Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases with Indo-European cognates

09.14.18 Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases– Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):




Etruscan_Phrases

Indo-European Table 1, Part 2


 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)

This table has Indo-European, Hurrian, Georgian (Kartlevian), Latvian (Baltic) and Finnish (Uralic) selections. We have colored words that may be related among the various languages/families. The coloring provides an unusual view of the mix of the cited languages.




Table 1, Section 1A: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan.  Note: colors indicate possible relationship among words.

Sanskrit

Avestan & Armenian

Slavic & Baltic

Greek & Albanian

Latin

other

English

Etruscan


,

kas, api, that, although

ka, kahe, who,
(Avestan)
ke, ce kasi, who;
ke, kodām, which; ce,
kodām, ānce,
what (Persian)
ვინ, vin, who,
რომელიც, romelits’, which, რომ, rom, that,  რა, ra, what (Georgian)
ave-, who (Hurrian)


chto, pron. who;
cyj, pron. whose
sto, pron. what
(Belarus)
хто,
chto, who, што, što, what, that, які, jaki, which (Belarussian)
tko,who, da, that
, što, what, koji, which (Croatian)
ka, what (Baltic
Sudovian)
kurš, who, ka, that,
kas, which, what (Latvian)
kas, who, which, tai, that, , what (Lithuanian)  care, who, which, ce, what, acea, that (Romanian)
Kuka, who, että, that, mitä, what, joka, which (Finnish-Uralic)



ο οποίος, o opios, who, οι οποίες, oi opoķes which; ti, puios, which; poia, poio, what, ότι, óti, that (Greek)
ով, ov, who, որը, vory which, ինչ, inch’, what, որ, vor, that (Armenian)
kush, who, which Ēfarė, what,  , that (Albanian)


qui, who, which quae, any, some, who, which, what,  quod, that, which, quid est, what





 

a, who, which, sin, that, Cad, what (Irish)
cņ, who, , what, 
sin, that (Scott)
pwy, sawl,
a, who, what pa, a, which; a, hwnnw (honno) that; sydd, which hwn (hon), this; beth, what (Welsh)
chi, who; ce, che,
quello, quella, cio, that, quale, which, che cosa, what (Italian)
qui, who, lequel, cette, that which,  quelle, what (French)
kuse, Tocharian
kuis, who,kās, this,
apā-,apa-as, that, he, she, it,
that
apās, that (Hittite)


who? which, what (interrog.)
whoever,
whichever


ca, Script N74, Q468, Q488, Au35, BS-9, Au36, Au67, L-3, LS-3, XM-9, Script N74,, Script N74,
Q468, Q488, Au35;
BS-9 (probably is what)



cai, Script R87

parirakṣaṇa, guarding, protecting, a protector
saMvRta, concealed, kept secret, cautious;
yat, yatati, -te
, to join, connect, unite; take pains, be cautious or careful; prayatnavant assiduous, careful: prayatna, zealously, diligently, carefully

āgāhi, ehtiyāt,
caution [n];
āgāhānidan, to
be cautious
(Persian)
სიფრთხილით,
sip’rt’khilit’, caution (Georgian)

асцярожнасць, asciarožnasć, caution (Belarusian) asciarozznasc,
caution, care,
prudence (Belarus)
Oprez, caution (Croatian)
piesardzība, caution (Latvian)
varovaisuus, caution (Finnish-Uralic)


Προσοχή, prosochi,
profylaxi,
proeidopoio,
caution (Greek)
զգուշություն,
zgushut’yun, caution (Armenian)
maturi, kujdes, caution,
paralajmėrim, njeri argėtues,
caution (Albanian)


caveo, cavere, cavi,
cautum


rabhadh, caution (Irish)
rabhadh, caution (Scott)
gochelgarwch [m]
wariness, caution
(Welsh)
cautela, caution [f], attenzione
(Italian)
mise en garde; faites attention, be careful avertir
(French)


to be on one's
guard


cave (ca8e),
Script Q162
caver (ca8er), Script
Q232

CAF_, (cau-. caf-)? Script ZA-4




 
rASTrabhedin [m],
rebel
; pratyucchri,
virodhakṛt
, to rise against, revolt,

rājadrohaṁ karoti, to  rebel




აჯანყება, ajanqeba, to revolt, აჯანყება,
ajanqeba, revolt (Georgian)


