścit (when special
attention is put
to object

b, hamrhe,
with (Persian)
mier, by, ზე, ze, at, დან,dan, from, ერთად, ertad, with (Georgian)

па, pa, by, у, at, to, ад, ad, from, з, z, with   (Belarusian)
po, by, na, at, do, to, iz, from, s, with (Croatian) 
, to, in; biez (biaz), without; z (sa), from, with (Belarus)
ar, by, with, pie, at, uz, to, no, from (Latvian)
de, by, la, at, to, din, from, cu, with (Romanian)  
menness, by, ett, to, alkaen, from, kanssa, with (Finnish-Uralic)

στο, at, προς την, pros tin, to, με, me, with, by, από, apo, from (Greek)
koghmits, by, ժամը, zhamy, at, դեպի, depi, to, ից, its, from, հետ, het, with  (Armenian)
nga, by, from, n, at, to, m, with (Albanian)

per, by, ut, to, with, apud, at, ex, from,  a, ab, abs, away from, after, out of, of, by, at the hands of cum (quom), when, whenever, since, although, with, together with, at the same time as


da  to; gant
[ganin, ganit, gantan, ganti, with; eus, digant, from
ag, at, by, chun, to, , from, le, with
aig, at, gu, to, bho, from, le, with, by (Scott)
gan, by, i, to, yn, at, o, from, wrth, with, to; a, chyda, efo, chan [gan], by,
di, by, a, at, to, a partire dal, from, con, with (Italian)
par, by,
, at, to, de, from,
avec, with (French)
kuēz, from, where,
-kan, kom, at, by, cum, with, alongside, SA, of (Hittite)

by, to, from, with [<OE with];
possibly water;
ap below

ap, Script Q253,
Q396, Q767, Q908;
ap below

satyam, inded

o, va, and; niz,
hamconin, ham, also (Persian)
-an  (Hurrian) 

და, da
, and ასევე,
aseve, also, ნამდვილად, namdvilad, indeed (Georgian)

i, and, сапраўды, sapraŭdy, indeed, таксама, taksama, also (Belarusian)
i, and, također, also, doista, indeed, (Croatian

un, and, patieām, indeed, arviskai
, truly, dīgi, adv. also (Latvian)
și, and, intr-adevar, indeed, de asemenea, also (Romanian)

ynn, and, todellakin, indeed,  mys, also, (Finnish-Uralic)

και, kai, and; επίσης, episis, also; πράγματι, prgmati, indeed
yev, and, նաեւ, naev, also, իսկապես, iskapes, indeed (Armenian)
me t vrtet, indeed, dhe
, and gjithashtu, also (Albanian)

ac, atque


agus, and, go deimhin, indeed, chomh maith leis sin, as well as that, also (Irish)
agus, and, gu dearbh, indeed, cuideachd, also (Scott)
ac, and (Welsh)
ha, hag, and; ivez,
also, neither
e, ed, and, infatti, indeed, anche, also (Italian)
et, and, effectivement, indeed, aussi, also (French)

anda imma, indeed, nu,
ta, -ca -ya, Ù, and, -ma, su, and, but,   (Hittite)

and, and also,
and indeed

(See Part 6)

ac, Script Z54,
Z432, Z1183, Au-1, TC46, Au95, K161
ak, Script Z489,
Z508, Z1139, XQ-1

AhvAnay, -yati

bang zadan,
xndan, call;
summon (Persian)
darekva, to call (Georgian)

заклікаць, zaklikać, to summon (Belarusian)
klika, v.imp., kliknu, v.perf.
call; nazyvacca, v.imp., be called
раіцца  rajcca, v. imp. consult, ask (Belarus)
zvati, to call (Croatian)

zvanīt, to call (Latvian)
a apela, to call (Romanian)
kutsua, to summon (Finnish-Uralic)

