Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases with Indo-European cognates
10.18.11 Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):






Etruscan_Phrases
Indo-European Table 1, Part 10

 by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)




Etruscan_Phrases

 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)







Table 1, Section 1E: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.

Sanskrit

Avestan & Armenian*

Slavic, Baltic & Romanian

Greek & Albanian

Latin

other

English

Etruscan

ta, tad, he, she, it, this that; ya ta, whoever, anybody;

tvá, thy, your


azâne to, at, adj.,
azâne to [n], thy; azâne somâ, your, adj. (Persian)

dawna forrma, thy (Polish)
TA, thy (Romanian)

sas (Greek)
jot, yt, jote, yte,
tënd, thy
(Albanian)

tuus (singular); vester (plural)

dy ('th) (Welsh)
tuo, tua, tuoi, tue (Italian)
ta, adj., [f], thy, your (French)

thy, your

ta, Script Z1334, Z1397, N357, Q290, Q320, Q326, Q671, Aph-3, TC61, S-18, Au34, XB-42, XJ-21

tuam, tvam

somâ, somârâ,
you, pron.
(Persian)

pan, pani, ty, wy,
you (Polish)
te, you (Romanian)

eseis, esy, you
(Greek)

ti
, ju, teje [prej], , njeriu, pron. you (Albanian)

tu, you Nom.
tui, you Gen.
tibi, you Dat.
te, you Acc.
te, you, Abl.

chi (chwi), chwithau, dy ('th), eich ('ch), ti (Welsh)
te, you, to you (Italian)
te, you, to you, to
thee, to yourself
(French)

you, to you

TE Script M45, N184, N294, N453, Q15, Q17, Q25, Q42, Q46, Q209, Q283, Q521, Q551, Q671, R41, R54, R59, R76, R173, R188, R212, R229, R270, R339, Au39, L15, BS-7

tuam, tvam?

azâne to, at, adj.,
azâne to [n], thy;
azâne somâ, your, adj. (Persian)

pan, pani, ty, wy,
you (Polish)

eseis, esy, you
(Greek)

ti, ju, teje [prej], , njeriu, pron. you (Albanian)

vos, vestri, vestrum, vobis, vos, vobis  etc., plur.

chi (chwi); chwychwi,
pron. you yourselves

(Welsh)
vos (Italian)
vous (French)

you, plural,
possessive?

Te, Script AO-4, XB-31, XF-4, TC46,TC61, TC71, TC108, TC170, TC201, TC260, TC298, TC327, K74, K86, AP-4, Au90, N230, N349, N404, Q806, R17, R116, R124, R258, R306, R359, PL-6, SM-4, Au-2, Au92, L24, L53 XB-31

x

somâ, somârâ,
you, pron.; azâne to, at, adj., azâne to [n], thy; azâne somâ, your, adj. (Persian)

pan, pani, ty, wy,
you ; pan sam, sie, siebie, sobie, ty sam, yourself
(Polish)
ŢI, you Romanian)

esy o idios, monos sou, o eaftos sou
(Greek)
ti, ju, teje [prej], , njeriu, pron. you (Albanian)

tibi, 2nd person
personal & reflexive,
Dat., you

chi (chwi), chwithau,
dy ('th), eich ('ch), ti
(Welsh)
ti, you, to you,
yourself (Italian)

you, to you,
yourself

TI, Script Z84, Z105, Z300, Z572, Z880, Z945, Z1386, Z1770, Z1818, K79, AG-8, AK-7, TC41, TC46, Au85, BT-17, Au84, PC-5

x

somâ, somârâ,
you, pron. azâne
to, at, adj., azâne to [n], thy; azâne somâ, your, adj. (Persian)

panski, twoj, wasz, your (Polish)
TEU, old Romanian for your

juaj, tënd, yt, i
njeriut, tipik, your, pron. (Albanian)

tu, 2nd person pers. & reflex., Nom., you;
tui, 2nd person pers. & reflex. Gen., you

chi (chwi), chwithau,
dy ('th), eich ('ch), ti
(Welsh)
tu, pers. pron. you,
thou, sing.
tuo, tuoi, adj. poss.
your, thy, yours, sing. pl. (Italian)
tu, pers. pron., you;
toi, pers. pron. you,
possessive;
ton, poss. adj. [m] (f. ta, pl. tes) your, thine (French)

you, your

tu (TV), Script Z656, TC161, TC108, TC170, TC201, N149, N160, N230, N244, N254, R212, R314, R370, R394, R426, R447, R459, R521, R530, R596, R607, R619, R633, R653, N417, N522, N582, N748, Q51, Q66, Q74, Q95, Q107, Q171, Q217, Q224, Q273, Q311, Q351, Q406, Q442, Q460, Q754, Q899, R51, R70, R72, R128, R173, R188
thu (ΘV) , Script M78

tvaa, unto you;
tvaaM, to you;
tvai, with regard to thee

W-tun; E-Du. (Armenian)
tvêm [tûm], thou (Avestan)
somâ, somârâ,
you, pron. azâne
to, at, adj., azâne to [n], thy; azâne somâ, your, adj. (Persian)

tebe, tebi, ti,
vama, vas, vi

(Serbo-Croatian)
pan, pani,
ty, wy,
you (Polish)
ty [sing.], vy [pl.]
Belarus)
tu, thou (Baltic
Sudovian)
tu (Baltic
Lithuanian)

eseis, esy (Greek)
tri, ju,
teje, te,
njeriu (Albanian)

tu, ta, te, tibi

chi (chwi), chwithau,
dy ('th), eich ('ch), ti
(Welsh)
agaibh, chugad, to you, s.; sibh, ye;
té [f], t', thy; tu and tù, tus, thusa (Scott)
da,
te (Breton)
ta, tu, toi, te,ton, tes
(French)
tu, tuo, tuoi, vi (Italian)
tu, thou (Tocharian)
tuk (Hittite)

you, to you

tu (TV), TE,
Te
, See above

vaH

tava [tûm], of
thee, thwa [-]
thwat [tûm]
(thee) thwat
[tûm]
ve (Avestan)
azâne somâ, your, adj. (Persian)

panski, twoj, wasz, your (Polish)
jusun, your
(Baltic-Sudovian)

dikos sas
(Greek)
juaj, tënd, yt,
injerint, tirik
(Albanian)

tibi

chi (chwi), chwithau, dy ('th), eich ('ch), ti (Welsh)
bhur, bhur n- (Scott)
da (Breton)
ve (Italian)
ta, tes, votres,
vos (French)

your, yours

ti, ta? See above

bhArman, support,
board, table; paTTakan [f], plate, tablet, cloth, bandage, document; phalaka, adj. result, advantage, halaka [n], tablet, board, a
wooden bench, palm of the hand, shield

miz,xân, xorâk,
table [n];
taxte,
lowhe, tablet [n]
(Persian)

tabletka, tablica,
tablet (Polish)
TABLĂ, sheetmetal, board, blackboard (Romanian)

trapezi, bazo sto
trapezi, table;
chapi, pinakida,
tablet
(Greek)
tryezë, tavolinë,
tryezë, e shtruar,
ushqim,
tabelë,
shesh, rrafshnaltë,
table [n] (Albanian)

tabella-ae [f], tablet, flat board, document, letter, record

bord-ydd-au [f], table, board; tabl-au [m], table; tafle-nau-ni [f],
table, list, leaflet
(Welsh)
tabella [f] table, list
tavola [f] tavolo [m], table, board, plate (Italian)
table [f] (French)

table, tablet, board [<OE bord]

table (TA8LE),
Script Q107

x x x x x x Taei, name?

Taei, Script XA-8
Taeia, Script XJ-5
x x x x x x Tafos, Taphos, name?
TAFOS (TAFVS), Script XA-5
x

x

x

x

x

x

Tages, Etruscan
god of boundaries

Tages, Script N320,
N353, N444, N660;
Q863, R278, R607

x x TAIE, he/she cuts (Romanian)
x secare, caedere, to cut
taglio, cut, tagliare, to cut (Italian)
tailer, to cut (French)
Taie, name? TAIE (See ATAI, Hades) Script XV-1
pUy, pUyati, to
become foul or putrid, stink; [f], dirty, foul, timid, shy [n. m.], dirt,
timidity, shyness

nâpâk, cerkin,
palid, adj., palid
[n], foul (Persian)

faul,
niedozwolony,
nieprzepisowy,
wstretny, foul (Polish)

epithetikos,
prosblitikos,
offensive (Greek)
i pistë, i ndyrë, i
urryer, i zënë
[oxhak], i
turpshëm, i
padrejtë, adj. foul
(Albanian)

taeter-tra-trum

afiach, adj. unwell,
unhealthy, sick, dirty, foul, unwholesome,
noxious; amhur
(amhurol, amur), adj., impure, foul, unclean; budr
(budur), adj. dirty, filthy, nasty, vile, foul; aflan, adj.
unclean, polluted, foul (Welsh)
sporco, immondo,
torbido, fedtido,
infetto, brutto, adj. foul (Italian)
immonde, souill
é,
odieux, infâme,
bourbeux [water], adj. (French)

foul [<OE ful], hideous, offensive,
abominable

TAITeR,
Script Z421

sama, adj., even,
smooth, parallel; like, equal to

conin, yekconin,
ingune, such, adv., pron.; mânand,
hamânand, yeksân, adv. mânand, yeksân [n], similar (Persian)

podobny, taki, ten, such (Polish)

omoios, similar;
tetoios, such
(Greek)
kaq, i
tillë, such,
adj. (Albanian)

talis-e, of such a kind, such

cyfryw, adj. like, such cyffelyb, adj. like, similar (Welsh)
tale, adj., pron. (Italian)
tel, telle, adj., pron.
(French)

such, like, similar, same, such a one

tal, Script TC161

vairayAtanA [f],
requital of enmity,
retaliation; pratikAra [m], requital, retaliation,
counteraction, remedy; pratikriyA [f], requital, retaliation, defence, remedy

tuzes, retaliation
(Persian)

ktos, someone
(Polish)

antekdikisi (Greek)
shpagim, shpagë,
retaliation; dikush, ndonjëri,
dicka, someone,
pron.(Albanian)

talo-onis [f], retaliation

ad-daledigaeth-au
[m.f.], ad-daliad-au
[m], retribution,
recompense,
retaliation; rhywun
[m], someone (Welsh)
taluno, adj. pron.
someone (Italian)
talion [m], retaliation, (French)

retaliation?
someone?

talena, Script
Q39, Q41

yātana, requittal, retaliation
x x x tela-ae, design, loom;
talio-onis, (f), retaliation
tallire, to sprout (Italian)
pousser, germer, to sprout (French)
design, loom, to sprout? retaliation?
tali, Script AC-10
talio (TALIV) Script  PC-7
nakha, talon, claw, spur of a cock
x x x talus-i talone, heel (Italian)
talon, talon (French)
talon, heel talos (TALOS) Script  XL-1
tamah, tamas.h
(darkness, m.)

tars, bim [n],
tarsidan, to fear;
târik, adj. [n], dark (Persian)

potamniti (Serbo
Croatian)
ciemnosc, darkness, gloom;
przygnebienie,
gloom; hanba,
hanbic znieslawic,
dishonor (Polish)
dumas, dark;
tamsa, gloomy
(Baltic-Sudovian)
TAMAN, so, so far, to such a degree (Romanian)

atimia (Greek)
errësirë, dishonour,
trishtim, mërzi,
gloom (Albanian)

temero-are

caddugo, tywyllu, to darken, obscure;
anharddu, to defile,
disfigure; amharchu, to
disrespect, dishonour,
disparage; caddug [m], gwyll-ion [m], prudd der [m], gloom;
tristwch-au [m], sadness, sorrow (Welsh)
oscurare, to darken;
disonore, to dishonor;
timore [m], fear, dread
(Italian)
obscur, sombre, adj.
dark; obscurcir, noircir, to darken; déshonneur,
to dishonour;
timoré, adj. timorous; triste,
sadness, gloom
(French)
neku, to get dark,
tamas, to torment
(Hittite)

to darken [<OE
deorc], defile [<Fr. défiler],
dishonour [<Lat.
honoro-are, to
honour]

tam, Script L35
tamera, Script PN-2
tamir, Script L84;

x

x

x

x

x

x

Tanaquil, Etruscan
Queen; an expert in divination, wife of Tarquin Priscus – the Elder, 5th king of Rome

Thanchuilus,
Thanchoilos,
(THANKVILVS)
,
Script A-1

x x TAPAE, ancient location in Dacia where the dacians fought the Romans x x x Tapa, name?
Tapa, Script XM-5
Astara [m], spread,
couch, carpet, cushion, coverlet

pârceye pardeyi,
pardye qâlicenemâ,
tapestry [n]; qâlice [n], rug; qâli [n], fars kardan, to
carpet (Persian)

dywan, carpet
(Polish)

chali, carpet; chali, tapetsaria, tapestry (Greek)
sixhade,
tapiceri,
tapestry [n]
(Albanian)

tapeta-ae [m]

brycan (brecan)-au
[m.f.], blanket, rug
carped-au-i [m], carpet hugan-au [f], cloak, covering, rug (Welsh)
tapppezzeria [f]
(Italian)
tapis [m] (French)
tabahaza, air (Lycian)

tapestry [<Gk.
tapes, carpet],
carpet [<OItal.
carpita], rug [<of
Scan. origin]

tapis, Script Q893

viha, air, the sky;
abhra [m], rain-cloud,
sky; AzA [f], space, region, quarter of the sky;
Varuna, sky-god

ashnô [ashan]
(Avestan)
âsmân, sepehr,
sky [n]; âsmân,
behest, minu,
heaven [n];
abr,
miq, cloud; havâ, bâd,
vây, air [n]
(Persian)

niebiosa, niebo,
sky (Polish)
niabiosy, nieba,
(Belarus)

ouranos, sky,
heaven;
Uranus,
sky-god;
aeras,
yfos, air (Greek)
qiell, parajsë
(Albanian)

caelum-i, heaven, sky, air, climate

awyr [f], wybr-au [f], sky, ffurfafen
nau [f],
nwyfre [m],
firmament, sky;
celi
[m], heaven, god
(Welsh)
athar;
nèamh, sky,
heaven; speur (Scott)
cielo
[m]; nube [f],
cloud (Italian)
ciel [m]; nuage [m],
cloud (French)
tabahaza (Lycian)
nepis, sky (Hittite)

sky [<ON sky,
cloud],
air [<Gk. aer], heaven [<OE heofan]

tapis? Script Q893

tavAgA, strong, huge (bull); saurabheya, [m,
f.], bull, cow.