бунтаваць, buntavać, to revolt, паўстанне, paŭstannie, revolt (Belarusian)
na pobunu, to revolt, pobuna, revolt (Croatian)

bunt, buntowac
sie, powstanie,
rewolta, revolt
(Polish);
sacelties, to revolt, sacelšanās, revolt (Latvian)
să se revolte, to revolt, revoltă, revolt,  cabra, revolt, oppose in the case of a horse (Romanian)
ylösnousemukseen, to revolt, kapina, revolt (Finnish-Uralic)



να εξεγείρουν, na exegeķroun, , to revolt, περιστροφή, peristrofķ, revolt (Greek)
ապստամբություն,
apstambut’yun, to revolt, վերածնունդ, veratsnund, revolt (Armenian)
pėr tė revoltuar, to revolt, revoltė, revolte (Albanian)


deficio-ficere -feci
fectum, to do less than one might, to fail; revolt, rebel, to fail

rebello-are, to rebel
tumultuari, revolt


chun éirķ amach, to revolt, réabhlóid, revolt (Irish)
gu ar-a-mach, to revolt, ar-a-mach, revolt (Welsh)
gwrthryfela, to revolt, gwrthryfel, revolt (Welsh)
rivoltare, to revolt
(Italian)
révolter, cabrer, to buck, to revolt
(French)







to rear, to shy, to buck, to revolt (from L. revolvo-volvere-volvi-volutum, to roll backwards, to go over again);

kabro (ka8rv),
Script Q162;
cabro (ca8rv), Script
Q232


avaguh, to cover, hide, conceal;
guNth, guNthayati, to veil, conceal, hide, cover; chada, pp. channa, to cover, veil, hide, conceal, keep secret


kur, nābinā,
tārik, blind, adj.
xik, hide;
penhān kardan,
to hide (Persian)
timeri, timari, dark (Hurrian)
დამალვა,
damalva, to hide, ბრმა, brma, to blind, ბნელი, bneli, to darken (Georgian)


chavac, kryc, to
hide; slapy, adj.
blind (Belarus)
схаваць,
schavać, to hide, цямнець, ciamnieć, to darken, сляпой, sliapoj, blind (Belarusian)
sakriti, to hide, slijepima, to blind, zatamniti, to darken (Croatian)
uz akli, to blind, slēpties, to hide,  pasliktināt, to darken (Latvian)
tehdä sokea, to make blind, piiloutua, to hide, tummenna, to darken (Finnish-Uralic) 


κάνει τυφλή, kįnei tyflķ, to make blind; tyfli, blind, να τυφλωθεί na tyflotheķ, to blind grilia, tyflono, blind; κρυβω, kryvo, to hide (Greek)
կույր, kuyr, to blind, թաքցնել,
t’ak’ts’nel, to hide, մթնել, mt’nel, to darken (Armenian)
fsheh, mbaj tė
fshehtė, zhduk, fut,
to hide; verboj,
qorroj, to blind
(Albanian)


caeco-are, to make blind or dark
celo-are, to hide






a cheilt, to hide, to blind, dall, chun dorchadas, to darken (Irish) gus falach, to hide, gu dall, to blind, gu dorchadas, to darken (Scott)
celu, to hide, conceal, cloak, dissemble;
cuddio, to hide,
conceal, cloak, mask; dirgelu, to secret, conceal, hide; llechu, to
hide, shelter, lurk,
skulk; dallu, to blind, dazzle, daze (Welsh)
nascondere, to hide, accecare, to blind, oscurare, to darken (Italian)
cacher, to hide, conceal, aveugler, to blind, assombrir, to darken (French)


blind, ksā- (Tocharian)
ule->
 hide, conceal (Hittite)





to make blind?
hide? darken


cace, Script M8
x x x x x x see ca8e above
CAF_, Script ZA-4



x

x

x

Chiana Valley, betwen Sienna and Perugia


x

Chaina, place name, Chiana Valley :
Caina, Caino? Captured by Numicius 468 B.C.


