Indo-European Table with Sanskrit, Avestan, Slavic, Baltic, Greek, Latin, Tocharian, Anatolian, Gaelic, Latin, Italian, French & Etruscan
10.16.11 Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):






Etruscan_Phrases
Indo-European Table 1, Part 9

 by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)


Etruscan_Phrases

 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)







Table 1, section 1D: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.

Sanskrit

Avestan & Armenian*

Slavic, Baltic & Romanian

Greek & Albanian

Latin

other

English

Etruscan
vidatha, council;
pAriSada, the
attendants of a god
bozorgtar,
mehtar, elder,
adj., anjoman,
sowrâ, council
[n];
senâ, senate [n] (Persian)
senat, senate;
odwiazywac,
rozwiazywac,
untie (Polish)
SENAT, senate (Romanian)
ikikiomenos, geros, suunod
(Greek)
senat, senate;
zgjidh, to untie
(Albanian)

senatus-us [or-i] a
council of elders, the Senate;
senatus [senati] consultum, a formal resolution of the Senate; senectus-a-um,
old age [f]; senecta-ae, old age; nodo-are, to knot; dissolvo -solvere solvi -solutum, to
loosen, undo, destroy

senedd-au [f], senate, parliament; hynafgwr, [m], old man, elder; datod, to undo, untile, loose, dissolve (Welsh)
seanadh [m], synod (Scott)
senato [m] senate
house;
annodare, to knot, tie; snodare, to untie, loosen, undo, snodarsi get untied (Italian)
sénat [m, senat; dénouer, untie (French)

elder [<OE eldra], council of elders, senate, to undo, untie? (context is "council"
SeNATA, Script
R381
SeNATE, Script
R584; (SENATE a SeNATES)
SeNATES, Script Q717, R584 (Q717-SeNATES A SeNATES)
SeNATES, Script
Q717, R584
x x x x x x Snenar, Saenar (Senir,  Myrrh, Smyrna, from Mt. Hermon?, mother of Dionysus) SNENAR (SNENAO) or SAENAR Script DR-1

sanaj, sanaka (ablat.) adj. old, ancient; jIri [f], old age; Azina, jUrya, adj., aged; mah,
great, mighty, strong, abundant, old, aged [f], the earth, ground, soil,
land, etc.

hano (Avestan)
kohan, sâlxorde,
pir, old, adj.;
bâstâni, kohan,
dirine, adj.,
bâstâni [n],
ancient (Persian)

star, starinski
(Serbo-Croation)
dawny,
stary
(Polish)
stary (Belarus)
SENIN, azur, clear, serene (Romanian)

henne (Greek)
vieç (Albanian)

senex, senile, aged; senectus -a-um, old age [f]; senecta-ae, old age

hen, adj. old, ancient, aged; oedrannus, adj.
aged, old (Welsh)
aosda, aged;
sean,
adj. old, aged, ancient (Scott);
kozh, yen (Breton) senato [m], senate;
senilita, senility;
vecchio, old; snidare, to drive out, unbarrow
(Italian)
sénat [m], senate;
sénile, adj. senile;
vieux, vielle [m], old age, elderly, adj. (French)
ksaise, old (Tocharian)

old [<OE eald], aged [<Lat. aetas-atis [f], age]

SeNIMO
(SeNIMV)
,
or
snimo, Script
N63

x

x

x

x

sentina-ae, bilge-water, rabble, dregs of the population

x

Sentinates,  name

Sentinates, Script LS-1

saptatha, saptama [f], the seventh.

haft, adj., [n],
seven; jodâyi,
duri, gosixtegi,
separation [n]
(Persian) ewt'n (Armenian)

siedem, seven;
indywidualny,
oddzielick,
oddzielny,
osobny, rozlaczyc,
wziac,
separacje,
seperate (Polish)
septyni
(Baltic-Lithuanian)

epta, seven;
chorizo,
diachorizo,
choristos, separate
(Greek)
shtatë, seven
(Albanian)

separo-aro, to sever, separate, consider or
treat separately;
septem, seven; diu,
adv. by day, for a long time; rivus-i [m] stream;
saepio, saepire, saepsi, saeptum, to hedge in, enclose, surround, confine;
saeptum-i, enclosure where the Romans voted at the comitis;
saepe, often,
frequently

didoli, to separate, segregate, insulate;
gwahanu, to divide, part, separate; neilltuo,
to separate, isolate, set apart; ymrannu, to divide, part, separate, diverge, ramify;
saith,
adj. seven (Welsh)
separare, to separate, to part; giorno, giornate, day; sette, seven; spesso, often; (Italian);
séparer, to divide,
separate; jour [m], day;
diurne, adj. diurnas, day; rio [m] brook, creek; sept, seven; rive
[f], bank, shore, strand;
souvent, often (French)
sukt (Tocharian)

seven,[<OE
seofan], seventh day or seventh river, enclosure;
possibly a name, Seprius

sepi, Script Z1088

khan, khanati, -te, to
dig, dig up, delve,
bury; dhA, dadhAti,
dhatte; dadhati, -te,to put, set, lay, think of, cause, bear, set upon (esp. the fire), hide, conceal, cover, cause to
be laid in, shut up

nikañte [ni-kan],
to bury;
daxma [-], grave (Avestan)
bexâk sepordan,
to bury; sepordan = entrust, resign,
surrender
(Persian)

pochowac,
pogrzebac,
zakopac, bury
(Polish)
SĂPA, to hoe, to destroy, to ruin
(Romanian)

thabo, bury
nekrotafeio,
cemetery (Greek)
groposje,
varrim,
burial; shtie në
gropë,
varros,
gropos, fsheh,
fus, rras, to bury
(Albanian)

sepelio-pelire-pelivi and pelti-peltum, to bury, ruin, destroy;
sepulchra-orum,
cemetery

claddu, to bury,
entomb, inter; claddfa,
(claddfeydd) [f], burial ground, cemetrery; golo, to conceal, bury;
bedd-au-i [m], beddrod au [m], grave, tomb, sepulcher (Welsh)
sepolcreto [m],
cemetery;
sepolcro [m], sepulcher (Italian):
sépulcre [m],
sepulcher; cimetière [m], cemetery (French
)

to bury [<OE
byrgan], to ruin, destroy, buried;

SEPeLES, Script
Q369

xziS, zeSati, to join,
connect; saMdhay,
yati, to put together,
join with, make peace;
mil, milati, to meet, assemble, join, mix, combine; yat, yatati, te, to join, connect,
unite; tandra [n],
series, line; gaNa [m], troop, crowd, host, tribe, suit, retinue, flock, series, line; Avali [f], row, range,
series; niyut [f], team of horses, series, row, gift; tantra [n], loom,
the warp, anything
continuus, series

peyvastan,
hamkâri kardan,
to join; reste,
series, adj.
fesordan,
calândan
(Persian)

dolaczyc sie,
laczyc, polaczyc
sie, wstapic w
szeregi, join; ciag,
seria, szereg, series (Polish)
ŞURUB, screw, bolt (Romanian)

enono, syndevo,
pairno meros, join (Greek)
koleksion,
seri,
radhë, varg, series [n]; lidh, bashkoj, futem,
bashkohem,
anëtarësohem,
shkruhem, kufizoj me, shkoj me, shoqërohem,
shrihet në, to join
(Albanian)

sero-serere, serui,
sertum

aesthu, to join; asio, to join, piece, weld,
cement; cydio, to join, connect, link; cyslltu, to connect, join, link, knit;
uno, to join, unite, affiliate; ymaelodi, to
become a member, join;
ymuno, to join, unite (Welsh)
serrare, to join together
(Italian)
serrer, to press, to
tighten, to squeeze, to
crowd, close (French)
iukan, to yoke (Hittite)

to join [<Lat.
iungo, iungere,
iunxi, iunctum
, to join] together, put in a row, unite
[<LLat. unire]

ser, Scripts
TC241, AT-13, S15
Seramo (SERAMVname, Seramus; Script Z64
SeRAN, TC28,
K79 –this may be
a reflexive verb,
"ran";
SeREN, Script Z-8, Z30, Z163, Z180, Z336, Z1021, Z1846, Z1861, AH-2 (See SeREN below)
SEReN, Script L-1;
serev, sereb
(SERE8)
, Script
N647, N738, N748;
seri, Script Z289, Z462, Z463, Z543, R359
sero (SERV) Script S50
serot (SERVT) Script L-2

prasphuTa, manifest,
clear; dhArapUta, clear as water; suprakAza,
very bright or clear;
cikit, visible, clear;
prasannAtman, of
gracious or tranquil
mind

