2/19/2010 Phrygian language, translation showing conjugation and declension patterns and vocabulary.



The Phrygian language
Translation of Phrygian scripts (continued, Phrygian2.html)

 by Mel Copeland
(Based on a related work, Etruscan Phrases,
first published in 1981)


The Midas City altars, buildings, Phrygian idols and pottery (Images of altars, buildings and pottery from "The Gordion Excavations (1950-1973), Final Reports, Volume II, The Lesser Phrygian Tumuli, Part II, The Inhumations," by Ellen L. Kohler, University of Pennsylvania Museum, 1995; images of the idols from "Phrygian Rock Cut Shrines," Susanne Berndt-Ersöz). More photos of these monuments can be found in "The Highlands of Phrygia – sites and monuments," C. H. Eilie Haspels, Princeton University press, 1971.

Midas City Step Altars

Phrygian Idols

Stele with relief of double idol from Sincan, Ankara. Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, (after Mein &Akaln, 2000)
Relief of double idol reused in a fountain at Faharet Cesme, Karayollari Park
Stele with matar from Bahselievler, Ankara Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Midas City idol that has (unclear) writing
Below: Midas City monument with idol, matar
Midas City monument with idol, possibly "matar" without lions
Phrygian Pottery

Midas City buildings, on the top of the monument – probably occupied by the priests and priestesses

See also ioa.ucla.edu (Backdirt), "The Phrygian Sanctuary of Gordion at Dümrek Project," by Brendan Burke, which reports on more altars / throne stepped structures at Dümrek. Burke argues that the structures are not altars, but more like thrones, since some have armrests associated with the top step. He also points out that there is no evidence of sacrifices: "Similar monuments—which have been found throughout Phrygia at sites such as Midas City and Kalehisar—were called “altars” by W. Ramsay. The term “altar” has unfortunately stuck. Many scholars agree that the term should be abandoned, for there is no evidence of the burning, pouring, or offerings to a divinity that would be expected if these were in fact altars...The site of Dümrek preserves the greatest number of such monuments from any known site in the region of Phrygia. The first throne has six steps leading to a seat with armrests and a crescent–shaped back support. The most remarkable discovery of our work in 1999 was an even larger stepped throne on a ridge just to the east of the first example. A massive carved boulder with eight steps leading to a seat complete with armrests had tumbled at some point in the past..."

Gordion (Images from "The Gordion Excavations, Final Reports, Volume II, The Lesser Phrygian Tumuli, Part II, The Inhumations," Ellen L. Kohler, University of Pennsylvania Museum, publisher, 1995)

The tumuli of Gordion, view from the air. Many of the graves in the complex had been robbed before the archeologists got to them.

Pitcher Tum B15. Shard Tum H22
Bowl, Tum H1 Pitcher, Tum H8

Mycenaean Krater ca.1400-1300 B.C. (Compare to Phrygian).
Tutorial at: http://web.onetel.net.uk



Etruscan Glossary with Phrygian words:

Send me to Lydian.html

Click here for a spreadsheet of the words, Lydian Glossary.xls or Lydian_Glossary.html

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