Chaina (↓aina), Script AB-1;
Caina, Script NC-3

x x cais, apricot tree (Romanian) x Caius = Gaius, abbrev. C, a Roman praenomen, f., Gaia; port of Caieta x Gaius, name
Cais, Script MA-2











ucchedanIya, adj. to be cut off; anuccho, to cut open, cut up
nas-, nāśayati, to destroy
mārayati
, to kill animals 




 

boridan, cidan,
zadan, to cut
(Persian)
ცემა,
ts’ema, to beat,მოკვლა, mokvla, to kill, შემცირება, shemts’ireba, to cut down, სასაკლაო, sasaklao, to slaughter (Georgian) 

біць,bić, to beat, зарэзаць, zarezać, to slaughter, забіць, zabić, to kill, ссекчы, ssiekčy, to cut down (Belarusian)
scinac, sciac, cut
off, cut down
(Belarus)
na klanje, to slaughter, smanjiti, to cut down, ubiti, to kill, pobijediti, to beat (Croatian)
kaušanai, to slaughter, Sist, to beat, samazināt, to cut down, upurēt, to sacrifice (Latvian)
teurastukseen, to slaughter, tappaa, to kill, kaataa, to cut down, lyödä, to beat (Finnish-Uralic)




σε σφαγή, se sfagķ, to slaughter, να θυσιάσει, na thysiįsei, to sacrifice niko, ypertero, ktypo, beat; kobo, tomi, cut; (Greek)
զոհաբերելու համար,

zohaberelu hamar, to sacrifice, սպանել, spanel, to kill, ծեծել, tsetsel, to beat (Armenian)
pėr tė sakrifikuar, to sacrifice, pėr tė therur, to slaughter, pėr tė vrarė to kill, pėr tė rrahur, to beat godas, rrah, godit,
fishkullon (era),
farkėtoj, perziej
(brumė), lodh,
mundoj, to beat;
kadencė [muz.]
(Albanian)


caedis-is, cutting down, slaughter, killing; pers. slain (L. caedis-is; 3rd Decl. Acc. -em>im); Context: of sacrifice of he-goat]


)













a mharśa, to slaughter, kill, don chlub, to club, a ķobairt, to sacrifice, cóiste, coach caedence, caedence (Irish)
marbhadh, to slaughter, kill, gu cluba, to club, airson ģobairt, to sacrifice, coidse, coach,  (Scott)
lladd, to kill, slay,
slaughter, cut; toli, to reduce, cut, deduct; torri, to break, cut, facture, hack, hew, crop, dig, coedio, coach (Welsh)
ridurre, cut down, macellare, to slaughter, battere, to beat, uccidere, to kill, cadenza [f], cadence, rhythm (Italian)
tuer,  to kill, slaughter, couper, to cut, battre, to beat, cadence [f], cadence (French)
kuēnzi, to kill,
tuhhus->
 cut off, separate,
harnink->
 destroy

kuērzi, to cut
sēr kuēn->
 kill, strike
(Hittite)


of slaughter, killing (re: a sacrifice)


caitim, Script Z674

acchānu, to call out to; zabda [m], sound, cry, noise, call, word, speech, sacered syllable Om, name, title;
zabdaM kR raise
the voice, call aloud;
AzAvaNa [n], call


bāng zadan,
xāndan, kardan;
farāxāndan, to
summon
(Persian)
დარეკვა,
darekva, to call, ასახელებს, asakhelebs, to name, გამოძახება, gamodzakheba, to summon (Georgian)


заклікаць, zaklikać, to summon, назве, nazvie, to name (Belarusian) klikac, kliknuc, to
call; nazyvac,
nazvac, call, name
(Belarus)
nazvati, to name, zvati, to call, pozvati, to summon (Croatian)
zvanīt, to call, izsaukt, to summon, nosaukt, to name  (Latvian)
soittaa, to call, kutsua, to summon, nimetä , to name (Finnish-Uralic)