gava, cow, bull
staora [-] m. beast, draft animal, steer
(Avestan)
gâve nar, bull [n] (Persian)

byk, samiec, bull (Polish)
lanikis (Baltic
Sudovian)
TAUR, bull (Romanian)

tavros, psemata
(Greek)
dem, mashkull,
bulë (Albanian)

taurus-i [m]

tarw (teirw) [m], bull (Welsh)
tarbh [m] (Scott)
toro [m] (Italian)
taureau [m] (French)
wawa, a bull (Hittite)

bull, [<ON boli]
steer [<OE steor]

tar, Script Z12, Z145, M-1, BS-10?

tavAgA, strong, huge (bull); saurabheya, [m,
f.], bull, cow.

gâv, mâdegâv, cow (Persian)

krowa, zastraszyc,
cow;
byk, samiec,
bull
(Polish)
ŢARINĂ, field (Romanian)

agelada, cow;
tavros, psemata
(Greek)
lopë, cow
(Albanian)

taurus-i [m], bull;
vacca-ae [f], a cow;
campus, field

tarw (teirw) [m], bull buwch (buchod) [f],
cow (Welsh)
taurino [m] bull-like; mucca [f], cow; campo, field (Italian)
taureau [m], bull; vache [f], cow; champ, terrain, field  (French)

cow [<OE cu]-like

Tarina, Script
N173, N184; see
Note (5)

x

x

x

x

Tarquini-orum, [m.pl], an old town in Etruria,
whence came the
Tarquin family,
including two kings of Rome

x

the Tarquins, a
gens of the early kings of Rome that originated in Etruria

Tarkie, Script DL-10;
Tarkonos, Tarkunus
(TARKVNVS)
,
Script DL-6; see Note (4)

tim, timyati, to
become quiet; il {ilati}, come, {ilayati}, be quiet, not budge; rati
[f], rest, repose, quiet, comfort, pleasure, sexual intercourse;
tuS,
tuSyati
, to become
quiet, satisfied,
pleased

ârâmes, âsâyes,
xâmusi, quiet [n]; ârâm, xâmus, biârâmes, still, adj. (Persian)

cichy, cisza,
lagodny, skromny, spokoj, spokojny,
uspokoic sie, quiet; cichy, milczacy, silent (Polish)
TACI! be silent!(Romanian)

siopilos, siopiros,
tacit; boubos,
afonos, silent
(Greek)
qetësoj, resht, to be quiet; heshtje,
qetësi, quiet [n]
(Albanian)

taceo-ere-itum

distewi, to be silent,
calm, quiet; tawedog,
adj. silent, taciturn,
reticent (Welsh)
tacere (Italian)
tacite, adj. tacit
(French)

to be silent [<Lat.| sileo -ere -ui], still [<OE still], quiet [<Lat. quietus -a-um]

tas, Script Z1168, Au32, XM-2
tasi, Script XM-6

RNin, adj., indebted, obliged [m],. a debtor;
saRNa, adj., having
debts, indebted; RNa, adj., guilty [n], guilt, debt, obligation,
RNadhAray, to be
indebted to

bedehkâr budan,
bedehi dâstan, to
owe (Persian)

byc dluznym,
zawdzieczac, owe; odwrocic, zmienic kierunek, divert
(Polish)

ektrepo,
diaskedazo, to
divert (Greek)
devijoj (Albanian)

debeo-ere -ui-itum; to owe

deveho-vehere-vexi-vectum, to carry away or down; pass. devehi (ac. navi) to sail

dylu, should, ought to, owe, infatuate;
dyled -ion [f],
debt, obligation,
debit, duty (Welsh)
devere (Italian)
devoir (French)

to owe [<OE ule] to carry away or down

teb (te8),
Script N95;
tebe (TE8E), Script
N139, Q224
tebra (TE8RA),
Script Q500, R474;
tevre (TE8RE), Script N638;
tebri (TE8RI), Script
N676

dhvan, to cover; khan, khanati, -te, to dig, dig up, delve, bury; dhA, dadhAti, dhatte; dadhati, -te,to
put, set, lay, think of, cause, bear, set upon (esp. the fire), hide, conceal, cover, cause to be laid in, shut up

nikañte [ni-kan],
to bury;
daxma [-], grave (Avestan)
puses [n],
pusândan,
pusidan, to cover; bexâk sepordan, to
bury (Persian)
be-dap
(Yagnobian)

pochowac,
pogrzebac,
zakopac, bury;
celowac,
koperta,
okladka,okryc,
okrycie, oslonic,
pokrowiec,
pokryc, pokrycie,
polisa, powlec,
przkryc, cover
(Polish)
enkapt, to bury
(Baltic-Sudovian)

thabo, to bury;
kalypto, kalypsi,
to cover (Greek)
varros, gropos,
fus, rras, to bury;
maskim, mbulim,
cover; mbuloj, to
cover (Albanian)

tego, tegere, texi,
tectum
, to cover, bury
fossa-ae [f] ditch,
trench, channel;
decoro-are, to
embellish, beautify, adorn;
tectorius i-um, plaster, stucco,
fresco,

anhuddo, to cover,
engulf; gordoi, to
overspread, cover
toi, to cover, roof, thatch (Welsh)
teagair, va. collect,
supply, cover,
protect, shelter;
teagar [m] provision;
teagaisg, va. to
teach, instruct;
teagasgair [m]
teacher (Scott)
sepillire,
sotterrare, to bury;
coprire, celare, to
cover;
mascherare,
vt. to mask;
fosse
[f] pit, hole, grave
tacere, to say nothing, be tacit (Italian)
enterer, to bury;
couvrir, to cover;
masquer, to cover,
conceal;
fosse [f]
pit, hole, trench,
grave, lion's den;
tacite, adj. tacit
(French)
tekan, takama, ground
(Hittite)

to cover [<Lat.
cooperire, to cover completely], to
bury [<OE
brygan], to conceal, to mask [<Ital. maschera], to
shield, protect;

tec, Script Z111,
Z122, Z214, TC266
tek, Script XB-15
THeK (ΘeK), Script M74,
THeKSI (ΘeKSI), Script S-1
tece, Script AL-8,

x

x

x

gypsos,
asbestono,
sobatizo, plaster
(Greek)

decuria-ae [f], a body of ten men, jurors;
tectorius-a-um, plaster, stucco

x

name, Tekeias Tekories?

Tekeias, Script Q-1
Tekories (TEKVRIES)
Script Q-2
name:
Tekeias Tekories; part of introductory phrase beginning with semenies..

zubhay, zubhayati, to adorn; maND,
maNDayati, to deck, adorn, embellish, glorify; Rc, arcati, to beam, shine, sing, praise, honour, adorn

ârâyes, âzinbandi,
âzin, decoration
[n];
ârâstan,
pirâstan, to adorn (Persian)

dekorowac,
odnowic, ozdobic,
decorate (Polish)

kosmo, stolizo, to
adorn;
diakosmo,
to decorate (Greek)
zbukuroj, stolis, to adorn;
dekoroj,
zbukuroj, to
decorate (Albanian)

decoro-are, adorn
;

arwisgo, to enrobe,
array, invest, decorage
(Welsh)
addurno, to adorn,
decorate, grace,
illuminate (Welsh)
decorare, adorn;
(Italian)
décorer (French)

to embellish
[<OFr. embellir],
adorn [<Lat.
adorno-are]

tecum (TECVM), Script
Z1615, Au13; see Note (1)

dasha

dasa [dasan] (Avestan)
dah (Persian)

deset (Serbo
Croation)
ZECE, ten (Romanian)

deka (Greek)
dhjetë (Albanian)

decem

deich, ten;
deicheamh, tenth
(Scott)
deg-au [m] (Welsh)
dek (Breton)
dieci (Italian)
dix, (French)
s'äk, s'ek
(Tocharian)

ten [<OE tien]

tecum (TECVM)?
Script Z1615, Au13
tikam (ticham)?
R286

AdhRSe, to attack
or defy;
dhRS,
dhRSNoti, dharSati
, to be bold, dare or
venture, defy, attack, injure, violate, conquer

mobâreze xâhi [n]; bejang xândan, sârânidan, to
challenge (Persian)

przeciwstawiac sie, stawiac opor, defy; rzucic wyzwanie,
wyzwanie,
challenge (Polish)

apsifo, to deny;
tulmo, prokalo,
proklisi, to
dare, challenge
(Greek)
sridoj, to challenge
(Albanian)

provoco-are

beiddio, to dare,
presume, defy (Welsh)
deò (Scott)
sfidare (Italian)
défier, to defy,
dare, challenge;
défi, [m] (French)

to defy [<OFr.
desfier], challenge, dare [<OE durran]

teu (TEF) Script
AN20; re:
deviv (OE, Script K136
(probably
revio – (L.
reveho-vehere -vexi
-vectum) ride back, sail back– the last three words of K136)

iisha divi, in heaven divya devaaya, divine
deva, devaM,
God
devataa, devi
, goddess; Bhaga, among the dieties of the highest
sphere; sometimes
another expression of god in the Rig Veda.

daêum [daêva],
god, devil
daêvi [daêvî],
female daêva
ahura, ahura
mazdâ [-]
(Avestan)
Xodâ, Izad,
Parvardegâr, God (Persian)

bog, god bogina,
goddess
(Serbo-Croatian)
bog, bostwo, god
(Polish)
boh [m] (Belarus)
deivas, God,
father of light
(Baltic-Sudovian)
ZEU, god (Romanian)

Zeus, light;
théos, a god
(Greek)
nyjni,
zot,
perëndi
(Albanian)

deus, divus,
numen
divinum
[m], di [dii],
divi
, numina;
caelestes, supers,
dea, diva [f]

celi [m], heaven, god; duw-iau [m], god, diety dofydd [m]; duwies-au
[f], goddess, nymph
(Welsh)
dia, Dia, a god, God; diadhair, divine (Scott)
doue (Breton)
dio [m], god; dea [f] goddess; (Italian)
dieu [m], dieux, pl. god; deesse [f], goddess (French)
divi, a god,
divNali, divine (Lydian)
zbali, a deity,
zusi, Zeus (Lycian)
siwali, a diety, siu,
siun
, a god (Hittite)

god [<OE god], goddess

tei, Script
Z1326, Z1562, Z1853, Z1869, TC170, N453, Q50, Q422, R459, K20, Aph-4, OM-8, L20, K18, XA-11
teia, Script XJ-9
teiva (TEIFA), Script PL-30
teis, Script Z1243, K23, K118, M19, Z1265, BT-9
teim, Script Z1265
(probably
teis)
tev (TEF) Script
AN20 (see
tev
above);
see Note (10)

kInAra, m., cultivator
of the soil' akRSTa,
untilled soil; devaloka, the world of the gods;
talaloka, the nether
world; ASTrI, [f]
fireplace, hearth;
kSam [f], the earth;
bhUr, earth

anghu [m], earth
(Avestan)
zamin, xâk, bum, earth [n]; xâk, soil [n]; zamin, xoski,
bum, land [n]
(Persian)

zemilja (Serbo
Croatian)
grunt, swiat,
uziemic,
uziemienie,
ziemia, earth; kraj, lad, ladowac, teren,
wysadzic na lad,
ziemia, zlapac
rybe, land; brud,
brudzic, gleba,
plama, plamic, soil kraj, wies, country (Polish)
ziamla [f.]
(Belarus)
ŢOL, warp, loom (Romanian)

choma, earth
edatos, soil;
xira,
apobibasomai, land (Greek)
botë, planeti,
taban, earth; toke,
dhe, soil; farkë,
shtëpi, hearth
(Albanian)

tellus-oris [f], earth; tela-ae [f] a web in weaving, a warp, a spider's web, a loom; telum-i, a missile, dart, javelin, spear, beam of light, focus-i [m],
fireplace, hearth;
terra-ae [f], earth, land, soil, country

daear-oedd [f], earth, ground, soil, mold; llawr (lloriau) Note (11) [m], floor, ground,
earth aelwyd-ydd [f], hearth, fireside, home (Welsh)
teallach [m] hearth,
fireplace, smith's
forge (Scott)]
focolare [m] hearth;
tela [f] linen, cloth, telaio [m] loom; terra [f], earth, ground, soil
(Italian)
foyer [m] hearth,
fireplace; tel, telle, adj. such, like similar; pron.
such a one;
terre [f],
earth, ground (French)
tekan, takama, ground
(Hittite)

earth [<OE eorthe], soil [<Lat. solium
-i
, a chair of state, throne], land [<OE
land], a country
[<LLat.
contrata],
the
world [<OE
weorold], ground

tel, Script TC170
telos, telus (telvs),
Script N123

x x x telieotis, finisher (Greek)
x x Telatos, name? telatos (TELETVS) Script XB-28

acalā, the earth

x DEAL, hill (Romanian)
x tellus-oris, earth, ground
terra-ae, f. earth, land, ground

terra (Italian)
terre (French)
earth, ground telos (TELVS) Script N123  (See terra)
x x x x x x Telamonos, "son of Telamon," used with the name of Ajax Telmonos (TELMVNVS), Script CN-2