ârâmes, âsudegi,
serenity [n]
pâludan, rowsan
kardan, to clarify; ârâm, âsude, bijonbes, tranquil, adj. (Persian)

oczyscic,
wyjasnic,
wyklarowac,
clarify; cichy,
sielankowy,
spokojny, tranquil
(Polish)

galinio, iremos,
katharos, satis,
katharizo, clear
(Greek)
shapem, spastroj,
qëroj, to clarify, i
qärtë, i
qetë,
serene, tranquil (Albanian)

sereno-are

egluro, to make clear, explain, clarify; clirio,
to clear; teru, to clear, refine, clarify; distaw,
silent, quiet, reticent; llonydd, quiet, still, placid; tawel, quiet, calm, still, tranquil (Welsh)
bith, adj. quiet,
tranquil, silent (Scott);
sereno [m], serene
(Italian)
serein, adj. serene, placid;
sérénité [f] serenity (French)
parkunu, to clear;
parkui, pure, clean (Hittite)

to make clear
[<Lat. clarus-a
um
, clear, bright], make bright, fair weather, eclair, a pastry [<OFr.
esclair, lightning]
serene,
quiet
[<Lat. quietus -a -um, resting]

SeREN, Script
Z-8, Z30, Z163, Z180, Z336, Z1021, Z1846, Z1861, AH-2
SER
ReN, Script S22

dadhidrapsa [m], whey of sour milk; gorasa [m], cows milk, milk; kSIra [n], milk (also of
plants); Udhasya,
milking; n. milk

sir, milk [n],
dusidan, to milk (Persian)

serwatka, whey
(Polish)

gala, armego, milk (Greek)
hittë, thartor,
whey;
lëng,
qumësht, gji, milk mjel, jap qumësht,
to milk (Albanian)

serum-i; lac-lactis, milk

maidd (meiddion) [m], gleision, whey; blith
-ion [m], milk;
llaeth (lleithion) [m], milk,
buttermilk (Welsh)
siero del latte, whey; siero, serum; latte [m],
milk (Italian)
petit-lait [m], whey;
lait [m], milk; sérum,
serum (French)

whey [<OE
hwaeg]; see also, "ser," .i.e., "we join together";
milk [<OE milc]

serom (SERVM),
Script Z1153

x

x

x

x

x

x

Seriphus, island in the western
Cyclades? See ser above.

serphoe
(SERPHVE), Script
Z1168
x x x x se, sese si (Italian)
se (French
himself, herself, itself sese, Script Q424, Q661, Q767 

SaSTha [f], sixth; the sixth hour of the day

sasom, sixth [n] (Persian)

szosta czesc,
szosty, sixth
(Polish)
ŞASE, six (Romanian)

i gjashtë, sixth
(Albanian)

sextus

chwech, six, chweched,
adj. sixth (Welsh)
sesto, adj. [m] (Italian);
sieziéme (French)

sixth [<OE siex, six]

sesto, sestu (SESTV),
Script Q209, Q224

sad, sIdati, to sit, seat one's self (esp. for a sacrifice), lie down, around or in wait for, be overcome, fall into
trouble, distress or
despair, decay, vanish; sthA, tiSThati, -te, to
stand, stay, stop,
remain, wait;
As, Aste, to sit, seat one's self on, settle down, keep quiet, rest, lie, dwell,
stay, remain

âste [âh, åñh]
(Avestan)
nesastan, to sit
(Persian)

sat, sate
(Serbo-
Croatian)
sat, siadac,
siedziec
, sit
(Polish)
siadac, v. imp., sit
down;
siadziec, v.
imp., sit (Belarus)
sesta, seat; sestun,
to sit (Baltic-
Sudovian)
ŞEDE, he/she sits; SAT, SATUL, village, the village (Romanian)

kathomai (Greek)
ulem, rri ulur, rri
kllockë, qëndroj
(Albanian)

sedeo, sedere, sedi

eistedd, to sit, seat
(Welsh)
sedere, vt. (Italian)
siège [m], seat;
s'asseoir, to sit
(French)
aha-A (Lydian)
as- (Hittite)
asati, astti (Lycian)

to sit [<OE sittan]

seti, Script Z1835
setio (SETIV) Script CJ-9
setis, Script XB-16
SEToM, SETuM,
(SETvM)
, Script
TC103

x

âyâ, xâh, yâ,
whether, conj. (Persian)

czy, gdyby, jesli,
jezeli, o ile, if
(Polish)
SAU, or, or else, SEU,  SĂU, his, her

ean, an, if (Greek)
në qoftë se, nëse,
conj.; vallë, prep., (Albanian)

sive and seu

ai, os, if, whether; pe, conj. (Welsh)
se, (Italian)
si, adj. (French)

if [<OE gif],
whether [<OE
hwhether]

seo, seu (SEV),
Script Z359, Z396

x

x

x

Zeus (Greek)

x

x

Zeus, name of
Greek god?

Seus, Seos (SEVS),
Script Z336, Z446, Z1591, Z1861, P-2

siv, sIvyati, -te, to sew

duxt
(Yagnobian)
duxtan, to sew
(Persian)

siti, sew;
vidi sev (sewn,
(Serbo-Croatian)
sewed, szyc, sew
(Polish)
syc, v. imp.
(Belarus)
shut (Baltic
Sudovian)

rabo, to sew;
syndevo, to join
(Greek)
qep, to sew; thur,
to stitch; ilik,
syth, thile, stitch
(Albanian)

suo, suere, sui, sutum,
to sew, stitch, join
together; suesco -
suescere, suevi,
suetum, to be
accustomed; sudo-are, to sweat, to drip with
moisture

gwni, to sew, stitch (Welsh)
fuaigh, stitch, knit, connect (Scott)
suturare, vi, to stitch, cucire, vi. to sew; unire, vi., to join, sudare, to sweat (Italian):
coudre, piquer, to
stitch; brocher, to sew; unir, joiner, to join,
suturer, to suture suer [f] sweat (French)

to sew [<OE
seowian], to
stitch, join
together; to
sweat, to toil?

su (sf), Script
AP-1; TC307 M50, DR-4; CP34
sua (sfa), Script
AF13, AJ-11, BT24
sue (sfe), Script
Z128, Z131, Z224, Z412, Z1809
suem (sfem), Script
Z656, Z1835,
Z1770;
suis (sfis),
Script AP-5; note (1)

tIkSNadaNDa,
bhRzadaNDa, adj.,
inflicting severe
punishment; dAruNa, to be hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe

saxt, saxtgir,
saxtgir, bipirâye,
adj. severe
(Persian)

ostry, powazna,
srogi, surowy,
uporczywa, severe
(Polish)

spoudaios,
sobaros, serious;
afstiros, severe;
afstiros, blosyros, stern (Greek)
i ashpër, i rreptë, i sertë, i rëndë, i
vrazhdë, adj.,
severe; pupë, stern [n] (Albanian)

severus-a-um, grave, serious, strict, stern,
hard; adv. severe

manwl, adj. exact,
precise, strict; caled-ion, adj. hard, difficult,
firm, severe, harsh; dygn, adj. hard, severe,
grievous, dire,
pernicious; egr, adj. sharp, sour, severe, savage; gerwin, adj.
rough, severe, harsh (Welsh)
severo, adj. strict,
severe; sferrara, vt. to unshoe a horse; to deliver a blow;
sviare,
to deviate, avert, lead astray (Italian);
sévère, adj. severe; éviter, to avoid, avert
(French)

Severus, a name of an Etruscan queen / king; to be severe; to turn side, swerve [<OE
sweorfan], veer,
[<OFr.
virer]

SeVERA (SeFERA), Script
K31; see
SV8ERA,
Script Q372, Q391,
which is also used in the context of a
name

x

x

x

x

sullus-a-um, a swine

maiale, porco, [m]
swine (Italian);
porc, cuchon [m]
(French)

Sulla, a name?