για να καλέσετε, gia na kalésete, to call,ονομάζω,  nomįzo, να καλέσωo, na kaléso, to summon, to name, στο χαλάζι, sto chalįzi, to hail
(Greek)
զանգել, կանչելու համար,
zangel, to call, kanch’yelu hamar, to summon, անունը, anuny, to name (Armenian) per te thirrur, to call, summon, pėr tė pėrmendur, to name, bėrtas, ftoj, thėrras, thirrje, bisedė, call;
bej thirrje, thėrras,
thėrres,  summon
(Albanian)


calo-are


a Glaoigh, to call, thoghairm, to summon, ainm a thabhairt, to name (Irish)
a 'gairm, to call, gus a ghairm, to summon, gus ainm ainmeachadh, to name (Scott)

galw, to call, name, dub, convene, hail (Welsh) chiamare, gridare,
convocare, richiamare
(Italian)
appeler,
convoquer
(French)



kāka- (vb.)  [B kākā-].) (Tocharian)
harti, (hittite)





to call [<ON
kalla], summon, name


CAL, Script Z1408;
CaLA, Script Z463,
Z540, Z1408;

CaLa
, Script K46,
AH-7;
KALA, Script L38,
N149, Q737, R542;

KaLaS
, Script N533;
KaLE, Script R114;
KaLV, Script Q369,
Q388, R56, R108,
R121, R133, R150,
G-1


binduka, drop;
cyut, cyotati, to drop, sprinkle'
gal, galati, pp. galita, drip, drop, fall, vanish, pass away, gAlayati, cause to drop, liquify, melt

ceke, āviz, [n], cekidan, to drop (Persian)
kud-, kut-, to fell (Hurrian)
დავარდნა,
davardna, to drop, დაცემა, dats’ema, to fall, შემცირება, shemts’ireba, to decrease, გაქრება, gak’reba, to vanish (Georgian)

puskac, to drop;
upadak [m], fall,
drop, collapse
(Belarus)
выпусціць,
vypuscić, to drop, падаць, padać, to fall, для памяншэння,
dlia pamianšennia, to decrease, знізіць, znizić, to lower (Belarusian)
smanjiti, to lower, decrease, pasti, to fall, ispustiti, to drop (Croatian)
krist, to fall, nomest, to drop, samazināties, to decrease (Latvian)
pudottaa, to drop, pudota, to fall, vähentää, to decrease  (Finnish-Uralic)



να πέσει, na pései, to drop, fall, να μειωθεί, na meiotheķ, to decrease, stagona, afino, ptosi, drop
(Gr
eek)
ընկնել,
ynknel, to fall, թողնել, t’voghnel, to drop  նվազեցնելու համար,
nvazets’nelu hamar, to decrease (Armenian)
pėr t'u ulur, to decrease, lower, tė bjerė, to drop, fall
pakėsohem, ulem,
zvogėloj, to
decrease; ul, zbres,
pakėsoj, poshtėroj,
vrenjtet, lower
(Albanian)


deicere, to drop

disgyn, to descend,
alight, dismount, light, fall, drop, devolve, let
down;
gollwng, to
drop, loose, let go,
absolve, discharge,
dismiss, leak (Welsh) chun titim, to drop, fall, a shliocht, to descend, a laghdś, to decrease (Irish)
gus tuiteam, to fall, drop, a dhol sģos, to descend, gus lłghdachadh, to decrease (Scott) diminuire, to decrease, far cadere, to drop
calare, to fall (Italian)
diminuer, to decrease, abandonner, to drop,
tomber, to  fall (French)


kārpa- (vb.) 1.  [B kārp-],descend
(Tocharian)


to lower, strike,
descend upon,
decline, set,
drop, decrease


KALI, Script Q360; (See CAL, KALI above;

KALI, Script Q360; (See CAL, KALI above, calo-are; possibly 1st Pers. Ind. Perf. 1st Pers. single calā́vī  or Conj. Pres. 3rd Pers. Single, calet)





kaṭhina (f.  = callous)
kiṇakṛta


მძიმე წებოვანი,
mdzime tsebovani, hard skinned (Georgian)


цяжка лупінай,
ciažka lupinaj, hard skinned (Belarusian)
tvrda koža, hard skinned (Croatian)
cieta āda, hard skinned, grūti, hard (Latvian)
greu, hard, tare jupuită, hard skinned (Romanian)
kovaa nahkaa, hard skinned (Finnish-Uralic)



