What I am trying to do with this website
Myths, mirrors and Etruscan declension patterns
Etruscan gods and goddesses, Etruscan_Phrases_b.html
Battle of the hero-god with the dragon: victory of light over darkenss, Etruscan_Phrases_b.html
Unique Etruscan storylines, Etruscan_Phrases_b.html
The Etruscan language is Indo-European, as confirmed herein, Etruscan_Phrases_b.html
Studying the Etruscans and their Indo-European relations through Table 1, Etruscan_Phrases_b.html
The Etruscans and the Trojan War, Etruscan_Phrases_c.html
Indo-European homelands and migrations, Etruscan_Phrases_c.html
The testimony of the Iliad and its relationship to the Indo-European saga, Etruscan_Phrases_c.html
Breaking down the Etruscan language through the scientific method, Etruscan_Phrases_d.html
Background on the methodology, Etruscan_Phrases_d.html
A short history, Etruscan_Phrases_d.html
Mapping the spread of the tumuli, Etruscan_Phrases_d.html
The Mycenean connection, Etruscan_Phrases_d.html
On reading the scripts, Etruscan_Phrases_d.html
What the translations are revealing, Etruscan_Phrases_d.html
The search for the Indo-European mother tongue, Etruscan_Phrases_e.html
Theories on the difussion of culture, Etruscan_Phrases_e.html
Comparative Linguistics and the movement of the Indo-Europeans, Etruscan_Phrases_e.html
Phylogenetic Chronology, Etruscan_Phrases_e.html
Trade routes, Etruscan_Phrases_f.html
Claims as to who was first among the Indo-Europeans, Etruscan_Phrases_f.html
Etruscan - its place in the Indo-European sequence, Etruscan_Phrases_f.html
Etruscan_Grammar.html & Etruscan_GlossaryA.xls
Banquet of the Gods: Banquet.html
Hittite Treaties.html | Phrygian.html | Lydian.html
When was the Iliad and Odyssey Created?
Etruscan Murals (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Etruscan Language - A compilation of work notes
Etruscan Declension patterns as thety relate to Latin, Greek, Sanskrit (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Accentuations of the Etruscan language that are comparable to Indo-European patterns (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Unique perspectives in Etruscan mythology Rev. 1.28.13 (PDF) Acadamia.edu
New additions of Etruscan texts on military affairs Acadamia.edu
Etruscan GlossaryA (PDF) Acadamia.edu
How to use Etruscan Glossary A spreadsheet (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Novilara Stele (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Pyrgi Gold Tablets (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Magliano Disk (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Zagreb Mummy (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Cortonensis (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Perugia Cippus (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on Bona Dea & the Goddess Uni-a survey of Etruscan &Latin texts relating to the Pyrgi Gold Tablets Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine (III) Script Q278-Q453 (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine IIB Script Q1-Q273 (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine IV Script Q543-Q915 Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine Ia Script N462-N748 Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine V, Script R1-R154
Work Notes on the Lemnos Stele, Script S Acadamia.edu
Translation of Etruscan Devotional Plates (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Translation of Etruscan Devotional Plates II (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Translation of Etruscan Devotional Plates III (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work notes on Etruscan Devotional Plates among the Celts (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on Etruscan Mirrors and Murals I Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on Etruscan Mirrors and Murals II Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on Etruscan Mirrors and Murals III Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on Etruscan Mirrors and Murals IV Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on Phrygian texts Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on Thracian texts Acadamia.edu
Translation of Etruscan short inscriptions (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 11, "uk" to "vre" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-Eropean Table 1, Part 10, "ta" to "tuto" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 9, "senata" to "Severa" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 8, "ri" to "semenies" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 7, "plak" to "rev, revio" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table1, Part 6, "mi" to "piviato" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 5, "la" to "meva" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 4, "fac" to "itis" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table1, Part 3, "chaina" to "evalta" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 2, "ca" to "ceto" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 1, "A" to "Brater" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Indo-European Table 1, Part 1, "A" to "Brater" (PDF) Acadamia.edu
The Triple-dot Pattern and the Swastika in Ancient Art Acadamia.edu
When one begins
an investigation one does not know where it will lead.