yugaMdhara,
the pole of a carriage;
apacāy, to fear,  respect,  honor

qotb, Tir, tir, nây, pole [n] (Persian)
d.ang, pole, stick (Pushtu); dangal, pole, stick
(Yagnobian)

biegun, polak,
polka, slup,
tyczka, pole
(Polish)
TEAMĂ, fear (Romanian)

polos, passalos
(Greek)
timon, shtyllë,
shtizë,
pol
(Albanian)

temo-onis [m], pole; timere, to fear

cledr-au [f], pole, post, pile, rail, palm; pawl
polion [m], pole, stake, pile; polyn-polion [m], pole, picket; trostan-au
[f], pole (Welsh)
timone [m] rudder,
pole of a cart ; tema, timore, fear, to fear (Italian)
timon [m], pole, pole of a cart; craindre, redouter, to fear (French)

pole [<Gk., palus, stake] the pole of a
waggon

tema (K96)
TeMIA, Script Au-3, Au-90 (probably Te MIA, your month of May or Mia, mother of Mercury

bhR, bibharti, hold,
wear, carry, keep,
convey, transport,
maintain, support;
tan, tanoti, tanute,
last, continue,
protract,compose,
make;
dharati, -te,
dhArayati, -te
,
to hold, support, bear, carry on, possess

dar- geredhmahi
[garedh], to hold
(Avestan)
negâh dâstan, dârâ budan, pâydâr budan, to hold dâstan, vâdâr kardan, nâgozir, budan, to have
(Persian)

drska, posed
(Serbo-Croatian)
held, ladownia,
obchodzic, sadzic,
trzymac, uchwyt,
uwazac, zawierac,
hold; brac,
took,
zabierac, take;
posiadac, possess
(Polish)
trymac, v. imp.
(Belarus)
ŢIN, I hold; ŢINE, he/she holds; TÂNĂR, young male;  TÂNĂRĂ, young female (Romanian)

krato, katecho,
hold; diatiro,
diafylasso,
preserve; pairno,
piano, take;
(Greek)
mendaj, to hold,
take; besoj, to
hold; kuptoj,
arrij, to take;
kam, zotëroj,
posedoj, to hold,
possess (Albanian)

teneo,tenere, tenui,
tentum possideo
sidere- sedi -sessum
, to have, possess, hold

cadw, to keep,
preserve, save, hold, conserve, guard, detain,
retain, observe (Welsh)
beir, va.irr. beirsinn,
take hold of, bring,
produce, catch;
teannaich, va. tighten, close, draw or crowd together (Scott)
tenere (Italian)
tenir (French)
ta, to take (Hittite)

to hold [<OE
healdan], possess, keep [<OE cepan,
to observe],
preserve,
seize
[<OFr. seisir],
occupy [<Lat. occupo-are],
manage [<Lat.
manus, hand],
remain [<Lat.
remaneo-manere
mansi -mansum, to remain behind],
bring [<OE bringan]; take [ON taka]

ten, Script TC46, F-3
tena, Script Z1553, Q671, L49
tene, Script K104;
tenin, Script AL-8
teno (TENV),
Script Q893;
TENeR, Script
TC-7, TC19, TC46,
BS-18
tenara, Script BT30
TENeRAS, Script VP-15

mahant, great, big,
large, tall, extensive, many, intensive, thick,
dense, abundant, high, noble, greatness, might; bahala, adj., thick, dense, wide, large

cagâli, anbuhi,
tarâkom, density
[n] (Persian)

gesty, zwarty,
dense (Polish)

pyknotita, density;
sympyknono,
condense (Greek)

tensa-ae [f]; a car to carry the gods; denso-are, and denseo-ere, to
make thick, condense,
press together

dwys-ion, adj. dense, grave, deep, intense trwchus, adj. thick (Welsh)
denso, adj. thick,
densita [f], density,
thickness (Italian)
dense, adj. thick;
densité [f], density,
denseness,
compactness, fullness,
substance (French)

a car on which
mages of the
gods were carried; dense,
density7

tens, or tensitim
Script N53, PQ-16
then (
ΘEN), Script, PQW-16

iS, iSati, eSati,
advance, strive,
tend towards

kasidan, kas
dâdan, gostares
dâdan, to stretch
(Persian)

elastyczosc,
naciagnac, napiac, naprezyc, przeciag,
rozciagnac,
rozciagniecie,
rozpietosc, stretch proba, probowac, usilowac, attempt
(Polish)

tentono, exteino
to stretch (Greek)
hap, tërheq,
shtru, satriqem,
tendos, tejkaloj
stretch (Albanian)

tendo, tendere,
tetendi, tentum
and
tensum; extendo
tendere -tendi -tensum
,
to stretch

estyn, to extend, reach, pass, hand, stretch, lengthen, prolong; taenu, to spread, expand, stretch (Welsh)
estendere, to stretch; attentato, to
attempt (Italian)
tenter, to attempt;
tendre, to stretch;
happer, to snap up, to snatch, to waylay
(French)
pangarija, to spread
(Hittite)

to stretch [<OE
streccan] spread
[<OE spraeden],
to direct, present, to pitch, direct one's course,|
tend, attempt happen [<ON happ]

tenta, Script Q283;
tento (tentv)
Scripts Q360, Q369,
Q713, Q813, Q863,
R394, R521

taptR, adj., making hot or warm; tap, tapati, to be warm or hot, burn; shine, castigate one's self, do penance, suffer

garm, xungarm,
girâ, adj. warm
(Persian)

cieply, grzac,
rozgrzewac,
serdeczny, warm
(Polish)

thermos,
thermaino, warm
(Greek)
mbaj ngrohtë,
ngroh,
gëzoj,
ngrohem, to be
warm (Albanian)

tepeo-ere, to be warm or luke warm

di-oer, adj. warm;
twym, adj. warm, hot,  sultry;
gwresog, adj.
warm, hot, fervent,
fervid, ardent (Welsh)
tepido, adj. luke warm; tepore [m] warmth (Italian)
tiède, chaud, adj.
(French)

warm [<OE
wearm]? an initial,
TP, like CN?

TeP, Script L71

tris, trikRtvas, adv.,
thrice, three times;

âthritîm
[âthritya] thrish
,
thrice (Avestan)
sebarâbar, selâ,
segâne, threefold;
sevorn, sevorni,
yek sevorn, adj.
[n], third
(Persian)

trzeci, trzecia
czesc, third
(Polish)
tirtas, third
(Baltic-Sudovian)
TREI, three (Romanian)

treis fores, thrice;
trito, third (Greek)
triherë
(Albanian)

ter

trydydd (trydedd) [f], adj. third; tri (tair) [f], three (Welsh)
treas; trian, a
third part (Scott)
terzo (Italian)
troisième (French)

three times,
thrice [<OE thriga]

ter, Script Q311,
R49, R619 see
numbers

dharaNi avaniM, earth; rup [f], the earth; ku [f], earth, soil, land; kaTT, kaTTayati, to heap up the earth about, make a hill; kSam [f], the earth; bhUr, earth

zam [-] dah'yunãm
[dah'yu];
anghu
[m], earth
(Avestan)
zamin, xâk, bum, earth [n]; xâk, soil [n]; zamin, xoski,
bum, land [n]
(Persian)

zemilja (Serbo
Croatian)
grunt, swiat,
uziemic,
uziemienie,
ziemia, earth; kraj, lad, ladowac, teren,
wysadzic na lad,
ziemia, zlapac
rybe, land; brud,
brudzic, gleba,
plama, plamic, soil kraj, wies, country (Polish)
ziamla [f.]
(Belarus)
zeme (Baltic
Lithuanian)

gi, choma (Greek)
tokë, terra
(Albanian)

terra-ae

daear-oedd [f], earth, ground, soil, mold; llawr (lloriau) [m],
floor, ground, earth;
turio (turi), to root up, burrow, delve, nuzzle (Welsh)
terra [f] (Italian)
terre [f], terrer, to earth up, to clay, to burrow, dig in (French)
tekan, takama, ground
(Hittite)

earth,[<OE eorthe] and, ground [<OE grund], soil, country, land region; burrow [<ME borow]

tera, Script N349,
N357, N363
teri, Script Z1216
terim, Script Q806

sImA [f], boundary,
limit; valaya [m],
bracelet worn by men and women, circle, enclosure, boundary, circum-ference; adj.,
encircled or
surrounded by; setu
[m], binding, fettering ,
band, fetter, dam, weir, bridge, boundary, barrier, limit; maryAdA [f], limit, boundary, frontier, coast, shore; velA [f],
end-point, limit,
boundary, shore

marz, boundary
[n]; andâze,
kenâre,
karân, limit [n] (Persian)

granica, boundary granica, limit,
limitowac,
ograniczenie,
ograniczyc, zakres, limit (Polish)

orio, periorismos,
periorizo, limit;
synoro, boundary
(Greek)
cak, limit [mat.],
[n], kufitar, adj.
limit; kufi, vijë
kufiri, boundary
(Albanian)

termino-are; terminus-i
[m], boundary; ora-ae, edge, rim, boundary

ffin-iau [f], terfyn-au [m], boundary, limit,
barrier, border, bound, frontier (Welsh)
termine [m], term,
limit, boundary;
fine [m], end (Italian)
term [m], term, limit; terminus [m], last stop fin [f], end (French)
erha, a boundary; irhai, to limit (Hittite)

limit [<Lat. limesitis [m], path, course, boundary line], boundary,
cairn [<ME carne, of Celtic origin, a mound set up as a
boundary],
finish

TERMeNES,
Script N206

zANa, f. grind, or
touchstone; peSaNa, m., f., grind-stone; piS,
pinaSTi (piMSati),
grind pound, rub,
crush;
ghRS, gharSati; likh, likhati (-te)v, to
scratch, furrow, slit,
draw, write, chisel,
form, smooth, polish

mâlidan, sudan,
sâyidan, to rub;
narm, hamvâr,
ravân, smooth, adj. sâyes, grind [n], ârdan, sâyidan, to grind (Persian)

nacieranie,
pocierac,
tarcie,
trzec
, wycierac,
zacierac, rub;
ground, mlec, ostrzyc, grind
(Polish)

malakos, leios,
malakono, to
smooth (Greek)
ferkoj, prek, to
rub;
grit, bluaj, to
grate, lemoj, to
smooth (Albanian)

tero, terere, trivi,
tritum
, to whet,
smooth
tergeo-ere and tergo-ere, tersi, tersum

llyfnhau, to smooth,
level, plane;
crensio, to grind your teeth; malu, to grind, mince, chop,
smash, pound, mill
(Welsh)
lisciare, levigare, to
smooth (Italian);
lisser, splaner, to
smooth, to rub;
grincer,
to creak [porte], gnash [dents], to grate;
torchon [m] dish towel, wiper (French)

to rub [<ME
rubben], whet
[<OE hwettan], to smooth [<OE
smoth], to grind
[<OE grindan],
use up to wipe,
scour, clean;
level [<Lat.  libra, balance]

teros (tervs)
N349, ters
See
MvLAK

ghRS, gharSati, to
polish, crush, pound,
rub off; mRj, mArSTi,
mRSTe, to wipe,
clean, polish, rub,
stroke, adorn; likh,

likhati (-te), to scratch, furrow, slit; draw a line, write, delineate,
sketch, paint; nata,
adj., bent, curved,
rounded; masRNa,
adj., soft, smooth,
tender;
sama, adj. even, smooth, parallel; like,
equal to, the
same

pâlâyes dadan, jalâ
dâdan, to polish
(Persian)

dystyngowany,
rafinowany,
wytworny, refined
dobrze
wymieszany,
gladki, rowny,
spokojny,
wygladzac, smooth
(Polish)

malakos, leios, malakon, smooth;
rafinarismenos,
leptos,
exevgenismenos,
refined; gyalizo,
gyalisma, polish
(Greek)
i lëmuar, i pastër,
fin, i
rafinuar,
luksoz, i
përmirësuar, i
zgjedhur, refined,
adj.
lakonik, i
shkurtër, terse
(Albanian)

teres-retis, rounded,
polished, well
turned, smooth,
refined;
tergeo-ere and tergo-ere, tersi, tersum; tersus -a-um, clean,
neat, perfect

caboli, to polish,
furbish; coeth, adj. fine, refined, cultured, elegant;
ter, adj. clear,
refined, pure, fine
(Welsh)
terso, adj. terse,
polished;
lucido,
refined, polished; to
refine, polish,
raffinarsi
(Italian)
raffiner, to refine;
polir, to polish
(French)

refined [<Lat. finis,
end],
clean [<OE claene], perfect, smooth, terse [<Lat. tersus]
TERSNA possibly the name of a people; i.e., see RASNA

ters, or TERSNA Script Z530, TC28

tRtIya, adj., the third; adv., [n], thirdly, for
the third time

sevorn, sevorni,
yek sevorn, adj.
[n], third
(Persian)

po trzecie, thirdly
(Polish)
tirtas, third
(Baltic-Sudovian)

trito, third (Greek)
i
tretë, third
(Albanian)

tertius-a-um, third;
acc. n. sing.
tertium, for the third time;
abl.
tertio

trydydd (trydedd) [f], adj. third; tri (tair) [f], three (Welsh)
terzo, third, [m], adj., third (Italian)
trois, troisième [m],
adj. third (French)

third [<OE
thridda], for the
third time, thirdly; possibly three times a day

terti, Script Z1600
Z1644, Q551
tertie (or TER TIE), Script Q127
terto (TERTV),
Script Q871;
see numbers

kRt, kRNatti, to twist the thread, spin, {krtayati} weave; vA, vayati, -te, to weave, interweave, plait, compose hymns; tan, tanoti, tanute, to extend, stretch, spread, lengthen, spin out, weave, string the bow