να καλέσω, na kalso, to summon, klitevo, kalo,
summon (Greek)
կանչելու համար,
kanchyelu hamar, to summon;
zangel, to call  (Armenian)
bj thirrje, thrras,
thrres, ftoj n
gjyq, summon;
brtas, ftoj, thrras, caktoj, them,
konsideroj, thrres, shqyrtoj, quaj, pezulloj, call (Albanian)

accio-iare -ivi -itum;
calo-are, to call;
, to call together; summoneo [subm-] -ere, to remind secretly
prophesy, to wish

galw, galwad [m.n.], call; galw, to call (Welsh)
Glaoigh, to call (Irish)
a 'gairm, to call (Scott)

summon; diritto, di, vt., chiamare,
gridare, call (Italian)
convoquer, sommer,
raconter, to
recount, tell (French)
werija, to speak, call; lamen, to name, to call; harti,
halzāi-, haliya
to call out

to call [<ON kalla],
to summon
to prophesy

aca, Script Z572,
TC46, Au67, Au90:
ace, Script J40-8
aci, Script Z582, AB-1;
acie, N149, R219, R238, P-1
ACeR, M71
acern DL-2, to prophesy
acis, Script R349, NC-3

audakah, apah ije, Hurrian vesi, vedet (Finnish-Uralic) νερό, ner (Greek) aqua-ae; water, sea, lake
 eau (French )

see ap below

see ap below
aciu, N74, AC18

aciu, aciv (aci8), Script N74
ap below

nibha, samaka, like,
equal to, tulaa,
to equalize

hamt, equal;
tarz, hamvr,
level; barbar
kardan, to level
შედარება, shedareba, to compare, გათანაბრება
, gatanabreba, to equalize (Georgian)

зраўнаваць, zraŭnavać, to equalize, параўнаць, paraŭnać, to compare (Belarusian)
rowny, adj., equal
usporediti, to compare,
izjednačiti, to equalize

salīdzināt, to compare, izlīdzināt, to equalize (Latvian)
pentru a egaliza, to equalize, pentru a compara  (Romanian)

verrata, to compare, sama, tasoittaa, to equalize

εξισώστε, exisste, to equalize; sygkrino,
paraballo, compare;
epipedos, isopedos,
isopedono, level
havasaretsnel, to equalize
hamematel, to compare (Armennian) krahasoj, prqas, compare;
drejtoj, rrafshoj, sheshoj, niveloj, shkatrroj, make level (Albanian)

acquo-are, to make level, equalize
comparare, to compare

chun comhionann, to equalize, chun comparid a dhanamh, to compare (Irish)
gus co-ionannachd a dhanamh, to equalize, gus coimeas a dhanamh, to compare (Scott)
cyfartalu, to equalize, i gymharu, to compare
uguagliare, pareggiare,
to equalize, per confrontare, to compare (Italian)
galiser, niveler, to equalize,  comparer, to compare (French)

to make level,
compare, make
equal, equalize

aces, Script N462;




Αχαία, Achaia (Greek)

Achaia or Achaia-ae [f]



acie, Script N149,
R219, R238
Achie, (A↓IE) CP35

aGga, aGgati, move; mIv,
, pp. mUta & mIvita,
push, move;

bordan, takn
ddan, to move
, modzraoba, to move (Georgian)

рухацца, ruchacca, to move (Belarusian)
(v.perf.) - move; rusy (v.imp.),
kranucca (v.perf.), move (something); ruch [m.], movement
za kretanje, to move (Croatian)

kustēties, to move (Latvian)

a muta, to move (Romanian)
siirt, liikhadus, to move (Finnish-Uralic)

να μετακινήσω, na metakinso, to move (Greek)
sharzhvel, to move (Armenian)

, gjallroj,
zhvendos, detyroj,
transportoj, mallngjej,
transferoj, vrtitem, move; lvizje, e ecur, ecje, gjest, mocion,motion (Albanian)


mudo, syflyd,
symud, cyffroi, to
move (Welsh)
muovere, commuovere,
incitare, indurre,
spostare, trasferire,
proporre, to move, vt.;
muoversi, mettarsi, cambiare, alloggio, traslocare, partire, avanzare, proseguire, caminare, to move, vi. (Italian)
mouvoir, remuer,
dmanager, proposer,
mouvoir, s'loigner,
mlanger [to mix], to move (French)

to set in motion, move

(See move below)

AKaPa, Script N160, M24;
akim, Script Z681

x x x x agrarius-ium, Nom. Pl. N. ia x of the public lands - relating to land, a general distribution of public land AKARAI, J41-8

agrahAra [m], land
held by Brahmins
kSauNI, [f], earth, land,
ku [f], earth, soil, land;
maNDala [f], ring,
disk, circular area of
king's neighbors

zamin, xoski,
bum, land; xk, kesvar, territory;
meydn, dast, zamin, field (Persian)

avari, kawr-, χawr- , earth, land, mini, earth, eə, ee, earth, sky? (Hurrian)
, დედამიწა, mitsa, dedamitsa, land, earth (Georgian)

kra [m], land; pole,
field (Belarus)
ziamlia, land (Belarusian)
zemljite, land (Croatian)
, land, earth (Latvian)

acru, land; agrar, related to land (Romanian)
maa, maa-alue (Finnish-Uralic)