Of key importance to any investigation is the way the
data are gathered and recorded; then the process by
which the information is analyzed. With diligence the
study may open new vistas and they too are important to
the work. Bear with me, now, as we explore the
fascinating, mysterious world of the Etruscans, their
neighbors, ancestors, hopes, dreams and fears. I say,
fears, since their writing includes fearsome depictions,
as can be seen for instance, in the Tomb of Orcus (who
would want to be buried with such depictions around
them?), which you may wish to view by clicking on the Etruscan_murals
link. To understand the Etruscans we have to step
into their world about ~1,200 B.C. Although that date
and the subsequent centuries are somewhat of a "Dark
Age" to us, we can see in the light from the Etruscans
and other Indo-European peoples, such as the Aryans of
India who created the Rig Veda, and the Danaäns
of the Iliad, an attempt to reconcile their
lives, their hopes and dreams, to that which is greater
than they are: the gods. What these ancient peoples, in
those ancient times, were reconciling was then even
ancient history to them.
Also described in this work are the Celts, who have passed down a similar, though abbreviated, Indo-European tradition that continues with us till this day. They passed down to us the Táin Bó Cuailnge, also called The Tain. It is about a great battle between the two major chieftans of Ireland, concerning a cattle-raid by Queen Medb and King Ailill, of Connacht, with their allies, against the king of Ulster. The hero of the story is Cúchulainn, his name meaning "the hound of Chulainn." Though a giant of a man, still in his youth, he is obliged to watch the cattle that are about to be raided, because he killed the hound that normally watched the cattle. Obviously he is at the center of the battle that takes place and certain warriors that are killed in the battle leave their names to the places of Ireland where they were killed. It follows the same pattern of story-telling as the Iliad and the Hindu version of the "great battle" called the Mahabharata. An Anglo-Saxon, Danish version of the "great battle" is another wonderful story, Beowulf, that involves the hero, Beowulf, who destroys the monster Grendel, that lives underground, and feeds upon the warriors of a Danish palace. More ancient in the Indo-European tradition, perhaps, is the Rig Veda, which tells us of the god Indra (like the Greek god Zeus and Etruscan god Tinia) who destroys a dragon. In Greek mythology Zeus destroys the monster, whose legs were serpents, Typhöeus or Typhon. In Celtic mythology the name of this god who destroyed monsters or dragons is probably Cernunnos, who will be discussed more in this work. Typhöeus is a character, like many other Greek gods, remembered in Etruscan images. Knowing this we should be able to find in Tinia's ephitet a refrence to Typhöeus, or the Etruscan name of that character, if much different.
A curious turn in our exploration of the Etruscan language has led to the Phrygian language and its very similar grammatical patterns that relate to the Etruscan language. Herodotus and other ancients, particularly Strabo, provided pointers suggesting that the Etruscans, originating in Lydia, and the Phrygians shared a common heritage and land. Strabo and others further point out that the Phrygians are identical to the Mysians and Thracians. He also compares the Thracians to the Celts. The ancient texts that point to the Etruscan-Phrygian-Celtic connection are at the "Etruscan Phrases" Phrygiank.html. Strabo describes these people as being very ancient and attributes many inventions, such as wagons, to them. He, as well as other ancient writers, says that the Phrygians are believed to have come from Thrace. He further points out that the Getae and Thracians share the same tongue. Strabo then points out that the island of Lemnos was first settled by Thracians. Lemnos has strong connections to the Phrygians and interestingly the Lemnos Stelae, Script S, written in Etruscan characters, shows a punctuation (3-dot colon) like the Phrygian script. While the Lemnos Script has been identified as an Etruscan writing, it appears that it is Phrygian, though both the Etruscans and Phrygians appear to share the same language.