bâftan, picidan,
tanidan, to weave (Persian)

tkac, wove, weave (Polish)
ŢES,
weave; ŢEŞI, you weave; ŢESEM, we weave (Romanian)

yfaino, to weave
(Greek)
end, thur, gjarpëroj, shpik, sajoj, to weave (Abanian)

texo-texere, textum

eilio, to weave, plait, sing, alternate;  gwau (gweu), to weave, knit; plwthu, ro plait, weave, fold, braid, mat; ystofi, to warp, weave, plan (Welsh)
tesere, to weave
(Italian)
tisser, to weave
French)

to weave [<OE
wefan], to
twine together,
compose

tes, Script Z1359,
AP-1;
tesi, Script Au46;
tesim, Script Z-1, Z-6? Z674, Z729
tesare, Script PN-3

vyay, -yati, -te, to
waste, squander,
expend;
khilI, to
waste, weaken,
become void of,
frustrated, fail; dhRS, dhRSNoti, dharSati, to be bold, venture,
attack, injure, violate, conquer, destroy, lay waste; mRd, mRdnAti,
mardati, -te, to
squeeze, crush, smash, destroy, lay waste

badzabân,
nâsezâgu, biâberu,
profane, adj.
boridan, cidan,
zadan, to cut
(Persian)

profanowac, profane (Polish)

spatalos, asotos,
waster (Greek)
fyej,
përdhos, to
desecrate;
përdhos,
përlyej, to profane; laik, jofetar,
profan, profane [n]
(Albanian)

deseco -secare
secui -sectum
, to
hew off, cut off;
tesqua [tesca] orum, n. pl wasters, deserts
profano-are, to profane or desecrate

digysegru, to desecrate
halogi, to defile,
profane, pollute,
deprave,
desecrate
(Welsh)
profanare, to desecrate;
perdere, to lose
(Italian);
profaner, to profane, desecrate;
perdre, to lose, waste, ruin
(French)

hew [<OE heawan]
off,
cut [<ME
cutten] off?
desecrate, profane,
waste [<Lat.
vastare, to make
empty]

tescam, Script
N139

dhA, dadhAti, dhatte; dadhati, -te, to put, set, lay, resolve, appoint, create, produce, keep, bear, unfold, exhibit

tarh kardan,
zamine kardan,
handâxtan, to
design (Persian)

model, projekt,
projektowac,
przeznaczyc,
wzor, wzornictwo,
zamiar, zamierzac,
design (Polish)
DESENA, to draw, to sketch (Romanian)

schedio, skopos,
schediazo (Greek)
bëj
plan, përcaktoj, cam qëllim, synoj,
bëj
projektin,
përpunoj,
konstruktoj,
vizatoj, skicoj, to
design;
plan, [n],
draft, draught,
plan, design, idea
(Albanian)

designo-are

arfaethu, to purpose, plan, intend, design,
destine; ynllunio, to
plan, design; dylunio, to design (Welsh)
disegnare (Italian)
desiner (French)

to design, draw
[<OE dragan],
designate

tesena, Script
N533, N563;
TESeNE, Script
K105, K115
TESeNS, Script K117

aparokSay, -yati, to
witness; vettR [m],
knower, witness; diz, dideSTi, dizati, -te, to point out, show, produce a witness, bestow, order, command, direct;
ahīnavādin, a witness capable of giving evidence

govâhi dâdan, to
testify (Persian)

dawac swiadectwo,
swiadczyc, testify
(Polish)

martyro (Greek)
jam dëshmitar,
kaloj, jetoj,
shoh,
dëshmoj, provoj, to witness (Albanian)

testor-ari

tystio, to attest,
testify, witness,
depose (Welsh)
testificare, to testify
(Italian);
témoigner, to testify, bear witness (French)

to bear witness
[<OE witnes],
give evidence,
make a will,
show [<OE sceawian, to
look at]

testre, Script
Q253, Q263;
testro (TESTRV),
Script N689, Q424,
Q767, R178;
see
martir

chadis [n], cover, roof, thatch; valabhI (-bhi) [f]; zIrSan [n], head

bâm, postebâm,
roof [n]; sar, head [n] (Persian)

dach, roof; czolo,
dyrektor, glowa,
glowica, kierowac,
korona, leb,
naglowek,
prowadzid
stac na czele, szef, head (Polish)
ŢEASTĂ, head (Romanian)

stegi, stegazo, roof
(Greek)
cati, kupolë, tavan, strehë, shtëpi, roof
(Albanian)

tectum, roof; caput
-itis
, the head

pen-nau [m], head,
chief, top, end; copa-u on [m], top, apex, crest, summit, head (Welsh)
tetto [m], roof; testa
[f], head; capo [m],
head, top, end (Italian)
toit [m], roof; tête [f], head; teter, to nurse (French)
harmahi, narsam, a
head (Hittite)

head [<OE heafod], roof [<OE hrof];
cap [<LLat. cappa]

tet, Script L13
teto (TETV)
, Script
Q202, R294

x x ZEU, god), TEU, old romanian for your (Romanian)
x deus, divus, di, divi, dea, diva
dio, dia (Italian)
dieu, dieux, deese (French)
god teo, teu (TEV) Script L33, CP28
teus (TEFS) Script AN-25 (see tei)
x x DIVIN, divine (Romanian)
x dius-a-um; adj. divinus divino (Italian)
divin (French)
divine tevens (TE8eNS) Script K22
x x TÂRÎ, to carry away by force), TÂRÎ, to carry away touching the ground (Romanian)
x deveho-vehere entraîner, to carry away (French)
carry away or down tevra (TE8RA) Script Q500, R474
tevre (TE8RE) Script N638
tevri (TE8RI) Script N676



dR, driyate, to regard, respect, mind; gaNay,
yati, to number,
calculate, count,
establish a value on, regard, care about; muT, moTate, to break
or pluck off, strangle, smother, kill; mr, marati, marate, die, depart from life, kill, slay, put to death



negâh [n],
negaristan, to
regard; kostan, to kill (Persian)


dotyczyc, odnosic sie, pozdrowienia,
przygladac sie,
spojrzenie,
szacunek, troska,
uklony, uwazac,
wzglad, zwracac
uwage, regard
(Polish)



frouro, fylasso,
froura, fylakas,
guard; theoro,
aforo, schesi,
prosochi, regard
nosokomos, trofos, paramana,
peripoioumai,
nostilevo, nurse
(Greek)
konsideroj, mendoj, lidh, quaj, këqyr,
marr parasysh,
përkas, vështroj, i
ngul sytë,
respektoj, to regard (Albanian)



tueor [or tuor] tueri, tuitus and tutus
, dep. and tueo-ere, to regard

ystyried, to consider, regard, ponder, contemplate, deem,
heed, attend; edrych, to look, behold, gaze,
inspect (Welsh)
guardare, considerare, valutare, riguardare,
concernere, to regard; osservare, vigilare, aspetare, to watch; (Italian)
tuer, to kill,
slay; veiller,
surveiller, to watch;
regarder, considérer,
concerner, to regard; guarder, to
guard (French)



to
look at [<OE
locian], regard
[<OFr. regarder],  watch over [<OE waeccan] to kill
[<ME killen]?



tua, (TFA)
, Script AH
tue, (TFE), Script
Z1021, Z1846;
tus (TFS), Script Z5;
turi (TVRI), Script
Z981

x x x thalassinos, of the sea (Greek)
x x Ralna, or Thalna, Etruscan goddess, Nemesis, mother of Helen; re: Gr. thalassinos, of the sea THALNA or RALNA (OALNA), Script DM-6, CX-2, DK-4, DN-5
x x x x x x Thane or Rane (Sc. Thane; OE. Thane, feudal lord); THANE or RANE (OANE) Script DK-2
x x x x x x Tanaquil, Etruscan Queen, wife of Tarquin the Elder, 5th king of Rome Thanchuilos (ΘANKVILVS) Script A-1
x x x x x x Tarnies, name of an augur? Tharnies ARNIES) Script PM-3
x x x x deus, divus, di, divi, dea, diva dio, dia (Italian)
dieu, dieux, deese (French)
god
thei (ΘEI) Script DA-6 (See tei)
x x x x tego, tegere x to cover, bury
THeK (ΘeK) Script M74 (see tec)
x x x x x x Themis, Gr. goddes of order, mother of seasons, order, justice, peace and Fates theme (ΘEME) Script Aph-6
x x x x x x unknown word, Athens? Thena, name? Theonoe, daughter of Proteus
Then (ΘEN) Script PQ-16
Thena (ΘENA) Script Aph26, Aph32  Script
x x x x x x Theseus, Greek hero These (ΘESE) Script CC-2
x x x x x x x thesi or theti (ΘESI) Script Aph-13
x x x x Thetis-idis or idos x Thetis, a Nereid, sea-nymph, mother of Achilles Thetis and Thethis (ΘETIS & ΘEΘIS) Script MM-3, MR-4, CQ-1, CR-1
x x x x Dia-ae x Thia, Titaness, mother of Eos; possibly Dia, mother of Mercury Thia (ΘIA) Script M45, M67, Au-1
x x ZI, day (Romanian)
x dies-ei, day; diu, by day; diutiuus, longer dydd (Welsh)
di (Scott)
day thie (ΘIE) Script AD-6 (see tie)
x x x x x x Theias, king of Assyria, father of Adonis Thieth (ΘIEΘ) Script DO-4
x x x x Thebae-arum x Thebes? Thipo (ΘIPV) Script PA-8
x x x x domus-us, house, home;
domo, domare, domui, domitum, tame, break in, conqueer
x x thomas (ΘVMAS) Script PD-2
x x x x Troianus-a-um x Trojans Thronei (ΘRVNEI) Script DA-7
x x x x x x Thorasi, name; Re: Doris-idis, wife of Nereus, meton., the sea Thurasi (ΘVRASI) Script AF-22
x x x x x x x thus, thos (ΘvS) Script M32
x x ŢI, you (Romanian)
x tu; te, accus; vos, tibi te, ti, toi (Italian)
te, to you (French)
you, or your ti (TI) script Z84, Z105, Z300, Z572, Z880, Z945, Z1386, Z1770, Z1818, K79, AG-8, AK-7, TC41, TC46, Au85, BT-17, Au84, PC-5

x

x

x

Maia

Dia-ae [f]

x

Dia, mother of Mercury?

Tia, Script K10;
Thia, Script M45

adga [m], stalk, stem, cane; taka, pron. stem;
vanaspati [m], tree (lit. lord of the wood), stem, trunk, beam, timber, the sacrificial post, the Soma plant

tane, mile, sâqe,
stem [n]; tirandâzi kardan, partâb kardan, vistan, to shoot (Persian)

lodyga, nozka,
pien, powstrzymac,
zatkac, stem
korzen, podstawa, root; akcja, gromadzic, pien, robic zapasy, rod,
sklad, zapas,
zasob, stock
(Polish)

stelechos, kormos,
stamato, anakopto,
stem; apothema,
parakatathiki,
apothikevo,
promithevo, stock; kormos dentrou, log (Greek)
kërcell, bisht, trung, fron, bisht
lule, rrënjë, stem
(Albanian)

stirps (stirpes, stirpis) stirpis [f], the stock or stem of a plant, shoot,
stock, source, root,
foundation

coes-au [f], leg, shank; [m.f.], handle, stem,
stalk; corsen-nau, crys [f], reed, stem, stalk, cane; paladr (pelydr) [m], ray, beam, staff, stem; gwrysgen, [f], stalk (Welsh)
ceppo [m] stump,
log, block, anchor,
chains; stelo [m],
stem, stalk (Italian)
tic [m] tic, twitch;
tique [f] tick, cattle
tick;
tige [f] stem,
stalk, tige; trunk,
shaft, shank, leg,
stock (French)
akistan, a branch;
tuwarsa, a rod, vine
(Hittite)

stem [<OE stefn, prow], shoot [<OE
sceotan], to
shoot forth;
stalk {<ME stalk]

tic, Script AF13;
tikam, Script R286;
TICNeR, Script
Z1359; see
tiga

divasa

asni [azan]
ayare [ayar-]
(Avestan)
ruz, day [n];
ruzâne, ruzberuz, adj., ruzâne, ruzberuz, adv.
daily (Persian)

dan (Serbo-
Croatian)
czasy, doba,
dzien, day (Polish)
dzien [m.]
(Belarus)
deina (Baltic-Sudovian)

mera (Greek)
ditë (Albanian)

dies-ei [m, f], day;
diu, adv. by day, for a long time, a long time ago; diutiuus, longer,
too long; superl.
diutissime

diwrnod-au-iau [m], day; dwthwn [m], day; dydd-iau [m], day (of the week) (Welsh)
di; là & latha (Scott)
deiz (Breton)
di, giorno [m] day;
diuturno, diuternus,
unrelenting
(Italian);
jour [m], day; diurne, adj. diurnas, day; journalier, adj. daily (French)
siwat, a day, daylight
(Hittite)

daytime, day [<OE daeg], period of
twenty-four hours

tie, Script
Z1216, Au-9, N453, R15, R114, R661, XP-4; PM-7, AF-21
thie, AD-6;
ties, Script AG-3, N312, Q263, R661, XA-20
tio, tiu,(tiv) Script
N404, R444, BS-7?
thyo (
ΘYV) Script M13

adga [m], stalk, stem, cane; taka, pron. stem;
vanaspati [m], tree (lit. lord of the wood), stem, trunk, beam, timber, the sacrificial post, the Soma plant

tane, mile, sâqe,
stem [n]; tirandâzi kardan, partâb kardan, vistan, to shoot (Persian)

lodyga, nozka,
pien,
powstrzymac,
zatkac, stem
korzen, podstawa,
root; akcja,
gromadzic, pien,
robic zapasy, rod,
sklad, zapas,
zasob, stock
(Polish)
TIJĂ, stem, shoot; TIJE, stems, shoots (Romanian)

stelechos, kormos, stamato, anakopto,
stem (Greek)
kërcell, bisht, trung, fron, bisht
lule, rrënjë, stem
(Albanian)

stirps (stirpes, stirpis) stirpis [f. rarely m.]the
stock or stem of a
plant, shoot, stock,
source, root,
foundation

coes-au [f], leg, shank; [m.f.], handle, stem,
stalk; corsen-nau, crys [f], reed, stem, stalk, cane; paladr (pelydr) [m], ray, beam, staff, stem (Welsh)
ceppo [m] stump,
log, block, anchor,
chains; stelo [m],
stem, stalk (Italian)
tic [m] tic, twitch;
tique [f] tick, cattle
tick;
tige [f] stem,
stalk, tige; trunk,
shaft, shank, leg,
stock (French)
akistan, a branch;
tuwarsa, a rod, vine
(Hittite)

stem [<OE stefn, prow], shoot [<OE
sceotan], to
shoot forth?