Sula, (SFLA), Script TC19

x

âyâ, xâh, yâ,
whether,
conj.(Persian)

czy, gdyby, jesli,
jezeli, o ile, if
(Polish)
ŞI, and; SIEŞI, himself  (Romanian)

an, ean, kata poso, whether (Greek)
në qoftë se, nëse,
conj.; vallë, prep., (Albanian)

si

ai, os, if, whether; pe, conj. (Welsh)
se, (Italian)
si, adj. (French)

if [<OE gif],
whether [<OE
hwhether]

si, Script Q53,
Q283, Q303,
R40, R53, R173,
R195, G14, G45,
TC170, K46, K52, M50, AB-6, AN-53, PG-1, ZB-1, Z79, Z104, Z139, R176, Q53, Q283, Q303, R39, R53, R173, R195, G13, G36, TC170, K46, K52, M50, AB-7, AN-53, PQ-2, XT-5

x

âyâ, xâh, yâ,
whether, conj. (Persian)

czy, whether
(Polish)

an, ean, kata poso, whether (Greek)
në qoftë se, nëse,
conj.; vallë, prep., (Albanian)

sive, seu

ai, os, if, whether; pe, conj. (Welsh)
sia, conj. whether
(Italian)

whether

sia, Script K91, K168, S-10

zuS, zuSati, to blow,
hiss (of a snake); hiss, whistle, yell, gasp, exert one's self, endeavour; zvas, zvasiti, zvasati, -te, to
blow, bluster, hiss,
whistle, snort, breathe, sigh, gasp, groan

sut, nây [n], sut
kasidan, to whistle
(Persian)

gwizd, gwizdac,
gwizdek
, whistle
(Polish)

sfyrigma,
sfyrichtra, sfyrizo, whistle (Greek)
fishkëllej,
fërshëllej, to hiss, whistle (Albanian)

sibilo-are

hisian (hisi-); hysian hysio), to hiss, set on, incite; chwythu, to blow, fan, blast, inflate, breathe, puff, hiss
(Welsh)
sibilare (Italian)
siffler (French)

to hiss [<ME hissen], whistle [<OE hwistlian]?

sib (SI8), Script
N505, N563

x

bedingune,
bedinsân, azinru,
thus, adv.
(Persian)

tak, tak wiec, w
ten sposob, thus
(Polish)

etsi, thus (Greek)
kështu, kaq, në,
këtë mënyrë, pra,
si rrjedhim, thus
(Albanian)

sic

felly, adv. therefore, so, thus, accordingly;
fel, conj, prep. like, so, as that, thus, how
(Welsh)
cosi, come segue, thus (Italian);
ainsi, adv., donc, thus; thus far, jusqu'ici
(French)

so [<OE swa],
thus [<OE thus], in this way, like this, as follows, in
that case, to such a degree

sic, ScriptZ357, Z396, Z405, Z1417; TC150, TC179;
sik, Script XV-12

x

x

Sycylia, Sicily (Polish)

x

Sicilia-ae [f] [Siculi]
orum [m. pl]
, Sicily; Siculus -a-um, Sicilian;

x

Sicilian, Sicily?

Sical, Script Q795,
Q805
x x x x x x Sifai, name
SIFAI, Script S-15, S30, S40

kAraNa, adj., cause,
reason, motive, sign,
mark, document,
proof; liGga [n], mark, sign, emblem,
badge,characteristic,
proof, idol, gender;
cihva [n], sign, mark; cihvay, -yati, to mark, stamp, sign

nesâne, padide,
sign [n] (Persian)

godlo, objaw,
podpisac, reklama,
skinac, szyld,
wskazowka,
znaczyc, znak,
sign (Polish)
SEMNA, to sign (Romanian)

simeio, nevma,
pinakida, ypografo,
nevo, sign; simeio,
emporiko sima,
bathmos,
symeiono,
bathmologo, mark
(Greek)
firmos, nënshkruaj,
angazhoj, marr me kontratë; bëj shenjë to sign (Albanian)

signo-are, to sign;
signum-i, sign

arwyddo, to sign,
signify, connote,
indicate; llofnodi
(llawnodi), to sign;
marcio, to mark (Welsh)
segno [m], sign; segnare (Italian)
signe [m] sign; signer (French)

to mark [<OE
mearc], inscribe, to sign

sik, Script Z1787;
sikne, Script Z1835
("ne" suffix may be indication of name of people, as in RASNE)

tUSNIbhAva [m],
silence; niHzabda, adj. noiseless, silen;
silence; avyAhRta [n], not speaking, silence

xâmusi, ârâmes,
silence [n]
(Persian)

cichy, milczacy,
silent (Polish)
SILĂ, I have enough of something, someboby

erlent, adj. silent
(Albanian)

sileo-ere-ui

tawedog, adj. silent, taciturn, reticent; tewi,
to be silent; distewi, to
be silent, calm, quiet, to hush (Welsh)
silenzio [m] silence,
quiet (Italian)
silence[m], silence
(French)

to be still [<OE still], silent, quiet; hush [Prob. <ME husht, silent]

sila, Script K-12, TC213
silar, Script TC213?, PG-1?, PO-2

adri [m], rock, stone, esp. bruising or hurling stone; mountain, cloud; zAra [f], mottled, spotted; [m], a stone used at games;
pASANa [m]

sange âtaszane,
xârâ, sange xârâ,
flint [n]; partgâh,
cliff (Persian)

kamien do
zapalniczki,
krzemien, flint
(Polish)

tsakmakopetra,
flint (Greek)
gur stralli, gur
cakmaku, strall,
gurickë, flint
(Albanian)

silex-icis

fflint, flint; callestr [f],
flint;
carreg (cerrig) [f],
stone (Welsh)
silice [f], flint (Italian)
silex [m], flint (French)

hard stone, flint [<OE flint], craig, rock, cliff

SILiCI, Script Z-1,
TC283, BT-1

zak, zaknoti, to be
able, assist

x

byc, be (Polish)
SÎNT, I am (Romanian)

eimai, briskomai,
to be (Greek)
ekzistoj, jam,
gjendem, ndodhem, gjej, vazhdoj të rri, qëndroj, shkoj,
zhvillohem, to be
(Albanian)

sim

bod, to be, exist (Welsh)
sia (Italian)
sois (French)
asa, sa (Nesian, es), to be (Hittite)

to be, 1st person sing., subj.,"I am"

sim, Script Z-1, Z897, Z1192, Q-3

x

harcand, garce,
vali, adv., conj., however (Persian)

inaczej, w inny
sposob, w
prezeciwnym
razie, otherwise;
jakkolwiek,
jednak, jednakze,
however (Polish)
SINE, self (Romanian)

omos, however
(Greek)
megjithatë, mirëpo, prapseprap, por,
however
(Albanian)

sin; but if, if however;
sino, sinere, sivi,
situm
, to let alone

hagen, conj. but,
moreover, however
(Welsh)
sino, until, as far as, up to, down to, as much as (Italian)
sinon, else, or else, otherwise, if not, except, unless (French)

but if, if however;
without; to let
alone, leave, allow, to let;

sin, Script Z19,
Z245, Z255,
Z289, Z396,
Z405, Z516,
Z1073, TC266;
sina, Script Z805,
Z817; RA-2
sine, Script Z137

x x x x x x Sinam, name of town, Sienna? ("am" suffix suggests sing.geni.noun
sinam, Script PC-12

x

parde, curtain [n]; parcin, band, hedge [n]; bârhâ,
adv. often
(Persian)

czesto, often
(Polish)

sychna, polles
fores, often
(Greek)

saepe, often;
saepio, saepire, saepsi, saeptu, to hedge in

aml (amal), adv. often, adj., frequent, abundant
(Welsh)
sipario
[m], a curtain; spesso, often (Italian):
rideau [m], a curtain; souvent, often (French)

often [<OE oft], frequently; to enclose, hedge in, surround, confine

sip, Script ZB-1;
sipa, Script K25; see sep
sipo (SIPO) Script XM-8

x

gilâs, cherry [n] (Persian)

czeresnia, wisnia,
cherry (Polish)
visnaitas (Baltic-
Sudovian)
CIREŞ, cherry (Romanian)

kerasi (Greek)
qershi (Albanian)

cerasus-i [f], cherry

ceiriosen (ceirios) [f], cherry (Welsh)
siris [f] (Scott)
cillegia [f] (Italian)
cerise [f], cherry
(French)

cherry [<Gk.
kerasos, cherry
tree]

sires, Script Z872

vananA [f], desire;
IpsA, eSTi; varasyA, [f], wish, desire; kAmita [n],
wish, desire; tAma
[m], longing, desire;

meyl, kâm [n],
ârzu kardan, to
desire (Persian)

chec, pozadanie,
pragnac,
pragnienie,
zyczenie, zyczyc
sobie, desire
(Polish)

thelo, chreiazomai,
anagki, want
(Greek)
dëshirë, lutje, urim, wish [n]; dëshiroj, dua, uroj, to wish
(Albanian)

si vis; see volo; volo, velle, volui [vin = visne; sis = si vis; sultris = si vultris

deisyf (deisyfu), to desire, wish, crave, supplicate, beg (Welsh)
augerio,
desiderio
(Italian)
souhaiter, vouloir,
désirer (French)
ilalija, to wish (Hittite)

to be willing, to
wish [<OE
wyscan], to want,
to
desire [<Lat.
desidero-are, to
long for, wish for]

sis, ScriptTC56, R45, AN43, T-11, BT-23
sisi, or sise Z68

x

x

x

x

x

x

Sivai, name?