γη, gi, land, xira, edafos,
land; chorafi,
agros, field (Greek)
hoghy, land (Armenian)
, dhe, terren, t that, truall, vis, pron, shtet, vend

ager, agri; see also
terra-ae [f] acne


tir ar [n], arable land; bro, gwlad, tir (Welsh)
agro [m], land, field (Italian):
agricole, adj.
agricultural (French)
KI, earth, world,
tēkan, earth,

land [<OE land], territory, a cultivated field, terra

aker, Script N173,
N435; S-18
akro (akrv), Script
akrare, akrara, CAB-2?

siddhAdeza [m],
siddhidarzin, adj.
prophet of good

peyqambari, pisguyi, prophecy (Persian)
, tsinastsarmetqveleba, to prophesy (Georgian)

праракаць, prarakać, prophesy (Belarusian)
прароцтв, praroktiva [m], prophet

, to prophesy,
proročanstvo, prophecy, (Croatian
profetiza, prophesy (Romanian)
, prophecy (Latvian)
profetia (Finnish-Uralic)

mantis, mantevo,
profitevo, augur (Greek)
margareutyun, prophesy (Armenian)
profetizoj prophesy (Albanian)


proffwydo, to
prophesy (Welsh)
profetiza, prophesy (Irish)
fidheadaireachd, prophesy (Scott)
augurare, to wish,
fortell, bid, profetizzare, prophesy (Italian)
augur [m] augur, prophtiser, prophesy (French)

to prophesy
[<Gk. propheteia,
prophecy], act
as an augur

acern, Script DL-2

Achaia or Achaia-ae, Achaia or in Gen. Greece x
achie (A↓IE, CP-35

zyena [m], eagle,
falcon, hawk,

oqb, homy,
dlman (Persian)

, artsivi, eagle (Georgian)

арол, arol, eagle (Belarusian)
orao, eagle (Croatian)
ērglis, eagle (Latvian)

vultur, eagle (Romanian)
kotka (Finnish-Uralic)

aetos, eagle (Greek)
artsiv, eagle (Armenian)
shquiponj (Albanian)


eryr-od [m], eryres
[f], eagle (Welsh)
iolaire, eagle (Irish)
iolaire, eagle (Scott)

aquila [m] (Italian);
aigle [m] (French)
haras (Hittite)


acil, Script Z591,
Z1161, Z1168,
ACILaR, Script
Z812, Z826;

aavhayati ha+ to name (Hurrian)
aci, aici, here (Romanian)
x accio-aire
x to call
Achaea?; note, "ie" suffix denotes proper name
aci, Z582, AB-1
Acie, N149, R219, R238, P-1
see cala above
majarī, maidservant of Krisna x x x  ancilla-ae
x maidservant
 acila, CJ-1
uttararuupaM ჩრდილოეთით,
chrdiloetit (Georgian)
паўночны, paŭnočny (Belarusian)
sjeverni (Croatian)
ziemeļu (Latvian)
pohjoinen (Finnish-Uralic)
βόρειος, vreios (Greek)
verior (Albanian)
Hyusisayin (Armenian)

thuaidh (Irish)
gogleddol (Welsh)
settentrionale (Italian)
nord (French)
acilone (acilvne), Script K64
ak, to move tortuously (like a snake); aṅk, to move in a curve; aṇṭh, to go, move, tend


gadaadgileba, to move (Georgian)
рух, ruch (Belarusian)
, (Croatian)
Liikkua (Finnish-Uralic)
kustēties (Latvian)
a muta (Romanian)

κίνηση, knisi (Greek)
Շարժվել, sharzhvel (Armenian)


to move, set in motion

akim, Z681
see AKaPA above
x x
Ahile (Romanian)
Achillfs (Greek)
Achilli Achilles (Irish)
Achilles (Welsh)
Achille (Italian)
Achille (French)