tiga (TIbA), Script Q117;
tige (TIbE), Script R339;
tigi (TIbI), Script R359

x

âhak, lime
(Persian)

gatunek drzewa
cystrusowego, lipa, wapno, lime
(Polish)
ŢIGLĂ, roof tile (Romanian)

asbestis, lime
(Greek)
gëlqere,
limon i
athët [bot.],
limonadë [bot.], bli
[bot.] (Albanian)

tilia-ae [f]

tigilo [m]; tigiloso,
tough (Italian)
tilleul [m] (French)

lime tree [<Ar. limah, lime]; lime = linden tree [<OE lind]

tiglo (TIbLV)), Script Q209, Q442, Q460

bhI, bhayate,
bibhetibhIra
, inspiring fear, freightening; ama, fear, terror; bhI, f. fear, horror at; sAdhvasa, perplexity,
perturbation, fear,
terror, timidity,
shyness.

tarsnâk, dreadful,
adj. tars, bim [n], tarsidan, to fear (Persian)

bac sie, lek,
strach, obawa, fear, dread (Polish)
bijusna, dread,
fear;
bijat, to fear,
dread;
tamsa,
gloom (Baltic-Sudovian)
TEMEM, we fear; TEMEAM, I feared; TEAMA, fear (Romanian)

fobos, fear (Greek)
druaj, trembem,
tmerromem
(Albanian)

timeo-ere, to fear, dread; tremo-ere, to tremble, quake; tremor-oris, [m], trembling, quaking

arswydo, to dread,
fear, shudder; ofni, to fear, dread, apprehend
(Welsh)
tiom, adj. soft, timid, fearful (Scott)
timore [m] fear, dread (Italian)
timide, adj. fearful;
trembler, to tremble
(French)
tamas, to torment
(Hittite)

to fear [<OE faer], dread [<OE dreaden, to fear], tremble, timid

timam, Script XC-6 timem, Script N123;
timo (TIMV) Script L59
See Script R88,
Phobia, possibly
the name of the god
Phobos

x

x

 TINĂ, mud (Romanian)

Zeus (Greek)
hyjni, zot, fuqi e
mbinatyrshme,
perëndi, god
(Albanian)

Jupiter (Jove)

Tannus, Tinnus,
Taranis
, Celtic god of thunder (Breton,
thunder, taran)

Tin, Tini, Tinia,
Etruscan supreme god, Roman Jupiter, Greek Zeus

Tin, Script Z78, Z103, Z300, Z880, Z945, Z999, Z1793, TC283, J39, M24, PL-33, PL-34
TiN, Script Z638,
Z1183, Z1359;
Tini, Script Z1097?
TC318, PL-16, PL-32
Tinia, Script DM-1, K94, CE-1, DH-1, DK-3, DN-3; See Note (12)

jhaN, jhaNati, to
tinkle; kvaN, kvaNati, to sound, hum, tinkle
ran, raNati, to ring,
sound, tinkle; ziJj,
ziGkte, to twang,
tinkle, warble

angostar, halqe [n], zang zadan, to ring (Persian)

arena, dzwieczec,
dzwonic,
dzwonienie, glos
dzwonka, krag,
obraczka,
pierscien,
pierscionek, rang,
ring; brzeczec,
brzeczenie,
dzwonic,
dzwonienie, tinkle (Polish)

daktylidi, palaistra,
koudounisma,
koudounizo, ring
(Greek)
fut në rreth,
rrethoj, kumbon,
qarkoj, vë unzën,
tingëllon, to ring;
tingull, tingëllim,
tingëllimë, ring [n] (Albanian)

tinnio-ire, to ring,
tinkle; to pay money

tinc-iau-iadau [m],
tinkle, jingle, clang, ring tonc-iau, f], tinkle, ring,
clash (Welsh)
tintinnare (Italian)
tinter, to ring, tinkle
(French)

to ring [<OE hringan], tinkle
[<ME tynclen],
pay money?

TINeS, Script Z439,
Z572; CA-1
TINIR, Script PL-14
TINiRS
, Script
Z522

aJji, adj., smearing,
slippery (also
{aJjiva3}); [m]
ointment, paint,
colour, ornament;
varcasa [n], light,
brightness, colour; kaS, kaSati, -te. to rub, scratch, hurt, destroy, rub in, dye; varNa, cover, lid, external appearance, colour,
dye, paint; udrin,
springy, wet

tar, xis, bârâni, adj. bârâni [n], wet (Persian)

zwilzyc, moisten;
barwnik, farba,
farbowac, dye;
kolor, odcien,
zabarwic, tint
(Polish)

bafo, bafi, dye;
ygraino, moisten
(Greek)
lag, bëj
cicin, njom, to wet; lag, njom, lagem, njomet, to
moisten;
lyej,
ngjyej, merr bojë,
ngjyros, ngjyroset,
to dye (Albanian)

tingo, tingere, tinxi, tinctum

llifo, to flow, flood,
stream, glide, emanate, grind, dye;
lliwio, to color, paint, dye
arlliwio, to color, tint, paint (Welsh)
tingere, to dye, paint, stain (Italian);
teindre, to dye, tint (French)

to wet [<OE waet], moisten [<Lat. mucidus, moldy], dye [<OE deah,
color],
color [<Lat. color (colos)-oris],
imbue,
tint [<Lat. tinctus]

tingus, Script N341

pratirUpa [n],
counterpart, image,
model; rUpay, -yati, to form, model, figure,
represent

nemune, gune,
type [n]; nemâye, peykar, kâlbad, figure [n] (Persian)

czcionka, druk,
pisac na maszynie, rodzaj,
typ, wzor,
type (Polish)
TIPĂ, type- f., ŢIPA, to cry (Romanian)

protthpo,
ypodeigma,
schediazo, model;
typos, dachtylografo,
type; arithmos,
eikona, morfi,
psifio, figure
(Greek)
lloj,
tip, model,
natyrë, soj, type
[n] (Albanian)

typus-i, a figure on a wall

math-au [m], kind,
type, sort; ffigur-au
[m.f], figure, type; teip-iau [m], type (Wesh)
tipo [m] type,
standard, specimen,
fellow, guy (Italian);
type, caractère [m],
(French)

figure [<Lat.
figura], type,
model [<Lat.
modus-i [m],
measure]

tipa, Script XA-30 tipe, Script R661 XS-3
tipes, Script R-6, R106

x

x

ŢIBLEŞ, mountains in Romania (Romanian)

x

deplexus-a-um, clasping

x

Name of Greek origin? Latin, Clasping?

Tiples Script FT-3

kal, kalayati (-te) &
kAlayati, to drive,
impel, carry, bear, do, make, cause, shake, agitate, cast, fling, seize, fasten; kSip, kSipati, -te, to throw, cast, send, reject, destroy, cast off

kases [n], kasidan, to pull; partâb kardan, rândan, andâxtan, to hurl
(Persian)

flung, rzucac, rzut, fling, hurl (Polish)
TRAG, I fling (Romanian)

trabo, pull; richno, riximo, boli, throw;
ekballo, ekchyno
me ormi, eject;
richno, peto, fling
(Greek)
hedh,
flak, vërvit,
vërvis, i lëshoj, to
hurl;
flakëroj,
përplas,
vërvitem,
plas, rras, to fling
(Albanian)

iacio-iacere -ieci
iactum, to lay, throw, cast, hurl, shed, scatter, utter; iacto-are, to throw, cast, toss, spread, scatter; fundo,
fundere, fudi, fusum, to pour, melt, cast; tracto-are, to drag

bwrw, to cast, shed,
fling, pitch, launch,
strike, suppose;
lluchio, to throw, fling, pelt, drift; taflu, to throw, fling, cast, hurl, heave, pelt (Welsh)
spandere,
versare,
to shed; fondere, to
melt;
tirare, to hurl
(Italian);
répandre,
verser, to
shed, scatter;
fondre, to melt;
tirer, to fling
(French)

to draw [<OE
dragan], pull [<OE pullian],
fling [<ME flingen, of Scand. orig.]
hurl [<ME hurlen], shoot [<OE sceotan], launch [LLat. lanceare, to
wield, a lance]

tir, Script Z969,
Z1789, K58, TC46;
tiri, Script L38; see
tra and Tirai, tiro

x

x

x

x

Tyrsenus

x

Tyrai, name, Tyrsenus, son of king Atys

Tirai, Script AM-2

x x x x tiro-onis x soldier, young, recruit tiro (TIRV) Script F-11

x

dârâyi, navâ,
xosbaxti, wealth
[n] (Persian)

bogactwo, wealth
(Polish)

ploutos, periousia,
wealth (Greek)
bollëk, pasuri,
kamje, pasje,
wealth [n]
(Albanian)

Dis, Ditis [m]; dis,
ditis
[from dives], rich, having or containing or
bringing wealth

aelaw [m], wealth; alaf oedd, elyf [m], herd of cattle, wealth; cyfoeth
[m], power, riches,
wealth; golud-oedd
[m], wealth, riches
(Welsh)
ricchezza,
prosperite [f] (Italian)
richesse, prospérité,
opulence [f] (French)

Dis, Pluto, god of the underworld;
the underworld;
bringing wealth

Tis, Script Q433, Q475, Z-5, Z206, Z1337, Z1345, TC150, F-4, XB-13, XJ-8, CP33
Tisim, Script Z1153

x

jodâyi, duri,
|gosixtegi,
separation [n]
(Persian)

indywidualny,
oddzielic,
oddzielny, osobny,
rozlaczyc, wzia
separacje, seperate
(Polish)

chorizo,
diachorizo,
choristos, separate
diafero, differ
(Greek)
i largët, larg, i
ftohtë, i thellë,
distant, adj.
dalloj, ndryshoj,
dallohem, grindem,
ndahem, në
mendime, to differ
(Albanian)

distro-are, to be
distant, apart, differ

amrywio, to vary,
differ, fluctuate;
gwahaniaethu, to
distinguish,
differentiate,
discriminate, differ
(Welsh)
distare, to separate,
divert (Italian);
distraire, to
separate, entertain
(French)

epithet following the name the goddess Aph, to
be
distinct [<Lat.
distinguo
stingurere -stinxi
stinctum
], apart
[<OFr. a part, to
the side],
separate [<Lat. separo-are]?

tister, Script Q453,
Q475

x

xodâyi, divine, adj. (Persian)

boski, cudowny,
duchowny,
wspanialy, divine
(Polish)

kathimerina, daily
theikos, divine
(Greek)
prift, teolog, divine [n]; i hyjnor, i perëndishëm,
qiellor, I shenjtë, i
zotit, divine, adj.
(Albanian)

diu, adv. by day; dius-a-um, divine, god-like; fine, noble, in the open
air

dwyfol-ion, adj. divine (Welsh)
divino, adj. god-like
(Italian);
divin, adj. god-like
(French)

god-like

tio, tiu (TIV), Script
M60;
tios, tius, (TIVS)
Script N738, HJ-3, PL-10 (See tie)
tiva  (TYFA), Script XJ-7
tivi (TIFI), Script AM-6

x x x x Tities-ium & Titenses-ium x Tities, one of the original tribes of Rome tite, Script DE-2
titem, Script PK-3

x

x

TITU, name (Romanian)

x

Tities-ium & Titenses-ium [m. pl.], one of the three original tribes of Rome; Titus-i [m],
Roman praenomen

x

name, Tito? Tities-ium

tito, titu (titv),
Script N738

x

x

x

x

x

x

abbreviation for Tini?