SIFAI, S-15, S-30,;
S-40

x x SAT, village (Romanian)
x  situs-us posto, posizione, area (Italian)
site, emplacement (French)
site, situation
sitos (SITVS) Script F9
x x SCARĂ, ladder, stairs (Romanian)
x  scalae-arum scala (Italian)
escalier (French)
stairs, ladder skal, Script Q767
x x x x scelero-are, scelus-eris scélérat (French)
pollute, to commit a crime; you pollute (See sceles) SKeLES, Script Q717

prahati [f], stroke,
throw; prAsa [m],
cast, throw, spear;
vap, vapati, -te, to
strew, scatter (esp.
seed), sow, throw or
cast; kunta [m], spear, lance

neyze, lance [n]; andâxtan,
afkandan, part
kardan, to throw (Persian)

rzucac, rzut, threw
(Polish)

richno, riximo, boli, throw (Greek)
hedh, flak, gjuaj,
vërvit, vërvis,
jap, humbas me dashje, plandos, ul, ngec, to throw
(Albanian)

lancea-ae [f], a light
spear or lance;
lancino
are
, to tear to pieces,
to squander;

ergydio, to strike, rap, throw, cast; lluchio, to throw, fling, pelt, drift;
taflu, to throw, fling, cast, hurl, heave, pelt
(Welsh)
slanciare, vt., to throw (Italian)
lancer, to throw, rush, dart (French)

to throw [<OE
thrawan, to twist], thin out, taper, to rush, venture; to
launch [<LLat.
lanceare, to wield a lance]

slanso (SLANSV)
Script TC108

x

x

x

x

x

x

an initial, like CN

SN, Script Z489
x x x x x x Sneogr rig, Sennacherib, son of Sargon, 702-680 B.C. SNEOGR RIG, Script XW-1

x

xodas, xodas râ, himself, herself (Persian)

on sam, osobiscie,
sam, siebie, sobie,
himself; osobiscie,
sama, sie, siebie,
sobie, herself; ono
samo, osobiscie,
sie, siebie, we
wlasnej osobie,
itself (Polish)

ai, vetë, vetë,
himself; ajo vetë,
veten [e saj], vetes [së saj], vetë, herself; vetë, itself,
pron. (Albanian)

suo, sua, poss. adj./
pron. his, her, its;
sui, gen. refl. himself, herself, itself

ei, hun, hunan, himself,
herself, itself (Welsh)
sua, suo, poss.
adj./pron. his, her its (Italian)
soi, oneself, himself, herself, itself (French)

himself, herself, itself

so, su (SV),
Script
TC307;
See Note 1) for the
shift of "sv" to =
"so"

zAka [m], help,
assistance; zAkbhan
[n], help, aid; ziSTi [f], help, aid, sAhya [n], assistance, help; jinv, jinvati, to be lively, hasten, put in motion, quicken, favour, bring or help

komak, yâri [n], yâri kardan, to
help (Persian)

pomagac, pomoc,
pomoc, help
(Polish)

boitho, boitheia,
help; enochlo,
skotizo,
skotizomai, bother (Greek)
i jap ndihmë,
ndihmoj, lehtëson
[ilaci], shmang,
përmbahem, to
help (Albanian)

succurro-currere-curri
cursum
; to run
beneath, go under,
undergo, aid, succor; socio-are, to unite, combine,
associate

achlesu, to succor,
shelter, protect,
manure; adeinio, to succor, fly;
swcro, to succor; ymgeleddu, to
cherish, succor,
befriend (Welsh)
soccorrere, to succor, help (Italian)
soucier, to trouble, to bother (French)

to run beneath, to help [<OE helpan; ON hjalpa], succor

sok (SOK), Script XM-3;
soci, suci (SVCI)
,
Script Z665, Z719, K-1, K-39, K148

zvazU [f], mother-in
law; zuzU [f], mother; mAtRSvasR  [f], a
mother's sister; nanA [f], mother

mâdare zan
(Persian)

tesciowa (Polish)
SOCRI, mother and father-in-law pl.), SOACRĂ, mother-in-law), SOCRU, father-in-law

pethera (Greek)
vjehërr (Albanian)

socrus-us [f]

chwegr [f] (Welsh)
suocera (Italian)

mother-in-law

socri, sucri
(SVCRI)
Script Z798

ravi, mihira, sUra,
surya
[m], the sun;
eka, ekAkin, adj., alone, sole, single,
solitary;
vijana, adj.,
destitute of people,
desert, solitary,
loneliness

[hvar]
(Avestan)
xorsid, âftâb, xor, sun [n]; tanhâ,
yegâne, tak, alone,
adv. (Persian)

niedziela, slonce,
sun; jedynie, sam,
samotny, tylko, w
pojedyn, alone
(Polish)
saule (Baltic
Sudovian)
SOARE, sun (Romanian)

ilios, sun (Greek)
diel? (Albanian)

sol, solis [m] the sun;
solus-a-um, alone,
only, sole, solitary,
uninhabited;
solo-are, to make solitary

haul (heuliau) [m]; huan [f], the sun; unig,
adj., only, sole, mere, lonely, alone (Welsh)
sole [m], the sun; solo [m] only one, alone (Italian)
sol [m] the ground, soil; soleil [m] the sun;
solo, adj. solo (French)

the sun [<OE
sunne], a day;
alone [<ME,
alone], solitary,
sole

sol, sul (SVL), Script Z308, Z1250;
sola, sula (SVLA)
Script Z598;
solo (SVLV)
Script Z1161, R49, R65
solos, sulus
(SVLvS),
Script
Z1177, Z1334

x

x

x

x

sum, 1st person sing. to be; sumus, 1st pers. pl.

sono, 1st pers. sing. to be; pl. siamo (Italian)
suit, sommes
, first
person sing. and pl. to be, "we are"
(French)

I am, we are

som, sum, (SVM),
Script N522, N582;
some, sume, (SVME)
Script Q278, R339, R474, PQ-17

svanita, adj.,sounding;
[n], sound;
svAna [m], sound, noise; kvANa [m], sound

ostovâr, adj., âvâz, navâ, ostovâr,
sound [n]
(Persian)

brzmiec,
brzmienie, caly,
dzwiek, gleboki,
mierzyc glebokosc,
nienaruszony,
odglos,
rozbrzmiewac,
solidny,
sondowac,
wydawac glos,
zdrowy, sound
(Polish)
SUNA, to ring, to sound, to jingle, to call

giortazo, to
celebrate; ichos,
steno, porthmos,
soos, ygiis, geros, bathys, icho, diadido, sound; krotos, thorybos, noise (Greek)
tingull, tingëllim,
tingëllimë
, ton, zë, zhurmë, sondë [mjek.], sound [n];
dëgjohem,
tingëllon, bëj
përshtypje, dukëm, ndihet,
kontrolloj
me sondë, sondoj, to sound
(Albanian)

sono-sonare, sonui,
sonitum

seinio, to sound,
resound, enunciate;
swnio, to sound,
pronounce (Welsh)
sonare (Italian)
sonner (French)

to sound [<Lat.
sonus]
, make a
noise, celebrate

son, sun (SVN),
Script Z1417, XB-41

sona, suna (SVNA)
Script Z530
sone, sune (SVNE),
Script Z64
sonoi (SVNVI) Script A101

x

x

SUNT, they are (Romanian)

x

sunt, third person pl.