Achle (AKLE) Script MM-2, CG-1, DP-1, LM-4?
Script CH-2
Achvle Script CQ-2
x x x x x x Achloser, name of Briseis, concubine of Achilles? ACHLVSR, CQ-3
x x x Αγαμέμνονα,
Agammnona (Greek)
Agamemnonem x
Agamemnon, king of Mycennae
Achmemnon (AKMEMNVN) Script DM-6, CG-3
x x x x agnatio-onis; Nom. Single x of (related by) males, a name Agnus
Acnas, Au60

avi, favourable, kind, sheep
[m], ewe; petva [m] ram,
ajāvi, sheep, cattle meshhaH

barre, lamb;
guspand, sheep;
mis, ewe (Persian)
tskhvris (Georgian)

jagnje (Serbo-Croatian)
baranina, lamb (Belarusian)
jahnia (Belarus)
kame (Baltic-Sudovian)
oaie, oi sheep, sheeps (Romanian)
karitsa, lammas (Finnish-Uralic)

αρνάκι, arnki arni, lamb (Greek)
գառ, garr
qengj, qingj, lamb;
dhen, sheep (Albanian)

agnae-ae (f), agnus-i (m)
anninus-a-um, of a lamb
ovium, sheep


oen, lamb; oena, to lamb; dafad defaid, sheep (Welsh)
bwrwaora [f.],
chaorach, pl., a
uan [m]
lamb (Scott)
agnello [m] (Italian)
agneau [m] (French)
xabwa, a sheep
hawi, a sheep
UDU, sheep,
, lamb,
sheepfold (Hittite

lamb; ewe, female sheep [<OE eowu]; ram, male sheep [<OE ramm]; to wean [OE wenian]

, Script L15;
akne, Script R258,
aknem, Script R306?
aknesem, Script
akneo (aknev),
Script R49;
akni, Script Z990,
Z1153, Z1792
agnina, K85

amlarasah, śuktam
x ocat (Croatian)
vocat (Belarusian)
etiķis (Latvian)
oţet (Romanian)
aksos, ξύδι, xdi (Greek)
katsakh (Armenian)
uthull (Albanian)


finegr (Welsh)
fnagar (Irish)
fonag (Scott)

vinaigre (Fr.)
 wine (Hittite)

aks, Script OU-3


b, hamrhe,
with (Persian)
ertad, with (Georgian)

sa (Croatian)
z (sa), from, with
ar (Latvian)

cu (Romanian)
kanssa, -lla, kera, luona  (Finnish-Uralic)

mazi, me,
with (Greek)
հետ, het (Armenian)
me, n ann e,
sipas, n lidhje me,
nga (Albanian)


a, chyda, efo,
chan [gan], gyda,
wrth, with (Welsh)
gant [ganin, ganit,
gantan, ganti,
ganimp, ganeoc'h,
ganto ou gante], with (Breton)
con (Italian)
avec (French)
with, QADU
 along with (Hittite)

with [<OE with]

ad, Script J48

phalakaḥ, shield, buckler
DhAla [n], shield;
carman [n], skin,
leather, hide, shield

separ, shield;
panh ddan, to
shield (Persian)
itsavs (Gerogian)

tarca [f], shield (Belarus)
čyt, shield (Belarusian)
tit,shield (Croatian)
vairogs (Latvian)
kilpi, suoja  (Finnish-Uralic)

σκέπη, skpi, ασπίδα, aspda shield; προστασία, prostasia protection
aegis, shield (Greek)
vahan (Armenian)
scut, mbroj, ruaj, mburoj, shield; mbroj, ruaj, to, shield (Albanian)

aegis-idis [f]

sciath, shield (Irish)
thi, shield (Scott)
[f], astalch [f],
tarian-au [f] (Welsh)
scudo [m], shield;
difesa [f], defense
bouclier, shield
target <
OFr. targe, light
shield]; (French)

aegis, shield
[English target <OFr. targe, light shield]; buckler

AEKiS, Script Z40

x x x x x x
Aesacus, son of Priam by Arisbe who prophesied destruction of Troy
x x x x Aequi-orum, people of central Italy x x AECIH, J34-1
dwapara (Dwarpa Yupa, Bronze Age)
ბრინჯაო, brinjao, ლითონის, litonis (Georgian)
бронза, bronza, метал, mietal (Belarussian)
bronza, metal (Croatian)
bronza, metāls (Latvian)
pronssinen, metalli-
brontzos μέταλλο, mtallo (Greek)
բրոնզե, bronze, մետաղական,
metaghakan (Armenian)
bronz, metal (Albanian)

aes, aeris, bronze, metallum
cr-umha, bronze; miotail, metal (Irish)
efydd, bronze; metel (Welsh)
bronzo, bronze; metallo, metal (Italian)
bronze, mtal (French)
bronze, metal
AES, DM-6; see ais
x x x x x x Aph, goddess
AF, XS-5 (see APH)