TN, Script Z638, Z1183, Z1359, AN51, L26, HA-1 – see TiN above

x x x x x x x TVCA through TVSK (See TUCA>> (Most of the "tu.." words belong in this section as "toca through tosk"

kRS, karSati, -te, pull, tear, bend (a bow), draw furrows, plow,
tug, extract, get
possession of,
overpower; vah,
vahati, -te, conduct,
carry (esp. an
oblation), draw wagon, guide horses, cause,
present a sacrifice

kesidan, keside
sodan, to drag
(Persian)

vu"ca, ru"cica
(Serbo-Croatian)
ciagnac, lyk, naciag,
pociagniecie,
przewaga,
szarpac,
szarpniecie
(Polish)
ciahnuc, v. imp.,
pull;
sarpac, v.
imp.,
sarpnuc, v.
perf., jerk, pull
(Belarus)
traukt, to drag
(Baltic-Sudovian)
TRAG, I pull, they pull; TRAS, pulled, pulling (Romanian)

trabo (Greek)
këpus,
tërheq,
shkel,
shkull,
zvarris, to drag,
pull; fërkim,
tërhenje, traction
(Albanian)

traho, trahere, traxi, tractum; tractus-a-um,
of speech, fluent,
flowing

dragio, to drag, tear,
mangle;
llusgo, to drag, draw, haul, lug, trail, crawl, lumber, (Welsh)
trazione [m] pull;
attirare, vt. to draw, to pull; tratta [f], pull, jerk; tratto [m], stroke, pull, jerk, stretch, passage, manner (Italian);
traction, pulling; tirer, to pull, drag, traité [f] stage, stretch, draft,
straight off (French)

to pull, drag [<OE dragan], pull violently, breathe, draw out, lug [<ME luggen, of
Scand. origin]
lengthen, draw
together, contract, draw, attract, derive, ascribe

tra, ScriptN324, N357, N428, Q388, Q837, R325, R511, TC46, L15
tras, Script Z1717;
tram, Script Z190;
traks, Script Z432;
trao, trav (TRAV))
Script Z272, Z1080
tre, Script N87, N294, N453, N469, N476, N505, Q15, Q21, Q29, Q40, Q46, Q127, Q767, R661, PQ-15, Q813, R437, R447, R521, R596, R14, R113, BT34 (See also tre, three)
tro (TRV), Script
N670, Q360, Q376, Q784, R195, R286, G19, AP-1, L22 (see
TRVINFI);
trom TRVM), Script
N700 (Suffix of pesentrum)

apadiś, to point out, pretend, betray, hold out as a pretext or disguise

gir andâxtan, low dâdan, to betray; sepordan,
vâgozârdan, dast
kasidan, to
surrender (Persian)

oszukac, zdradzic, betray; poddac sie, poddanie sie,
ustapienie,
surrender (Polish)

prodido, betray;
paradosi, paradido,
paradidomai,
surrender (Greek)
dorëzohem,
kapitulloj, jepem,
nënshtrohem, to
surrender; gaboj,
tradhtoj, shes, to
betray (Albanian)

trado [transdo] -dere-didi -ditum

bradychu, to betray;
ymroddi (ymroi), to
apply oneself, devote oneself, resign oneself,
surrender (Welsh)
tradire, betray
(Italian);
trahir, tromper
(French)

hand over, give
up,
surrender
[<OFr. surrendre],
betray

trati, Script R89, L15

tRtIya, adj., the third; adv., [n], thirdly, for the third time

se, adj. [n], three
(Persian)
erek, three
(Armenian)

trojka, trzy, three
(Polish)
trys (Baltic
Lithuanian)

tria (Greek)
tre, tri, three
(Albanian)

tres, tria

tri, tair [f], adj. (Welsh)
tre [m], adj.
(Italian);
trois [m], adj.
(French)
tri, traiy (Tocharian)
thri (Phrygian)
tri (Hittite)

three [<OE thri]

tre, Script N87, N294, N453, N469, N476, N505, Q15, Q21, Q29, Q40, Q46, Q127, Q767, R661, PQ-15, Q813, R437, R447, R521, R596, R14, R113, BT34
trei, Script Z74, Z180, Z347, Z1027
tres, Script Q376, Q763, Z290, Z872, Z945, Z990  (see list of numbers)

x x TRETIN, animal three years old - frequently 3 years old horse (Romanian)
x tridens-entis x trident? treten, Script L55

avahāra, truce, suspension of arms

âxshti (Avestan)
âtasbas, âsti, truce (Persian)

rozejm, truce
(Polish)
TREBUIE, must (Romanian)

anakochi, truce
mastigio,
mastigono, fimono, whip (Greek)
armëppushim
(Albanian)

indutiae-arum; truce; flagrum-i, scourge, whip

cadoediad-au [m], armistice, truce (Welsh)
trebbia [f] flail;
tregua [f] (Italian)
fléau [m] flail; trêve
[f], truce; (French)

truce [<OE treow]

treb, trev (TRE8),
Script N1, N324,
N505, N533, N563,
N607, N638;
trebe, treve (TRE8E), Script N512

x

mâr, snake,
(Persian)

zmija, viper; waz, snake (Polish)

echidna, ochia,
viper; fidi, snake
(Greek)
gjarpër, nëpërkë, viper (Albanian)

vipera-ae [f], viper

gwiber-od [f], viper, adder (Welsh)
vipera [f], viper
(Italian);
vipère [f], viper
(French)

name of a devil,
"Three [of the]
Viper," Tuchulcha

Tre Viper or Treviper
(TRE8IPER),
Script Q442, Q481

tRtIya, adj., the third; adv., [n], thirdly, for
the third time

se, adj. [n], three
(Persian)

trojka, trzy, three
(Polish)
TRII, three - old Romanian; TREIA, the third - f. (Romanian)

tria (Greek)
tre, tri, three
(Albanian)

tres, tria, three; trin-ae-a, three at a time; trimus-a-um, three years old

tri, tair [f], adj. (Welsh)
tre [m], adj.
(Italian);
trois [m], adj.
(French)
tri, traiy (Tocharian)
thri (Phrygian)
tri (Hittite)

three [<OE thri]

tri, ScriptN240, N244, Q232, Q239, L71 see Triivper
below
tria, Script Q551, DE-8
trin, Script Z47,
Z197, Z897, Z975,
Z1615
trinum, trinom
(TRINVM)
, Script
Z421, Z1183;

TRINeR, Script
Z622, Z638

x x TRIB, tribe; TRIBUL, TRIBU, the tribe (Romanian)
x tribus-us tribu (Italian)
tribu (French)
tribe trib (TRI8) Script N268, R65
tribo (TRI8V) Script N173
x x x x tricae-arim sprecare, to trifle away (Italian)
badiner, to trifle away (French)
trifles, vexation, troubles tricis, Script J13-7

akṣapāṭaka, a judge, arranger of a lawsuit

dâvar, dâdvar [n], dâdvari kardan, to
judge (Persian)

ekspert, koneser,
sadzic o czyms,
sedzia, uwazac,
wydawac wyrok,
znawca, judge
(Polish)

fos, foteinos,
elafros, anoiktos,
fotizo, anabo, light; dikastis, kritis, dikazo, krino, judge (Greek)
gjykoj, dënoj me,
jam
arbitër,
mendoj, vendos,
vlerësoj, to judge
(Albanian)

iubar-aris, beaming
light, radiance, a
heavenly body, esp. the sun; iuba-ae [f],
mane, crest; iudico-are,
to be a judge, decide, declare;
iudicatus-um, of
persons, condemned,
of things, decided;
Iuppiter, Jovis [m]
Jupiter
, the Roman
supreme god; sub.
love, in the open air.

golau (goleu), adj. light, luminous, evident; barnu, to judge, conclude, deem, reckon; beirniadu, to
adjudicate, criticize,
judge (Welsh)
luce, giorno, faro,
fanale, semaforo, light; giudicare, to judge (Italian)
lumière, clarté, lueur [f], phare, jour, éclairage [m], light; juger, to judge (French)

three of the light; three judge

Triivper or Tri IVPER, Script
N240, N244, N247,
Q232, Q239; see
Note (6)

x sebarâbar, segâne,
setâyi, triple, adj.
(Persian)

potrojny,
trzykrotny
, triple
(Polish)

triplos, triplasios,
triplasiazo
, triple
(Greek)
tripalësh,
tripjesësh, triple,
adj.
trefishoj,
trefishohet, to
triple (Albanian)

triplus-a-um, threefold,
triple

triplice, adj.
threefold; (Italian);
triple, adj. triple;
tripler, to triple
(French)

to triple? a name, Tripler

tripler, Script R150

x

anduhgin,
anduhnâk, adj.,
say; tond, dorost, nâgovâr, harsh, adj. (Persian)

bolesny, powazny,
smutny, sad
(Polish)
TRIST, sad (Romanian)

lypimenos, akefos, sad; agrios, trachys, harsh (Greek)
ngalakaq [n], sad;
trishtuar, i
dëshpëruar, i
pikëlluar, i errët, i
vrerosur, i
zymtë, i tmerrshem, sad,
adj. (Albanian)

tristis-e, sad, dismal, forboding, harsh, bitter

trist, adj. sad,
sorrowful, doleful
(Welsh)
trute, sad (Italian);
triste, sad (French)

harsh [<ME harsk, of Scand. orig.], dismal [<Lat. dies mali, evil days], sad [<OE saed]?

tris, Script Q376

ajamāra, of a tribe or prince

dudmân, zand,
tribe [n] (Persian)

plemie, szczep,
tribe (Polish)

fyli (Greek)
fis, klan (Albanian)

tribus-us [f], a tribe, a division of the Roman people

ciwdod [f], tribe, clan, nation; echen [f], source, family, tribe; llwyth-au [m], tribe, clan; tylwyth-au [m],
househyold, family,
tribe, clan, genus
(Welsh)
tribu [f] (Italian);
tribu [f] (French)

tribe [<Lat. tribus]

triv, trib (TRI8), Script N268, R65;
trivo,tribo (TRI8V),
Script N173

x x x x Trous, Trois, Troicus, adj. Trojan x Trojan True (TRFE), S-50

x

x

TROIANI, Trojans (Romananian)

x

Troianus-a-um; Tros, Troia, Troiades, Troicus

x

Trojans

Troinvi, Truinvi
(TRVINFI),
Script AP-6

x x x x Troianus-a-um; Trous, Troius, Troicus; Troas-ados
x Troini, Trojans
Troitae (TRVITAE) Script XE-3
x x DRUM, road, way, path x x x x trom (TRVM) N700
(suffix of pesuntrum)

x

davidan, bekâr
andâxtan,
davânidan, to run (Persian)

klus, klusowac,
spieszyc sie, trot
(Polish)

troikos, Troy
(Greek)
ecje me
trok, trok,
ecje e shpejtë, trot
[n] (Albanian)

Tros, Troius, Troicus,
Troiades, Troiannus-um, Trojan; citatus-a-um, quick, speedy

tuthio, to trot (Welsh)
trottare (Italian);
trotter, to trot, run
about; trottoir,
footway, footpath
(French)

to trot [<OFr.
trotter]

trotan, trutan
(TRVTAN)
,
Script Z1345;
trotum, trutom
TRVTVM
), Script
Z1337

x

dast zadan,
barxordan, to
touch (Persian)

dotkniecie, dotyk,
dotykac, kontakt
,
poruszyc,
wzruszac, touch;
koszula, shirt
(Polish)
TOCA (TVCA) he, she touches; TOCI, to wear, to take the edge off (Romanian)

agkizo, sygkino,
afi, epafi, agkigma, touch; orema, foustani, gown, forema, garment;
poukamiso, shirt;
mplouza, blouse
(Greek)
prek, emocionoj,
përkas, cek, cik, ka lidhje me, trajtoj, fitoj [bised.], prishem, arrij, ndjek, trondit, ngjyroj, to touch
togë, petk zyrtar, toga (Albanian)

tango, tangerre, tetigi, tactum, to touch, strike, put, hit, a boundary, to reach, to steal, to defile, to taste;
toga-ae [f] a white
woolen upper garment

cyffwrdd, to touch,
meet, adjoin; teimlo, to feel, touch, handle, manipulate; crys-au [m], shirt; gwn (gynau)
[m], gown (Welsh)
toccare, to touch;
toga [f] gown, toga
(Italian);
toucher, to touch;
toge [f] gown, toga (French)
tek, to touch; wu, wi, two (Tocharian)

to touch? toga?
gown [<Lat. gunna, fur robe] (probably to touch)

toca, tuca (TVCA),
Script N21, Q500,
Q521, R474, Z903;
toce, tuce (TVCE),
Script Q183, Q717,
R542;
toces, tuces (TVCES), Script Q388
toci, tuci (TVCI), M85

x

bardâstan, dur
kardan, farnâftan, to remove (Persian)

przeprowadzic sie, usunac, zdjac, remove (Polish)
TOCILAR, grinder,person who grinds; TOCILA, grinder (Romanian)

metakino,
metakomizo,
metafero, afairo,
remove; anachoro,
depart (Greek)
lëviz, mënjano,
heq, largoj, bëj
mënjanë, fshij,
zhvesh, mbartem,
nxjerr nga puna,
shuaj, ndërroj, to
remove (Albanian)

amoveo -movere -movi -motum; se amovere, to depart; togula-ae [f] a little toga

dileu, to erase, blot out, delete, remove,
exterminate; mudo, to move, remove, molt, emigrate, migrate; symud, to move, remove, quit, migrate; tynnu, to drag, pull something away (Welsh)
togliere (Italian);
enlever (French)

to remove [<Lat.
removeo-movere -movi -motum], take away [<ON
taka]?