to be

sono (Italian)
sont
(French)

they are

sont, sunt (SVNT),
Script
Q701

supti [f], sleep; svapna svApa, [m], sleep, dream; svap, svapiti, to sleep, fall asleep, lie down, repose, be dead,
make to sleep, bring to rest, kill; drA, drAti, drAyate, to fall asleep

xâbâlud, xâbâvar,
adj. drowsy; xâb [n], xâbidan,
xoftan, to sleep
(Persian)

drzemac, drzemka,
drowse; sen,
slept,
spac, sleep (Polish)

koimoumai, ypnos, sleep (Greek)
të qenët i
përgjumur,
drowsiness [n];
gjumë, fjetje, sleep [n]; fle, to sleep (Albanain)

sopio-ire;, to put to
sleep;
dormio-ire, to sleep

cysgu, to sleep, nap; huno, to sleep (Welsh)
sopore [m], drowsines
assopirsi, to drowse
(Italian)
sommeiller, to drowse go to sleep;
dormir, to
sleep (French)
supparija, to sleep (Hittite)

to put to sleep,
[<OE
slaep]
quieten, stun,
render senseless;
drowse [<OE
drusian]

sopa, supa (SVPA)
Script N522,
N582, R54, R511
sopes, supes
(SVPES)
,
Script Q713
sopo, supo (SVPV),
Script Q784

nanAndR, f., sister-in law; svasR, f., sister

xâhar, sister
(Persian)
k'oyr, sister (Armenian)

sestra (Serbo
Croatian)
siostra (Polish)
siastra [f.]
(Belarus)
seser (Baltc
Lithuanian)
SORĂ, sister (Romanian)

adelfi (Greek)
motër (Albanian)

soror

sier (Old Irish)
chwaer (chwiorydd)
[f]
c'hoar, -ezed (Breton)
piuthar [f] (Scott)
suora [f] (Italian)
soeur [f] (French_
s.ar (Tocharian)
nega, a sister (Hittite)

sister [<OE
sweostor]

sor, sur (SVR) Script Z170, Z197,
Z272, Z327, Z347,
Z357, Z378, Z412,
Z1016, Z1040, Z1797, Z1825, AN12, N738, R286
sorom, surom
(SVRVM),
Script N670,
N700;
SVRvM, Script
AN42

smayana [n], smiling, a smile; smita, adj., smiling, expanded, blown [n], a smile; smi, smayate, -ti, to
smile, blush, be proud or arrogant

labxand [n],
labxand zadan,
xandidan, to smile (Persian)

usmiech,
usmiechac sie,
smile (Polish)
SURÂDE, to smile; SURÂS, smile (Romanian)

damalaki, calf; gelo, gelio, to laugh (Greek)
buzëqesh, to smile (Albanian)

sura-ae [f], the calf of the leg; risor-oris [m]
laughter, smile

cilwenu, to simpeer, smile, leer, ogle; gwenu,
to smile (Welsh)
sorridere, to
smile (Italian)
souire, to smile, to be favorable to (French)

calf of the leg? to smile [<ME
smilen]?

sori, suri (SVRI),
Script TC161, AN31
soro, suro (SVRV,
Script R286;
sorov, surov (SVRV8),
Script N738

dvaiguNya [n], the
double, double the
amount, value,
measure; dvitaya, adj., consisting of two, twofold, double, pl. both; n. a pair; dvaya [f], twofold, double,
double nature

dorarâbar,
docandân, joft,
double, adj.
(Persian)

dubler, dublowac,
kontrowac,
podwoic,
podwojny,
podwojony,
sobowtor, double;
pod, ponizej,
przy, u dolu,
wobec, under
(Polish)
SOSIE, double (Romannian)

diplos, diplasiazo
(Greek)
dyfish, kopje [e një personi], thesë e fortë, kthim, dyfishim, prapsim, dyshe, cift, ecje e shpejtë, krëvat
dopio, vrap i lehtë, double [n], poshtë, under, adv.
(Albanian)

duplex, double; sub = under

dwbl (dyblau) [m], double (Welsh)
sosia, double; suisare, to misrepresent, alter
(Italian)
double; sous, prep. under, beneath, on,
upon (French)

double [<duplex]?

sos, sus, (svs),
Script Z981, Z1027, Z1853

kaJcuka [m.f.], adj.,
coat of mail, bodice,
jacket; kavaca [m],
armour, mail, jacket,
the bark of a tree;
kUrpAsak [m], jacket, bodice

kazagand
(Persian)

kurtka, marynarka,
jacket (Polish)
SUTANĂ, cassock, coat (Romanian)

zaketa, sakaki,
jacket (Greek)
rasë, veladon,
cassock; kopertinë,
xhaketë, kopak,
dosje, këllëf,
lëvore, lupsa,
lëkurë, jacket [n]
(Albanian)
tunica-ae [f], a sleeved garmet, jacket, coat crysbais (crysbeisiau)
[f], jacket, jerkin;
siaced-i [f], jacket; casul-iau [m.f.], chasuble, cassock (Welsh)
sotana [f], cassock; giacca, involucro, buccia [f], jacket
(Italian)

soutane [f], cassock, soutane; tunique [milit.], veste, vareuse
[f], jacket (French)
cassock [<Pers.
kazagand, padded
jacket]? a long,
padded
jacket
[<OFr. jaque];
chasuble [LLat.
casubla, hooded
garment]
sotanas (svtanas),
Script Z263, Z405
dharuNa [f], bearing, supporting, holding [m], bearer, supporter; [n], support, foundation, receptacle; bharman [n], support,
nourishment;
sah,
sahate (-ti),
to
overpower, win
battles, be victorious, hold out, endure, sustain, withstand, resist, bear, suffer
negâhdâri kardan,
postibâni kardan,
tâb âvardan, to
support (Persian)
dodac otuchy,
podpora,
podtrzymac,
pomoc, poparcie,
popierac,
utrzymywac,
support (Polish)

fousta, skirt;
ypostirizo,
bastazo, ypofero,
sustain (Greek)
mbaj, mbështes,
mbështet, përkrah, ndihmoj, to
support (Albanian)

suesco, suescere, suevi, suetum, to become accustomed; suetus-a um, customary, usual;
sustineo tinire -tinui tentum

amwyn, to contend, seize, defend, support;
ategu, to confirm,
support, endorse;
cefnogi, to encourage,
support, back,
espouse, endorse;
cynnal, to sustain,
maintain, operate,
undertake, uphold, keep (Welsh)
sostenere, to support, sustain; sottana [f],
skirt, casssock, soutane (Italian)
soutenir, to support, to
sustain, to hold up, maintain, affirm; (French)

to support [<Lat. supporto-are, to
carry], to sustain [<Lat.
sustineo tinire -tinui tentum, to hold up]

soten, suten (SVTEN),
Script R426;

x

zir, pâyin, adv.,
prep., under
(Persian)

pod, ponizej,
przy, u dolu,
wobec, under
(Polish)
SUB(T), under, below (Romanian)

apo kato, under
(Greek)
poshtë, më poshtë,
nën zero, below
(Albanian)

subter

goris, is, o dan, prep., below, beneath, under;
tan (dan) prep., under, beneath, to, till, until, as far (Welsh)
subordinato,
sotto,
adv., prep.,under
(Italian)
soute [f], bunker; sous, prep. au-dessous de,
dans; adv. dessous
under (French)

under [<OE
under], below
[<ME bilooghe],
beneath [<OE
binithan]

sothi, suthi (SVΘI),
Script A-2, AF-9;
see Note 2)

spR, spRNoti,
spRNute, to loosen,
free from, rescue, save, attract, win;
rakS, rakSati, -te, to protect, guard, keep, save from,
take care of

rahâyi baxsidan,
pasandâz kardan, to save (Persian)

zbawiciel, savior;
ochronic,
oszczedzic,
uratowac,
zachowac, save
(Polish)

sozo, glytono,
oikonomo,
apotamievo,
mazevo, ektos, to
save (Greek)
mbroj, shpëtoj,
mbaj,
ruaj, kursej, mënjanoj, heq, vë mënjanë, to save; shpëtimtar,
shpëtues, savior
[n] (Albanian)

soter-eris [m], savior; libero-are, to set free; eripo -ipere -ripui reptum, to snatch away tear out, servo are, to watch over, observe, keep, protect, save, to keep to

achubwr-au [m],
achubydd-ion [m], savior, rescuer;
arbedwr (arbedwyr)
[m], miser, savior;
ceidwad [m], keeper, savior, custodian, curator;
gwaredwr [m], savior; iachawdwr [m],
savior;
safio, to save; sbario, to spare, save;
arbed, to spare, save (a life), avoid, obviate
(Welsh)
salvare, to save;
salvatore [m], savior; sottrari, to snatch (Italian)
sauver, to save; saveur [m] saver, savior (French)

savior? to save
[<Lat.
salvare;
salvus-a-um
, safe, unhurt, well, all right]; guard [<OFr. guarder]; spare [<OE sparian, to leave unharmed]

sotra, sutra (SVTRA)
Script Q139, Q171,
sotris (SOTRIS) Script L60
sotro, sutro, (SVTRV) Script Q117; see also arbiter

viSayI kR; viSTArin,
adj. spread; prastIrNa,
adj., spread, extended,
flat;
stIrNa, adj.
spread, scattered,
strewen