σκληρό δέρμα, skliró dérma, hard skinned (Greek)
ծանր բծերը,

tsanr btsery, hard skinned (Armenian)
e vėshtirė i skinnuar, hard skinned (Albanian)



callosus, hard skinned, solid

craiceann crua, hard skinned (Irish)
craiceann cruaidh, hard skinned (Scott)
croen caled, caled, hard (Welsh)
callosita
, callous,  (Italian)
calleux, callous, hard(French)

name? callous,
hard skinned?


calos (calvs),
Script M-1




koṣṭhaḥ, chamber  vezman, dwelling, house,


khoḍakaśīrṣam, arched roof, vault, nikuJja, thicket,
bower, vault; nAka, celestial vault,
heaven, sky;
nabhastala [tala, place, like the palm of the hand] celestial vault; apavAraka, bed chamber; bhUmigRha,
an underground


sardābe, gonbad,
sandog, vault,' otāq, xābgāh, kade, chamber
[n], (Persian)
პალატა,
palata, chamber, სარდაფით, sardap’it’, valut (Georgian)


камера, kamera, chamber (Belarusian)
komora, chamber (Croatian)
kamera, chamber (Latvian)

grobowiec,
piwnica,
sklepienie, vault;
izba,
komora,
pokoj,
sala,
chamber (Polish)
cameră, chamber, seif, vault (Romanian)
kammio, chamber (Finnish-Uralic)


θάλαμος - Δωμάτιο,
thįlamos - domįtio, chamber, θόλος, thólos, vault (Greek)
պալատը, 
palaty, chamber, պահոց, pahots’, vault (Armenian)
kube, kupolė, kupė qiellore, qemer, kėrcim, zgavėr [anat.]
dhomė [polit.], dhomėz [anat.], chamber
(Albanian)


camera-ae, chamber


seomra, chamber, bóthair,vault (Irish)
seņmar, chamber, sneachda, vault (Scott)
llofft, vault, siambr, chamber, beddgell (oedd],
vault, catacomb,
cell (oedd-au),  ystafell (oedd),
chamber (Welsh)
camera, room,
chamber
(Italian)
camériste, chamber
maid (French)


kurekār (n.masc.)  [B kwrakār], house with vaulted roof (Tocharian)


vaulted chamber
[<Lat.
camera
ae
], vault?

CaMaReM,
Script M-74


zvas, zvasiti, zvasati,
te, blow, bluster, hiss, whistle, snort, breathe, sigh; lap, lapAta (-te),
chatter, prate, talk,
lament, wail;
kaj,
kUjati, -te
, make
inarticulate sounds,
cry, sing, moan, groan




nāle, groaning,
sigh; nālidan, to
sigh, groan
(Persian)
სამკაულები, samkaulebi, jeweled, ძვირფასი ქვა, dzvirp’asi k’va, jewel, შვებით, shvebit’, sigh (Georgian)







jencec, moan
(Belarus)
каштоўны камень, kaštoŭny kamień, jewel каштоўнасцямі, kaštoŭnasciami, jeweled, стагнаць, stahnać, moan  (Belarusian)
dragulj, jewel, ukrašen, jeweled, stenjati, moan (Croatian)
dārgakmens, jewel, jeweled, sērot, groan (Latvian)
bijuterie, jewel, geamăt, moan (Romanian)
jalokivikoristeinen, jeweled, helmi, jewel (Finnish)






κοσμήματα, kosmķmata, jeweled, thrino, bogko, bogkito,
stenagmos, moan
(Greek)
զարդեր,

zarder, jeweled, խոնավություն, khonavut’yun, moan (Armenian) kėrcitje, rėnkim,
ofshamė, groan;
rėnkoj, ofshaj, to
groan; pėshpėrit, to
sigh (Albanian)


gemmatus-a-um,
adorned with jewels;
gemitus-us [m], a sigh, groan, groaning





seoda, jeweled, mengerang, groan (Irish)
seudan, jeweled, geal, moan (Sc