tokla, tukla (tvkla),
Script Z1417;
tocler (tvcler), Script
R140

duva

do, two, adj. [n];
dâdan, baxsidan, to give (Persian)
erku, two
(Armenian)

dwa, dwojka, two;
dawac, gave,
podawac, give
(Polish)
du (Baltic
Lithuanian)
DOI, two), DOUA, the second

dyo, two; dino, give (Greek)
dy, two; jap,
dorëzoj, lëshoj [një britmë], fal,
përcjell, dhuroj,
transmetoj, mbaj
[leksion], bie,
paguaj, shkatoj,
shikon nga, to give
(Albanian)

duo-ae -o, two;
do, dare, dedi, datum, to give

dau, dwy [f], adj. two; dodi, to put, place, lay,
give (Welsh)
due
[m], adj. dare, to give (Italian);
deux [m], adj. donner, to give (French)
dadon (they gave,
Phrygian)
wu, wi, two
(Tocharian)
twi (Hittite)

two? offer, grant
[<OFr. creanter, to assure], bestow
[<ME bestowen],
devote [<Lat.
devoveo vovere
vovi votum
], give [<OE giefan]

toe, tue (TVE), Script
Q74
toia (TOIA) Script XJ-22
toie (TOIE) Script XM-7

abhiṣah, to tolerate, pardon, allow

sotudan, ejâze
dâdan, hestan, to
allow; pâydâri,
bordbâri,
endurance [n]
(Persian)

tolerowac, znosic,
tolerate (Polish)
TOLERA, to tolerate, to permit (Romanian)

anechomai,
ypofero, tolerate;
antcho, endure;
arkouda, fero,
basto, styrizo,
ypofero, genno,
bear (Greek)
duroj, lejoj, rezistoj
[mjek.], to tolerate;
duroj, pësoj,
qëndroj, to endure
(Albanian)

tolero-are

goddeff, to bear, suffer, endure, abide, allow, let, tolerate, permit (Welsh)
tollerare (Italian);
tolérer, to tolerate,
allow, suffer,
endure, bear
(French)
arnumi, to bring
(Hittite)

to carry, bear,
endure [<Lat.
induro-are, to make hard], sustain, support, keep up, tolerate

tol, tul (TVL), Script
Z84, Z180,Z190,
Z214, Z347, Z378,
Z1027, Z1040,
Z1430, Z1813;
tolo, tulo (TVLV),
Script N194;
tolera, tulera (TVLERA),
Script Au39;
TOLeRAN,
TULeRAN
(TVLeRAN)
, Script
Z1797

x

bexâk sepordan, to bury; banâye
yâdgâri, sotune
yâdgâri, monument
(Persian)

grob, grobowiec,
tomb; doniosly,
grob, powazny,
uroczysty, grave;
pogrzeb, burial
(Polish)

tote, loipon, then;
o pio kontinos,
epomenos,
prosechis, next;
thabo, bury
(Greek)
monument varri,
varr, tomb [n];
varros, to entomb;
grumbull, gurèsh,
pirg dheu, dodèrvar,
tumè,
mound (Albanian)

tum; then, at that time; tumeo-ere, to swell, be swollen, be puffed up, be pompous;
sepelio-pelire-pelivi and pelti-peltum, to bury, ruin, destroy;
partic. sepultus,
buried, sunk,
immersed; sepulcrum-i,
tomb, grave; tumulus-i
[m], mound of earth, hillock, hill, esp. a sepulchral mound

wedyn, afterwards,
then; yna ('na), there, then; ynteu (ynte) adv., then, ynteu (ynte) conj. , or else, otherwise; bedd-au-i [m], grave, tomb,
sepulcher; claddu, to bury, entomb, inter; golo, to conceal, bury (Welsh)
poi, then ; tumulare, to bury; tomba [f] grave; tomo, [m] volume  (Italian)
alors, puis, then;
tombe [f], tomb; tome, [m] tome; enterrer, to bury (French)

then [<OE thenne], at that time, next, thereupon;
tomb, grave [<OE graef]; bury [<OE
byrgan]

tom, tum (TVM)
Script Z1352,
Z1623, Z1641;
see Note (8)

x x x x domito-are, subdue, break in, to tame domitus-us, taming x to subdue, break in, to tame
tomota (TVMVTA) Script PG-6

stan, stanati, thunder, roar, sound; stanita,
thundering, thunder;
svana [m] sound, roar, thunder

tondar,
âsmânqorres,
thunder [n]
(Persian)

grom, grzmiec,
grzmot, piorun,
thunder (Polish)
TUNA, to thunder; TUNĂM, we thunder; TUNET, thunder; TUNI, you thunder (Romanian)

bronti, bronto,
thunder;
tonos,
chroia,
tonizo,
tonizomai
, tone
(Greek)
bubullon, gjëmoj,
thunder;
ton,
sound; see
sono (Albanian)

tono -are -ui -itum, to thunder

taranu, to thunder,
fulminate; goslef-au [f], tone, intonation;
sain (seiniau) [f], sound, tone; ton-au [f], tune, tone (Welsh)
tòn, the firmament?
(Scott)
tuono [m]; tonare,
to thunder (Italian);
ton [m], tone;
tonnerre [m],
thunder (French)
tethima, thunder
(Hittite)

to thunder [<OE thunor], make
a loud noise, to
thunder forth,
tone

ton, tun TVN), Script Z1553, Z1832;
tona, tuna (TVNA),
Script Au82, Aph29;
tonam, tunam
(TVNAM)
, Script
Z327, Z551, Z776,
Z1417, Z1423,
Z1444, Z1647,
Au38
tone, tune (TVNE),
Script DL-1;
toni, tuni (TVNI),
Script Q139
FELTVNE, Script D-1; See Note ( 2)

dR, driyate, regard,
respect, mind, be
regardful towards;
pluS, ploSati, to burn, singe; uS, oSati & uSNAti, to burn, consume, destroy, punish; kSA, kSAyati,
to burn, set on fire,
scorch

cinasti [cit], to
think, be informed,
to know, to regard
(Avestan)
suzândan, suxtan, to burn;
bereste kardan, beryân kardan, sorx kardan, to parch; negâh [n], negaristan, to regard (Persian)

dotyczyc, odnosic sie, pozdrowienia,
przygladac sie,
spojrzenie,
szacunek, troska,
uklony, uwazac,
wzglad, zwracac
uwage, regard
(Polish)
budet (Baltic
Sudovian)

kaio, kaiomai, burn; frouro, fylasso, froura, fylakas, guard; theoro, aforo, schesi, prosochi, regard (Greek)
mbroj, ruaj, to
watch over;
konsideroj, mendoj,
reçpektoj
, sytë, to
regard (Albanian)

tuor or tueor, tueri,
tuitus
and tutus; and tueo-ere; regard; torreo, torrere, torrui,
tostum
, to burn, parch, dry up

edrych (edrychyd), to look, behold, gaze, inspect; sylwi, to observe, regard, notice,
mark;
ystyried, to
consider, regard,
ponder, attend; brydio, to burn, inflame, boil (Welsh)
tuir, va. to delore,
mourn, lament (Scott)
riguardare, vt. (Italian)
regarder, to regard;
torréfier, to scorch,
roast, grill
(French)

to watch over,
regard [<OFr.
regarder], to look at; consider, mind,
respect
; to burn
[<OE beornan and baernan],
scorch, dry up

tor, tur (TVR) Script
Z190, Z1352, Q297,
Q303, Q805;
tora, tura (TVRA)
Script Z164, Z1243,
Z1846, Z1869

tore, ture (TVRE)
Script Z582
tores, tures (TVRES)
Script N216
tori, turi (TVRI) Script Z500;
toro, turo (TVRV),
Script AK-1, Q286;

TOROPa, TUROPa
(TVRVP)
, Script
N31 – probably
TVR VP; see VP;

Script see alternate
meanings of
tor...
below

garta, [m], hollow,
cave, ditch, grave; a water hole; rAzistha, standing in a heap, heaped up; zilAcaya,
heap of stones,
mountain; aTTala,
tower

daxma [-], grave
(Avestan)
gur, ârâmgâh, grave  [n]; borj, bâru, panâhgâh, tower [n] (Persian)

baszta, gorowac,
wieza, wznosic sie, tower;
grob, grobowiec,
tomb; doniosly,
grob, powazny,
uroczysty, grave;
pogrzeb, burial
(Polish)
turmas, draudet,
tower; (Baltic
Sudovian)
syssorevo,
symmazevo, to
accumulate;
pyrgos,
tursis,
rymoulkos,
ypsonomai, tower (Greek)
varr, grave; kullë,
kala, shtyllë, tower grumbull, gurèsh,
pirg dheu,
dodèrvar,
tumè,
mound (Albanian)
cumulo-are, heap up, pile up, increase, to
crown; sepulcrum-i, grave, tomb
turris-is [f] tower
twr (tyrau) [m], tower curnennu, to heap, stack; tyrru, to heap, amass, cluster, crowd together (Welsh)
tòrr [m]; tòrr, va., to
heap or pile up, bury (Scott)
ammucchiare,
accumulare, to heap
up;
torre [f], tower,
steeple; tomba, grave (Italian)
amasser, entasser, to heap up; cumuler, to
accumulate;
tour [f] tower; tombe, fosse [f] grave (French)
grave [<OE graf], tower [<Gk.
tursis, tower], heap of ruins, barrow [<OE beorg]
alternate meaning of:
tor, tora, tore, tores,
tori, toro

x

x

x

Aphrodite

Venus

x

Turan, a goddess
connected with
Heracles and Tinia.  Her symbols are a
staff with a
pomegranet and she rides on a swan. She is identified as Aphrodite (Venus).

Toran, Turan
(Tvran) M-8, Divine
_Mirror.html
; DM-1
see Note (7)
x x TOARCE, he/she spins, INTOARCE, he/she turns (Romanian) x x x Torce Fel Sueitus, name of haruspex; also on a mirror torce (TVRCE) Script HA-2, DE-6

x

x

x

x

taurinus-a-um, of or like a bull;
Augusta Taurinorum, Turin

x

people of Turin,
Italy?

Torines, Turines
(TVRINES)
, Script
AL-8

janasaMmarda [m],
throng of people,
crowd; mahAgaNa
[m], a great multitude or crowd; saMgha [m],
a band, company,
crowd; gaNa [m],
crowd, troop, host,
tribe, flock, series

soluqi [n], fesâr
dâdan, to crowd
(Persian)

pchac sie, tloczyc
sie, tlum, crowd
(Polish)

mizèri, turmè, throng (Albanian)

turm-ae [f] mintai (minteioedd) [f], band, troop, battalion, brigade, gang, horde;
dyludo, to flock,
throng; torf -eydd-oedd
[f], crowd, multitude,
gang, horde, mob,
concourse (Welsh)
truppa [f], troop;
torma [f], crowd,
swarm, herd (Italian);
troupe [f] (French)
kula, tuzzi, an army
(Hittite)

a troop [<OFr.
trope] of calvary, a
squadron; any
troop,
throng [<OE thrang]

torm, turm
(TVRM)
, Script
TC231

x x x x Mercury x Hermes, Greek messenger  of the god Turms (TVRMS) Script CC-3, CM-3, CV-1
vanargu, adj.
wandering in a forest or a wilderness; [m], a
savage;
hiMsra, adj., harming, malicious [m], a savage or cruel
man

darande xu, dad,
râm nasode, adj., dad [n], savage (Persian)

dziki, dzikus,
savage (Polish)

agrios, thiriodis,
savage; ktinodis,
brutal (Greek)
njeri i egër, njeri i
ashpër [n]; i
egër,
mizor, i ashpër, i
pamëshirshëm,
adj., savage
(Albanian)

torvus-a-um, savage, grim, fierce; miseria-ae
[f], wretchedness,
unhappiness, distress

egr, adj. sharp, sour,
severe, savage; anwar, adj., wild, barbarous, savage, cruel (Welsh)
torvo [m], grim, stern, surly; miseria [f], misery (Italian)
sauvage [m.f.]; brutal, adj. brutal; misère [f], misery (French)

savage [<Lat.
silvaticus, of the
woods]?
miser,
miserable,
unhappy,
wretched, causing
distress or
discomfort

torov, turov, (TVRV8), Script N-1

kalevara [m], the body; svAGga [n], one's own body; satanu, adj., embodied, along
with the body; sudeha [m], a fine body

pic, tâb [n],
tâbidan, to twist
(Persian)

tors, torso (Polish)
TORS, spined, spining; TOARCE, he/she spins), INTOARCE, he/she turns (Romanian)

strogkylos, kyklos,
gyro, strogkylevo,
round; soma,
somateio, organosi,
kormos, maza,
omada, body;
kormos,
proboskida,
baoulo, trunk
(Greek)
drèdh, gèrshetoj,
thur, rrotulloj,
vèrtit, vèrtis, to
twist
(Albanian)

truncus-i, trunk of the body; pectus-oris,
breast, heart, soul,
mind; turus-i [m]
any round
proturberance; a
muscle, a bed, sofa, a marriage couch, a bier,
a mound; fig. an
ornament; torqueo,
torquere, torsi, tortum
, to twist, wind, curl, wrench, to distort, to hurl violently, whirl, to rack, torture, torment,
plague, try, test; tortus-a-um, twisted, crooked, intricate

cordeddu, to twist,
twine, entwine (Welsh)
torso [m], torso;
torcere, to twist, wring (Italian);
torse [m]; torsade [f], twisted, fringe, twisted cord, coil; tronc [m], trunk (French)
sasta, a bed (Hittite)

torso [<It. torso], trunk, chest, bed,
bier, mound? to
twist,
cord? [<Gk. khorde].

tors, turs (TVRS),
Script N184

dhUma [m], smoke, vapour, incense; dhUpa [m], incense,
perfume, smoke,
vapour; dhUpay,
dhUpayati, to
besmoke, fumigate,
perfume, incense

xxosbu kardan,
suzândan, to
incense (Persian)

dawna forma, thy
(Polish)

sas, your; exorgizo,
incense,
aroma
(Greek)
aromë, temjan,
thimjam [fet.];
zemëroj [verb]
(Albanian)

tuus-a-um, posses.
pron. of the second pers. sing. thy, thine, your;
tus (thus) turis,
incense

arogl-darth [m], incense (Welsh)
incenso [m]; incensare,
to incense (Italian)
encens [m], incense
(French)

thy, thine, your;
incense [<LLat.
incensum]?

tos, tus (TVS) Script
Z1013, Z112, N404, N417, N435, N469, R334
THvS  (ΘvS), Script M32
tus (TFS) Script Z-5

kSauraM kR, to shave; vap, vapati, -te, to shear, shave hair or beard, trim nails, shear crop, cause to shear or
to be shorn

tarâsidan, to shave (Persian)

ciac, shear (Polish)
TUNS, shearing, cut; TUSE, cough (Romanian)

xyrizo, xyrizomai,
xyrisma
, shave;
syndetiras, clip
therizo, reap
(Greek)
gdhend,
rruaj,
kosit, rruhem, qeth, to shave (Albanian)

tondeo, tondere,
totondi, tonsum
,
to
shear, shave, clip;
mow, reap, prune,
browse on, fleece a person

cneiffio, to shear,
fleece, clip, poll
gwelleifio, to shear;
eillio, to shave, razor (Welsh)
tossare,
radere (Italian)
tondre, se
raser
(French)

to shear [<OE
sceran], shave
[<OE sceafan]

tose, tuse (TVSE),
Script N324, K136

x

x

x

x

Tusci-orum [m];
Tuscus-a-um,. adj.

x

the Tuscans,
Etruscans,
inhabitants of
Etruria?