... vî ... jas
(Avestan)
pahn kardan,
gostardan, paxs
kardan, to spread
(Persian)

przestrzen,
rozciagac,
rozposcierac,
rozprzestrezeniac
rozprzestrzenienie,
rozrzut,
spread,
szerzenie, szerzyc,
spread (Polish)
platint (Baltic
Sudovian)

xaplono, diadido
(Greek
)
shtru, shtroj, hap,
shpalos, to spread (Albanian)

spado-onis [m] an
eunnuch
spargo,
sparger, sparsi,
sparsum
, to scatter,
sprinkle, spread,
dissipate

chwalu, to scatter,
spread, disperse,
dispel, dash to pieces; gwasgaru, to scatter, disperse, spread;
ymledu, to spread,
expand; hulio, to cover, spread; lledu, to wisen,
expand, spread, dilate, (Welsh)
sgànraich, va. scare, affright so as to cause
dispersion; sgaioil, va. and vn. stretch out,
extend, spread, expand, enlarge, send away, loose; sgap, va. scatter,
disperse (Scott)
spandersi, vt.,
spandare, vi
., to
spread, to diffuse, to send forth (Italian)
répandre, to scatter, spread; étendre; dispersion [f] (French)

to spread [<OE
spraeden], to
diffuse, to scatter,
strew [<OE
strewian]

SPANeRIM,
Script TC28,
spansa, Script
Z1781;
spantea, Script
R511;
spanti, Script
Q512, Q521, Q551
sparse, Script
TC150, TC170,
TC298

tarj, tarjati, to threaten, menace, abuse, revile;
tarjayati,-te, to deride, mock, frighten, terrify;
tras, trasati (-te) &
trasyati (-te)
, to
tremble, quake, be
afraid of; shake,
agitate, frighten, scare; vip, vepate, to
tremble, quake,
vibrate, take fright

tars, harâs [n],
tarsândan, to
frighten (Persian)

nastraszyc,
przestraszyc,
frighten (Polish)
SPERIA, SPĂRIA, to frighten (Romanian)

tromos, fobos,
skiachtro, fright
tromos, terror
(Greek)
frikësoj,
frikësohem
, tremb, to frighten
(Albanian)

exterrere, to frighten; terror, pavor, fright

brawychu, to frighten, terrify, terrorize; dychryn, to frighten; gwylltio, to frighten, enrage (Welsh)
spavento [m] fright, fear, terror; spaurire, vt., to frighten; spavaldo, adj. bold. (Italian)
épouvanter, terrifier (French)

to frighten [<OE fyrhto, fright]?

spavo (SPA8V),
Script
R142

Azas [f], wish,
expectation, hope;
zAs, zAsti, zAste
(zAsati, -te), to
chasten, punish,
correct rule, govern,
manage, direct,
instruct, order,
proclaim, fortell, wish,
pray, hope for, expect
from

omid [n], omidvâr
budan, to hope
(Persian)

miec nadzieje,
nadzieja,
spodziewac sie,
hope (Polish)
SPER, I hope; SPERI, you hope (Romanian)

elpizo, elpida,
hope; anamoni,
prosdokia,
expectation
(Greek)
kam
shpresë,
shpresoj, besoj që, uroj që, to hope (Albanian)

sperare, to hope; spes-ei [f], hope,
expectations, both
good and bad

gobaith (gobeithion) [m], hope; gobeithio, to hope; disgwyliad-au
[m], expectation
(Welsh)
sperare, to hope
(Italian)
ésperer, to hope
(French)

expectation [<Lat.
expectare, to
expect],
hope
[<OE hopian],
foreboding

spe, (spe tri) Script
Z784, AD-4, K152 –see
Spetri below
spi, Script AJ-6;
spo (SPV) Script AV-8  (see spolare)

deya, to be given,
granted, married,
restored, committed,
to present, pay; dA,
dadAti, datte, dadati, te (dAti, dadmi), to give, grant, bestow, impart, offer, sacrifice

pardâxt kardan,
xarj kardan, besar bordan, to spend
(Persian)

marnowac,
spedzac,
spent,
trwonic, wydawac,
spend (Polish)

dapano,
xodevo, spend
(Greek)
shpenzoj, harxhoj, kaloj, mbaroj, prish, shter, to spend (Albanian)

spisso-are, to make
thick; consumo-sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, to
spend, employ, use
up;
dispendere, to
weigh out

gwario, to spend,
expend, disburse;
treulio, to spend,
expend, wear, digest (Welsh)
spendere, to spend; speso, pp. (Italian)
dépenser, to spend
(French)

to spend [<Lat.
dispendere]? to
make thick?

speso (SPESV),
Script N453

hi, hinoti, hinute,
hinvati, to dispatch;
naucara, adj. going in a ship [m] sailor

ferestâdan, ravâne kardan, to send (Persian)

ekspedycja, takze,
wyekspediowac,
wyslac, wyslka,
dispatch (Polish)

apostello,
apostoli
(Greek)
shpie
, soj, nis
(Albanian)

expedio-ire-ivi and -ii-itum, to free from a snare, disengage, to get
things ready for action

anfon, to send,
dispatch, forward
(Welsh)
spedire (Italian)
expédier (French)
uija, to send (Hittite)

to dispatch [<OFr.
despechier], to
send, to ship

speto (SPETV) Script R219, R238,
Script R219, R238
spetri or spe tri, Script Z784

x

x

SPINARE, loin, back, SPIN, SPINI, thorns thorn (Romanian)

x

spina-ae [f], a thorn, prickle; difficulties,
perplexities

spianare, to smooth, to
level, settle, raze,
demolish; spino [m], thorn (Italian)
épine [f], thorn
(French)

name of the town, Spina – ruins near
Venice

Spina, Script R542;
Spini, Script R584;
Spinia, Script R574;
Spinaom, Spinaum
(SPINAVM)
, Script R596

x x SPĂLARE washing, flushing, lavation (Romanian)
x x x unknown word;
probably "I hope (spo) the god (lare)"
spolare, (SPVLARE) or SPV LARE Script AV-8

meni, f. weapon,
thrust, punishment,
vengeance, anger,
wrath; see
spAra3yati, to loosen, separate,
save, win
bibha3rti, bha3rati, -te, bharti, bhRta3, to bear,
bring forward, present, thrust; RS, RSati RSTa, push, thrust put in, cover, fill; nud, nudati, -te, thrust, impel, drive away; gR, girati, swallow, spit
out, eject

tof [n], tof kardan,
to spit; partâb
kardan, capândan,
gostardan, to
thrust; pisâmadegi,
birunoftâdegi,
protrusion
(Persian)

pluc, rozen, spat,
wypluc, spit;
sterczec,
wystawac,
protrude (Polish)
spurgas, bud,
young shoot
(Baltic-Sudovian)
SPOR, gain, increase, growth, benefit, progress; SCUIPA, to spit out (Romanian)

othisi, sproximo,
thrust;
spora, seed (Greek)
ngull,
shpoj, kërcej, peshtyj (Albanian)

spuo, spuere, spui,
sputum
, to spit out

poeri, to spit,
expectorate; had-au [m], seed, issue;
stwffio, to stuff, thrust, cram
(Welsh)
spor, va. incite, spur on, instigate (Scott);
espurgare, to
expurgate,
sputtare, to
spit;
sporgere, to
thrust out, protrude
(Italian)
pouser, to push;
espurgier, to purge (French)
saligai, to spit (Hittite)

to thrust out, spit [<OE spittan] out; to seed? Spew
out

spor (SPVR),
Script Z1334;
spora (SPVRA),
Script Z470;
spore SPVRE),
Script Z1065;
sporerim (SPVREIM),
Script Z317, Z386;
spores (SPVRES),
Script Z73, Z290,
Z872, Z945, Z999

sthA, tiSThati, -te,
stand, stay, stop,
remain, wait;
avasthaatuM
sthaa, sthitaH (situated)

âstâya [â-stâ]
hishtahi [stâ]
(Avestan)
isttof [n], tof
kardan,
to
istâdan, râst
sodan, pâydâri
kardan, to stand; mândan, tâb âvardan, negâh dâstan, to stay (Persian)

ostajati, zaustaviti,
stub (Serbo
Croatian)
stac, stoisko,
stojak, stood,
(Polish)
stajac, v. imp.
(Belarus)
stat, stalet
(Baltic-Sudovian)
STA, to stand; STAI, you stand, stop, hold on, halt; STARE, state, condition, situation (Romanian)

stamato, stirigma
(Greek)
mbetem, rri,
permbaj, to stay
(Albanian
)

sto, stare, steti, statum

sefyll, to stand, stop, halt, pose; aros, to wait, await, stay, stop,
remain, continue;
trigo, to stay, abide, dwell,
inhabit, die (Welsh)
fuirich, va.; fan, vn. +tainn, stay (Scott)
chom, to stay; war-sav, to be standing up,
(Breton)

stare (Italian);

stationare;
stationner
(French)

lip (Tocharian)
ta-, tti-, stta-, to put, set (Lycian)

ista (Luwian)

to stand [<OE
standan], stay
[<Lat.
stare, to
stand]

sta, Script N206, TA-2, AF-6
star, Script TC190;
STAReS, Script
TC298:
stai, Script Z638;
ste, Script N139;
sti, Script Z47,
Z155, Z206,
Z245, TC238, K79
sto (STV),
Script
Q303;