Rtu [m], epoch;
kAla, age, era, period of time of ruler, k
ālah, age, epoch, yugam age, epoch


zarvan, age;
vm, dowre,
epoch (Persian)
modis, age, ეპოქა, epoka (Georgian)

прыйсці, pryjsci, age, эпоха, epocha, epoch (Belarusian)
epocha, viek, age
dob, age, epoha, epoch  (Croatian)
vecums, age,
laikmets, epoch, (Latvian)
aikakausi, epoch, epookki, epoch (Finnish-Uralic)

εποχή, epoch (Greek)
darashrjan (Armanian)
epok, epoch, mosh, age (Albanian)

aetas-atis [f], age, of human life, either a lifetime or a time of life, age

teacht, age, Aga, epoch (Irish)
tighinn, age, epoch, epoch (Scott)
[m], age
bloaz, age (Breton)
agio, [m] ease,
comfort, time (Italian)
ge [m], age, period, epoch (French)

age [<Lat. aetas], epoch?

age (AbE), Script R248, R334
ages (AbES), Script R661


h, hn, al, oh!
oh! (Georgian)

ой!, Oh!  (Belarusian)
Ak! (Latvian)
vai niin! (Finnish-Uralic)

Ω!  O! (Greek)
oh! (Armenian)

ai, oh!, interjection
of grief

o, och, ow! (Welsh)
ahi, ah!, aha! ouch! oh! (Italian)
Oh! (French)

interjection, oh!

ai, Script Z530,
TC71, TC127,|
TC260, Au55, Au71, BS21, XE-9

x x Ajax (Romanian) Αϊάς, As (Greek)

Ajax ajax (Italian)
ajax (French)
Aifas (AIFAS), VA-1, DC-1, DC-3

viha, air, sky;
dyupatha [m], the
air, heavenly path               

vaya [-]m. air; atmosphere; vayu, a Yazad presiding over the atmosphere (Avestan)
hav, bd, vy,
air (Persian)
sahaero (Georgian)
паветра, pavietra, air (Belarusian)
zrak (Croatian)
gaiss (Latvian)
ilma (Finnish-Uralic)

αέρας, aeras (Greek)
օդը, ody (Armenian)

aer, aeris [m],
the lower air, the atmosphere
aerius [aereus]-a-um, lofty, person's name

aer (Irish)
air (Scott)

, awyr
aria, air; tune
air, air

air [<Gk aer]

airon, (AIRVN) L12

ka.nsya; lohaja, adj.
made of copper or
iron; tAmrica, adj.
made of copper;
tAmra [n], copper or
copper vessel; kaMsa
brass vessel;
, āram, bronze, ayas, metal, iron

mes, copper;
berenj, brass
spilendzis, copper, ბრინჯაოს, brinjaos, bronze, სხვა, skhva, metal (Georgian)

медзі, miedzi, copper, бронза, bronza, bronze (Belarusian)
, brass
miedz [f] copper,
varijan, copper;
bakar, copper, bronza, bronze (Croatian)
kasaje, brass; umha, brass (Baltic
var, copper, bronza, bronze (Latvian)
pronssi, bronze,  kupari, metalli, copper (Finnish-Uralic)

prountzos, brass;
brontzos, bronze (Greek)
pghndzi, copper, բրոնզ, bronz, bronze (Armenian)
e bakrit, copper;
kazan, bronz, bronze

aes, aeris

as copar, copper, cr-umha, bronze (Irish)
umha [m] brass, bronze, copar; air
copper (Scott)
[m], copper;
efydd [m], bronze,
copper, brass

rame [m] copper;
bronzo [m] (Italian)
cuivre [m], copper;
bronze [f], bronze (French)

copper [<Lat
Cyprium (aes)
metal of Cyprus],
bronze [<Ital. bronzo]