Tusk (TVSK), Script
N112

akhilaM, akhila; azeSa [m], no remainder; adj.
entire, whole; adv.
entirely, wholly;
akhila, whole, entire, wholly, completely,
all, everything; sarva, adj., whole, entire, all, [m], everyone, pl. all;
everything; with a neg. not every, not
everyone, no, nothing; nikhila, entire, whole

dah'yunãm
[dah'yu], country,
people, land;
paourva [-]
before; first, at
first; full, entire
hama [-], all
(Avestan);
hamâyi, entire [n] (Persian)
hema, whole
(Kurdish)

ceo, potpun, sav
celina, whole
(Serbo-Croatian)
calkowity, caly,
zupelny, entire;
calosc, caly, whole (Polish)
cely, adj. entire;
uvies [m], usia [f], usio [n.], usie [pl.], adj. entire, all, every (Belarus)
pastipas, complete; visai, entirely; pilnas, whole (Baltic-Sudovian)
TOATE, entire f. pl., all of them; TOATĂ, entire - f. TOŢI, all of them (Romanian)

olokliros, olos
(Greek)
i gjithë, entire; i
tërë, i plotë, i
patrëdijur,
absolut, total (Albanian)

tutus-a-um, totius, toti

llwyr, adj. entire, complete, total (Welsh)
buileach, adj. complete, entire;
léir, entirely;
tuath [f] peasantry,
country people;
uile
(Scott)
totale, tutto, whole
(Italian)
entier, tout, whole
(French)
teuta, people, tribe
(Illyrian)
pont, puk (Tocharian)
tuta, an army (Lycian)
tuzzi, army (Hittite)

entire [<Lat.
integer], whole
[<OE
hal],
total [<Lat. totus], absolute
[<L.
absolvo
solvere-solvi
solutrum
] to
loosen, to free; in general to
complete
]

tuta (TVTA), Script
N41, N173, N491, N513, N543, N598, N615, N647, N676, N711, Q342, Q433, Q475
tutas (TVTAS), Script N11, N41
tute (TVTE), Script N139;
tuthi (TVΘI), Script M38, M60

x x x x x x Tydeus, Greek hero killed by the seer Amphiaraüs TUTE (TVTE, Script CI-2
x x x x totius x so many times
tuthio (TVTHIV) Script M38, M60, M74

gopAy, -yati & -yate, to guard, protect, keep
secret, shelter; trA,
trAyate, trAte (-ti), to protect, shelter, rescue from;
pA, pAti, to protect, watch, shelter,
defend, rule, govern;
rakS, rakSati, -te, to
protect, guard, keep, save from, take care of

panâh, negahbâni,
postibâni,
protection [n]
(Persian)

bronic, chronic,
protect (Polish)

prostatevo, protect
kalypto, kalypsi,
skepasma, cover
kathigitis, didasko, tutor (Greek)
mbroj,
favorizoj,
përkrah,
ruaj, to
protect (Albanian)

tutor-ari, dep.; also
tuto-are, to protect;
protego -tegere -texi-tectum, to cover in front, to cover over, protect

achlesu, to succor,
shelter, protect,
manure; amddiffyn, to defend, protect,
conserve; noddi, to
protect, espouse
(Welsh)
proteggere (Italian)
protége (French)
pahsi, pahhas, to
protect, graze (Hittite)

to protect, guard
[<OFr. guarder]
against,
watch
[<OE waeccan],
favor [<Lat. faveo, favere, favi, fautum]

tutin (TVTIN), Script Z656
tuto (TVTO) Script XB-30
tuto (TVTV) Script N160
, Script N160;


 

Notes:

(1) See Indo-European Table for decum, "ten." This may be the word ten.

(2) Feltvne (name of a god, the great thunder; see the Divination_Lesson.html, mirror from Tuscania. Note that the suffix "e" in tvne relates to a masculine god. Fel is translated as "great."
(3) A key tounderstanding the use of the vowel suffix for masculine and feminine is in the pronoun, ta, te, Te, ti, tu (tv)
(4) The Tarquins are an Etruscan gens that founded Rome. This short script on the Divination Lesson.html is important to the establishment of some grammatical rules, as this refers to Tarkonos (Tarkvnvs). The text reads as follows: to Feltone (Feltvne) they augur ( ocern, vcern = L. auguro-are) the liver (fiaul = Fr. fole [m]; It. fegato [m]; L. iecur-iecoris-and iocineris) of Tarquin (Tarkonos, Tarkvnvs) rar lr, the rare / extraordinary (L. rarus-a-um) of [the household god] god, lr = LaR (L. lar-laris [m]); i.e., "Before the god Veltune they augar the liver of Tarquin the great of god." Click here To view Tarquinia, the Etruscan city named after Tarquin the Great.

(5) Here we have a passage in script "N" that identifies Ager Uni (aker [L. ager, agri, land] vni) in the preceeding phrase; then begins, ": tota tarina te." It repeats, tri8v tarina te tvrs kvm: Uni is the supreme female diety (Latin Juno), a consort of Tini (Latin Jupiter, Greek Zeus). We can see in the Divine_mirror.html that Ralna is Tini's consort in the story of the birth of Helen of Troy. Ralna is a goddess depicted in the Divine_Mirror.html with a goose to her left. The mother of Helen in Greek myth is Leda, who was married to the Spartan king Tyndareüs. She was not the real mother of Helen, since she was delivered a goose egg either by a shepherd or by the messenger of the gods, Hermes. Leda hatched the egg and reared the gossling as her own. The chick grew into the most beautiful woman in the world, married to Agamemnon's brother, Menelaüs. King Tyndareüs ceded his throne to Menelaüs. Helen was abducted by their friend from Troy, a prince named Paris, son of king Priam. Paris was their house-guest when King Menelaüs had was called away to attend his maternal grand-father's funeral (his name was King Catreus) in Crete. While her husband was away, Paris stole both Helen and her household treasures, taking them home to Troy. This caused the launching of Agamemnon's fleet of a thousand ships and the consequential ten-year-long Trojan war. Helen's real mother was the goddess Nemesis whom Zeus chased to Crete. She changed into many forms to avoid him, finally, as a goose; but Zeus changed into a swan, after which he caught her and raped her. Nemesis is the goddess of retribution for evil deeds or undeserved good fortune – viewed as the resentment aroused in men. She is said to be the daughter of Nyx (night). We can see in the story of Helen of Troy (queen of Sparta) how her beauty turned out to be a nemesis for that age, about 1,200 B.C. (See Hesiod, Theogony, 223-224; Apollodorus 3.10.7; Hyginus, Poetica Astronomica 2.8, and Pausanias 1.33.2-8, 7.4.2-3.)

(6) According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, connected with the rite of Jupiter was the worship of three dieties in one temple, including Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, (Greek: Zeus, Hera and Athena) and this, the resource claims, is a practice the Etruscans shared. Both Zeus and Jupiter were identified as the carriers of light and lightening and thunder were their main weapons. Their names are identified with the root diu, "bright." Tini is identified with thunder and lightening, and Etruscan hauruspicis would divine, reading lightening bolts, the flight of birds and livers.

(7) Turan, as depicted in the Divine_Mirror.html, the story of Helen of Troy, appears with the attributes of Aphrodite (Roman Venus), who was born from the genitals of Uranus when they were thrown into the sea. Aphros in Greek means "sea foam," in which she was born and cast up on the shores of Cyprus. Her symbol, the pomegranate, signifies that she is a fertility goddess, and her son is Eros (Roman Amor or Cupid) who is shown as a winged, naked boy with a bow and gold-tipped arrows. Many of his activities involving the arrangement of love affairs were mischievous, but he was worshipped as a god of love and loyalty among men. In any event, as Paris' reward, Aphrodite caused the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen, to fall in love with Paris of Troy. She offered this as a reward to him who had been invoked by Hera, Athena and Aphrodite to judge which of them was the fairest. Hera promised to make Paris the ruler of the world, Athena vowed that he would always be victorious in war, and Aphrodite promised him the love of the most beautiful woman in the world. Paris chose Aphrodite's prize. And that started the Trojan war. In the Divine_Mirror.html Heracles is involved with the presentation of what appears to be Eros to Tini – a mystery at the moment. There are two versions of the birth of Eros, and perhaps a third being told by the Divine_Mirror.html. Eros (Love) existed from the begining, with Ge (Earth), Tartarus (a place of darkness below the earth – an anvil would fall for nine days to reach it) and Chaos. Another version accounts Aphrodite as the mother –father unknown – but perhaps his father was Heracles (who had liaisons with godesses and woman), at least in the Etruscan mirror.

(8) The verb, to bury, may lead us into some old Indo-European cognate having to do with the way the early Indo-Europeans of the steppes buried their dead. that has to do with mound burials. The burials, also known as dolmens, – where the soil has gone away that had originally covered the crypt – covered the north eastern and north western shores of the Black Sea, the Crimea, Troy and Turkey, Thessaly, Illyria (Albania), Etruria, the Iberian Peninsula, the French Atlantic coast, the British Isles, and parts of northern Germany, Holland, etc. And in the Far East we find the mound burials again, among the Tocharians in the Altai mountains, along the Silk Road. The Tocharians included red-headed individuals and mixed mongoloids. Their language was Indo-European, and their mounds in Siberia became famous as a result of the discovery of the "Ice Maiden" reported by the National Geographic Society. Her mound followed the pattern of Scythian mounds, where the burial chamber was lined with large timbers. To view a burial of the Eastern Black Sea region, called the "Princess of Ipatovo," click here.

      The burial mounds had at least three functions: that of honoring the dead (the larger mounds often being of leaders), sacred sites of heroes and watch-towers.
      In the story of Jason of the Argonauts, "The Voyage of Argo," by Apollonius of Rhodes (3rd century B.C.), Jason explains in the raising of the burial mound of one of his men that the mound covered the cremated remains of the hero, it was a place around which games were held in honor of the hero, and it was left as a land-mark which would be honored for eons to come. This is also a practice in the Odyssey of Homer. The Homeric way of burial in fact was with barrows, or mounds; and most of the dead are cremated. Achilles' friend, Patrocles, for instance, is one of the first in the ten-year-long Trojan war to be buried, and his remains were cremated, a mound thrown up around which games were held. The mound was left as a land-mark, along with other mounds of fallen heroes in the Troad. In the "Metamorphosis," by Ovid (1st century B.C.) we find many burials continue in the same fashion, with cremation and barrows being the burial practice (except for those transformed into animals and heavenly bodies. In the story of the raven, which Apollo saw as a beautiful young girl, after having held her (she was pure white) to his breast he turned on her and shot her in the breast with his deadly arrow. He held her in his arms, lamenting the act, while the funeral pyre was being prepared, and she tells him that she is pregnant with his son. He saves the son. Among the Greco-Roman stories the heroes were cremated and mounds were raised. The actual practice of cremation was more prevalent among the Etruscans and earlier Villanovans, communities along the Danube and Troy. Shaft graves (interments) appear to have been the preferred method of burial elsewhere. The Scythian and Saromatian burials of the Black Sea show a stone-lined cyst around a corpse, along with its entourage and accoutrements, and often mounds were used over and over. They often were over 50' high (15 meters or so). When we apply the data of this table to the archeological records of the burials of these ancient peoples we find a correlation in the language. "To bury" in Italian is "tumulare," to raise a mound; a burial in Albanian is "tumë," a mound. In contrast the Latin and French concept of burial involved interment, if one uses their vocabulary. It appears that the English word, "bury," [<OE byrgan] may be the same cognate as "barrow," [<OE beorg].
      A Summary of the Kurgan culture (burial in mounds) of the Russian steppes, with notes on the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language, is at: http://www.iras.ucalgary.ca/~volk/sylvia/Kurgans.htm. An Albanian view of the Albanian and Illyrian heritage ( a melting pot as it were) is at: http://members.aol.com/Plaku/illyrian.htm.
(9) TIVS, In Script HT, we have a tile which seems to dedicate a precinct to Hermes, 8ASTI, HERMeNE TIVS A FETVS AL, saying, "the vastness of Hermene, god-like, or god, to (Lat. a) the bringing forth or hatching of young (Lat. fetus-us, m.)." See Indo-European Table 1.A.2, note 6, for a further discussion on this.
(10) The Slavic term for god, Bog, and the Hindu Bhaga, may show an early relationship between the Slavs and the Sanskrit, founders of the Rig Veda.

(11) Welsh llawr, hearth, may be related to the Latin word, lar, and Etruscan word for gods of the earth: lar, laris.
(12) Tannus, Jupiter, Zeus and Etruscan Tinia appear to be the same Indo-European thunder-god, as Thor, Odin, and Indra. Tannus went also by the name of Tinnus, Taranis, Taranus. He was a god of the wheel (a symbol of the sun), other symbols were the oak and eagle, and in early Gaul human sacrifices were offered to him. In the Rig Veda of the Hindus the sun, Surya, was considered to be an eye of Indra, the principal god of the Rig Veda. His feast was at Yule-time (winter solstice, modern Christmas). See Banquet of the Gods.html for further information on the relationships of these gods. The Hittite thunder-god was Teshub. Another people, related to the Persians, the Mitanni, seemed to have worshipped the same god, Teshub or Teshup, at the head of their pantheon. See Hittite Treaties and Documents.html.
(13) Thanks to Constantiin Cucu for his contributions on the Romanian language.


>Indo-European Table I Part 10


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