Sto – See hundred?

vrajin, adj., being in a stable; vraja [m], fold, shed, stable, station of herds; herd, flock, troop, multitude

âxor, stable [n],
stable; ostovâr,
seft, adj., serkat, ostegân [n], firm
(Persian)

stabilny, stajnia,
stateczny, stable
(Polish)
STABILI, to establish, stable, settle, determine, state.

statheros,
monimos,
stablos,
stablizo
, stable
(Greek)
ahur, stable [n]
(Albanian)

stabilis-e, firm, steady, stable; stabulum-i,
habitation, quarters

ystabl-au [f], stable
(Welsh)
stabile (Italian)
stable, adj. (French)

stable, firm; a
building, stable?

stabli (STA8LI),
Script N700

yuj, yunakti, yuGkta, yujate (see to bind together) to yoke, loosen, untie, sever from, deprive of, join, unite; pravibhakta
distributed, divided,
separate; spR,
spRNoti, spRNute,
loosen, rescue, save;
spAra3yati, attract,
win, alienate, tear
asunder, separate

bartari, barjastegi,
prominence; tude, kume, xarman [n],
stack; partgâh, cliff (Persian)

komin, stog, stos,
ukladac w stos,
stack; urwisko,
cliff (Polish)
karpis, cliff;
aukara, craig
(Baltic-Sudovian)
STRICA, to detach, separate, destroy

apospo,
aposyndeo, detach;
apotomos,
krimnodis, steep;
skopos, prothesi,
blepsi, scope
(Greek)
cep, dominum,
klasifikoi, ndaj, a
prominence;
rrëpirë,
skarpat, a
scarp; mullare,
qipi, pirg, tufë,
rafte, a stack
(Albanian)

scopulus-i [m], rock, craig, cliff, danger, ruin

allt (elltydd) [f], hill, hill-side, cliff, wood;
gallt (gelltydd) [f], hill, cliff, wood; clogwyn-i
-au [m], cliff, crag, precipice, bluff, beisgawn-au [f], stack of sheaves (Welsh)
stac [m] steep cliff or hill (Scott)
staccare, vi., stacco [spicco] [m] relief,
prominence;
scarpata,
[f], bluff, cliff, scarp (Italian)
escarpé, adj. steep, precipitous, sheer; stage [m], stage (French)

to detach,
separate, to put
off, to tear away, to disconnect, to
take down; (a
stack? [<ON
stakkr]);
a cape, scarp [<Ital. scarpa], dominance,
stack; raft
[<ON raptr, beam])

stakas, Script
TC190, TC298

ihastha, adj., standing or staying here

istâde, static, adj., (Persian)

nieruchomy,
niezmienny,
stayczny, static
(Polish)
STĂTUTĂ, old, decayed, tasteless (Romanian)

statikos, static
(Greek)
pozitë, rang,
rëndësi, standing
[n]; i pandryshueshëm,
në prehje, static,
adj. (Albanian)

sto, stare, steti, statum

safiad [m], standing, stature, stand, halt (Welsh)
statico, adj. static
(Italian);
statique, adj. static
(French)

static, standing

statita
Script
Q183, Q174,
R530, R664

glA, glAyati, to be
loth, displeased, averse to, wearied, exhausted, fade away, wearied,
faded, withered; mlA, mlAyati, -te (mlAti), to relax, languish, wither, fade, decay; zuS, zuSyati (-te), to
be dry, wither, fade,
make dry up, parch,
emaciate, afflict,
destroy; pANDu, adj., white, pale

pazmorde [n],
pazmordan,
kamrang sodan, to fade; rangparide,
kamrang, zard,
adj., pale (Persian)

blaknac, plowiec,
wiednac, zanikac,
fade; blady,
granica, plot,
sztacheta,
zblednac, pale
(Polish)

marainomai,
xethoriazo,
exantloumai, fade; ochros, chlomos,
palouki, ochrio,
chlomiazo,
perifrasso, pale
(Greek)
i fishkur, i venitur, i flashkët, i
zbërdhulët, i
shpëlarë, faded adj. (Albanian)

palleo-ere, to be pale or yellow; pallor-oris
[f] paleness, fading

diflannu, to disappear,
vanish, fade, flee; edwi (edwino) to fade, wither, decay; gwywo,
to wither, fade; gwelwi, to pale (Welsh)
stingere, to fade; stinto, adj. faded (Italian);
dépérir, to fade French)

to fade [<OFr.
fader], faded

stinto (STINTV),
Script Q376,
Q388, Q396,



shataM, hundred



saite [sata]
satem,
hundred (Avestan)
sad, adj. [n], hundred (Persian)



setka
, sto, hundred (Polish)
sto, hundred
(Serbo-Croation)
simtas (Baltic
Lithuanian)
SUTĂ, hundred (Romanian)



he-katon
, hundred
(Greek)
njëquind, hundred,
quind
(Albanian)



centum
, hundred

cant (can) cannoedd,
cantoedd
[m], hundred
(Welsh)
ceud hundred, (Scott)
kant, hundred (Breton)
cento (Italian)
cent, hundred (Fr.)
känt, hundred
(Tocharian)



hundred?


sto (STV)
,
Script
Q303; or
cueto (CFETV)
Script Z1137
see sta;

samarekha, adj.,
straight-lined, straight; Rju [f], straight, right, upright, honest; praguNay, -yati, to set right, make straight

râst, dorost,
yekrâst, straight, adj., adv. (Persian)

elastycznosc,
naciagnac, napiac,
naprezyc, przeciag,
rozciagnac,
rozciagniecie,
rozpietosc, stretch
(Polish)
STRÂMTĂ, tight, STRÂMTA, to tighten (Romanian)

eythys, isios,
kateytheian,
straight; tentono,
ekteino,
ekteinomai,
tentoma, stretch;
sfigko, tentono,
tighten (Greek)
i
drejtë, i ciltër, në rregull, adj.; drejt, adv. vijë drejtë [n],
straight (Albanian)

sterno, stenere, stravi, stratum, to stretch over, spread, lie down,
make smooth,
overthrow, calm,
strew;
strictus, tight; stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum, to draw together, affect,
draw weapon, touch upon

syth (seth) [f], adj., stiff, erect,
perpendicular, straight (Welsh)
stretta, tightening hold streto [m] straight [m],
adj. narrow, tight, close (Italian)
serrer, to tighten,
étroit, adj. straight, narrow (French)

straight, to stretch [<OE streccan],
to
strew [<OE
strewian]

streta, Script Z1571;
streter Script Z500

sUtray, -yati, to put
together, arrange, make into a, perform, compose, drive away, remove;
rac, racayati, to produce, form,
make, contrive,
arrange, produce,
cause, effect, compose, write

ârâstan, pirâstan,
râyânidan, to
arrange (Persian)

klasyfikowac,
planowac,
rozmieszczac,
ukladac, urzadzac,
zalatwiac,
zorganizowac,
arrange (Polish)

katatasso,
kanonizo,
dieytheto, arrange (Greek)
caktoj,
rregulloj,
fiksoj, ndreq, marr vesh, ujdis, bëj plan; aranzhoj
[mus.], vendos,
zgjdih, to arrange
(Albanian)

struo, struere, struxi, structum, to put together, arrange, pile up, build, erect, devise; stropha-ae [f], a trick, artifice;
strophium-i, a
breast-band, a
headband, chaplet

trefnu, to arrange,
order, organize,
marshall (Welsh)
disporre, combinare, adattare, comporre, arrange (Italian)
arranger, disposer, arrange; empiler, stack
(French)

name; possibly
with the prefix: to put together,
arrange [<OFr.
arangier], pile up, build, erect,
devise; a trick,
artifice

strogla, (STRVbLA)
Script Q521, Q671;
strophgla,
(STRVΦbLA) Script
R370, R487; R498
strophglas,
(STRV
ΦbLAS) Q543; see strophgla below
x x

figiel, lewa,
oszukiwac,
podstep, psota,
sztuka,
trik, trick
(Polish)

technasma, trik,
apati, trick
(Gtreek)
dredhi, mashtrim,
hile, yckël, marifet, lojë, rreng,
iluzion,
shaka, trick
(Albanian)

stropha-ae [f], a trick, artifice; strophium-i, a
breast-band, a
headband, chaple

sgil [m?], ploy,
strategem, skill;
tric-iau [m], trick, hoax (Welsh)
strofa, strofe [f],
strophe (Italian)
strophe [f], strophe (French)

strophe? name?
trick? [<ONFr.
trikier, to deceive]

strophgla
(STRVΦbLA)
, Script R370, R487, R498;
strophglas
(STRVΦbLAS)
Script R633
naT, naTati, to dance, play, perform, {ud} play a trick; chadman,
disguise, plea, pretext, trick, deceit, fraud; mAyA [f], art,
supernatural power,
wile, trick, deceit,
sorcery, illusion; yoga [m], yoking, team, harnessing, drive, yoke, fitting out, means, expedient, trick, stratagem, art,
fraud, deceit, magic


neyrang, râze kâr, [n], neyrang zadan, to trick
(Persian)


SĂU
, his, its;
COASEM, we sew  (Romanian)


x
 

suo, suere, sui, sutum, to sew
suo, sua, his, its


suo
, his, its (Italian)
soi, his, its (French)


sew, stitch, join;
his, its
su (SF) Script TC307 M50, DR-4; CP34 (see sa)
sua (SFA) Script AJ-11, BT24
sue (SFE) Script Z128, Z131, Z224, Z412, Z1809
sueitus (SFEITVS) Script HA-4
suem (SFEM) Script Z656, Z1835, Z1770
suis (SFIS) Script AP-5

das, dasyati, to suffer want, languish, exhaust, consume, be
wanting, fail; mRS,
mRSyate, not heed,
forget, suffer, bear, put up with, endure,
forgive, pardon

dastxose degarguni
sodan, degargun
sodan, to undergo ranj bordan, tan
dardâdan, dard
kasidan, to suffer (Persian)

cierpiec, tolerowac,
znosic, suffer
(Polish)

yfistamai, ypofero,
undergo; ypofero, pascho, suffer (Greek)
kaloj, pësoj, heq, to undergo; lejoj, vuaj, ndjej, provoj, to suffer (Albanian)

subeo-ire-li or ivi-itum

dioddef, to suffer, bear, endure, wait; goddef, to
bear, suffer, endure, tolerate, permit, let (Welsh)
subire (Italian)
subir (French)

to undergo, suffer [<Lat. suffero, sufferre, to hold up, support, endure, suffer]

suba (SV8A), Script
R633, R644

mRdu [f], soft, tender, delicate, mild, gentle,
weak, moderate;
madhya, adj., middle, central, moderate, indifferent, neutral

virân kardan, to undermine;
miyâneravi,
modârâ,
moderation [n]
(Persian)

podkopac,
undermine;
powsciagac,
spowalniac,
umiarkowany,
uspokajac,
wstrzemiezliwy,
moderate (Polish)
SUPRA, upper side, upon (Romanian)

egkratis, iremos,
sobaros, nifalios,
sober; yponomevo,
undermine (Greek)
gërryej themeli,
gërmoj nën të,
minoj, to
undermine,
(Albanian)

subruo-ruere-ruui
rutum
, to undermine;
sobrius-a-um, sober, moderate, frugal; modero-are, to
regulate, restrain, keep within bounds

cymedrol, adj.
moderate, temperate;
dirwestol, adj.,
temperate; tymherus,
adj. temperate;
tanseilio, to undermine
(Welsh)
sobrio, adj. temperate,
moderate (Italian)
sobre, adj. sober,
moderate, temperate
(French)

to undermine,
overthrow,
destroy;
sober,
moderate

subra (SV8RA),
Script R142

kSud, kSodati, pound, shatter, shake, stamp upon, dash to pieces {kSoda3yati} shake,
crush

larzes [n],
larzidan, takân
dâdan, to shake
(Persian)

drzec, luz,
potrazasac,
potrzasanie,
shook, trzasc, wstrzas, shake (Polish)
SCUTUR, shake from beneath, to haul dust, to agitate (Romanian)

seio, tinasso,
tinagma, shake
(Greek)
lëkund, tund,
fërgëlloj, përkund,
lëkundem, shkund,
dridhem, shtrëngoj,
dredh, lehtësoj,
trondit, troshis,
tallandis, to shake
(Albanian)

succutio-cutere-cussi
cussm
, to shake from beneath

cysgogi, to shake,
move; siglo, to shake, quake, rock, swing
(Welsh)
scuotere, scroilare, to
shake (Italian)
secouer, branler,
trembler, to shake
(French)

by his, Kato; or to shake [<OE
sceacan], from
beneath

sukatv (SVKATV),
Script
Q755
(possibly su Kato)

x x SULA, latin, subula, tool used to make holes in leather to pass the thread (Romanian)
x sullus-a, a swine
subula-ae, a shoemakers awl
x Sulla, name?
Sula (SFLA) Script TC19
x x SUNT, they are
(Romanian)
x sunt sono (Italian)
sont (French)
they are
SUNT (SVNT) Script Q701
(See SONT)

laGgh, laGghati, -te, to leap, spring over, go beyond, travel over, mount, ascend, escape, transgress, surpass

besyâr xub,
bâsokuh, superb, adj. (Persian)

nad, ponad,
powyzej, above;
doskonaly,
wspanialy, superb
(Polish)
SUPRA, upper side, upon (Romanian)

epi pleon,
moreover (Greek)
madhështor,
superb (Albanian)

supra

fry, adv. above, aloft rhagori, to excel, exceed, surpass, outdo,
predominate (Welsh)
superare, to surpass, overcome, exceed,
pass (Italian)
superbe, adj. superb
(French)

over, above,

besides, beyond,
moreover

super (SVPER)
Script
N417, Q805

tark, tarkayati, to
suppose, conjecture,
guess, reflect, regard, think of; kal, kalayati ( te) & kAlayati, to drive, impel, carry, bear, do, make, cause,
suppose, think; man,
manyate, -ti, manute, to think, believe, imagine, consider, observe, suppose

gomân bordan, to surmise (Persian)

przypuszczac,
sadzic, suppose
(Polish)

pano, pano apo,
above; ypotheto,
suppose (Greek)
mendoj,
supozoj,
to suppose
(Albanian)

supra, adv. over, on the top; of time,
before, previously;
above, more, beyond; opino-ari and opino-re, to suppose, be of
opinion

tebygu, toliken,
resemble, assimilate,
suppose (Welsh)
supporre, to suppose,
to surmise (Italian);
supposer, to suppose
(French)

to suppose?
above?

supro (SVPRV)
Script
Q661

tIkSNadaNDa,
bhRzadaNDa, adj.,
inflicting severe
punishment; dAruNa, to be hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe

saxt, saxtgir,
saxtgir, bipirâye, adj. severe (Persian)

ostry, powazna,
srogi, surowy,
uporczywa, severe
(Polish)

spoudaios,
sobaros, serious;
afstiros, severe;
afstiros, blosyros,
stern (Greek)
i ashpër, i rreptë, i sertë, i rëndë, i
vrazhdë, adj.,
severe; pupë, stern [n] (Albanian)

severus-a-um, grave, serious, strict, stern,
hard; adv. severe

manwl, adj. exact,
precise, strict; caled-ion, adj. hard, difficult,
firm, severe, harsh; dygn, adj. hard, severe,
grievous, dire,
pernicious; egr, adj. sharp, sour, severe, savage; gerwin, adj.
rough, severe, harsh (Welsh)
severo, adj. strict,
severe; sferrara, vt. to unshoe a horse; to deliver a blow;
sviare,
to deviate, avert, lead astray (Italian);
sévère, adj. severe; éviter, to avoid, avert
(French)

Severus, a name of
an Etruscan queen / king; to be
severe; to turn aside, swerve [<OE
sweorfan], veer, [<OFr. virer]

suvera (SV8ERA),
Script Q372, Q389,
Q391, which is also used in the context of a name; see
Svera
(SFERA)
, Script K31

 

Notes:

(1) In "su" the use of "f" as a vowel has been translating with the consonant "s" as "su"; this would require that "v" with the consonant "s" translate as "so." Where this takes place we can see a fairly consistent shift in the Latin vowel "u" to "o" in Italian and French.

(2) A short inscription on Queen Thaniquil's tomb, Script A, uses the word, svthi, under, which indicates that her remains were under that monument. She was the wife of the first Tarquin kings of Rome.
(3) Thanks to Constantin Cucu for his contributions on the Romanian language.



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