In Book X, Chapter 3.12, Strabo gives an interesting description of the Phrygian religion: "But as for the Berecyntes, a tribe of Phrygians, and the Phrygians in general, and those of the Trojans who live round Ida, they too hold Rhea in honour and worship her with orgies, calling her Mother of the gods and Agdistis and Phrygia the Great Goddess, and also, from the places where she is worshipped, Idaea and Dindymene and Sipylene and Pessinuntis and Cybele and Cybebe. The Greeks use the same name 'Curetes' for the ministers of the goddess.." If the Etruscans shared the same religion worshipped among the Trojans, then we ought to expect to find Cybele's worship in their texts. The Etruscan mirrors and murals, however, project Uni as the mother-goddess (L. Juno; Gr. Hera) and on the Divine_Mirror.html we see the consort of Tinia (L. Jupiter; Gr. Zeus) as RALNA, who, in the Divine-Mirror, is the mother of Helen of Troy. In another mirror, Script AH, Volterra_Mirror, we see Uni suckling Heracles, accompanied by a text held up by Tinia. Of interest in this regard is a statement by Strabo, Book V, Chapter 4, that identifies the Etruscan "Hera" as "Cupra." He is discussing the Italian coast towards Naples, referring to the Etruscan Temple of Cupra, and then reviews a place considered to be one of the entrances to Hades which is called the Archerusian Lake, near Cumae. A similar place is discussed in Phrygia, possibly as Hieropolis. The discussion leads back to Lemnos (where Hephaestos [Latin, Vulcan] was believed to have been born) and possible connections to the Phrygian archeological site called Midas City which may be the Midiaeium described by Strabo. Strabo lists Midiaeium geographically with nearby cities such as Afyon and Gediz. In sum, the Etruscans and Phrygians appear to be connected in many ways, in historic background, mythology and language.
Complicating the issue is the Aeneid by Virgil which identifies the ancestors of the Romans with Trojan refugees who speak the same language as the Latin tribe of Latinus who occupied Rome, where the Trojans led by Aeneas settled. This story thus merges with historical accounts, where apparent grammatical affinities among the Etruscans, Phrygians and Trojans point to a pan-Latin language group that moved through Thessaly into Anatolia and from there to Italy. The presence of the Latin and "Italic" tribes preceeding the "Trojans" suggests that the migration celebrated by Virgil was not the first migration of Latin speaking people to Italy. Curiously, ranked with other "Italic" languages that defy translation is "Old Latin," as preserved in the texts of the Fibula Praenestina, Duenos Vase, Ficorroni cista, Carmen Arvale and Carmen Saliare. (For links to these texts see en.allexperts.com/q/Latin-2145/) The historian of the Punic Wars, Polybius (wrote between 246-167 B.C.), reported that the first treaty between Rome and Carthage — written in Old Latin — was difficult to translate. Other treaties were difficult to translate, as reported by Dionysus of Halicarnassus IV:26 and IV:28; Plinius, "Naturalis Historia," XXXIV:14) and the treaty between Rome and Ardea (Cicero, "Pro Balbo," 23.53).
Polybius, "The Rise of the Roman Empire," Book III.22): "...I give below as accurate a translation as I can of this treaty, but the modern language has developed so many differences from the ancient Roman tongue that the best scholars among the Romans themselves have great difficulty in interpreting certain points, even after much study."
Vase" appears to have similar words to those used in
Etruscan texts. We recognize TENOI (Etr. TENV, (Q893),
INE (BT-21?), with INAS, INNI, INV; MAROS may be L.
mare-is (3rd declension). Of interest is that Etruscan
MAREM (Z1139) agrees with Latin 3rd declension, mare-is,
sea, whereas the Old Latin MAROS (L. marus?) does not
fit in the scheme of the 3rd declension. TODAS appears
to be L. tutus-a-um, Etr. TVTA, TVTAS (N11, N41), TVTE,
TVTHI. OPETOI appears to be L. oppidum-i, fort, Etr. VPETV (R49). Following
this word is TESIA which appears to be a name because of
its "ia" suffix. A discussion on Old Latin is at wikpedia.org. An Etruscan text
that appears to be transitional to Old Latin is Script ON.
Some of these early tribes, unlike their heroic Trojan War era cousins — of Etruscans, Phrygians, Trojans, Lydians, etc. —shared a living standard like the celts, typified by the tribes called the Roxolani. Says Strabo, "the Nomads, their tents, made of felt, are fastened on the wagons in which they spend their lives; and round about the tents are the herds which afford the milk, cheese, and meat on which they live; and they follow the grazing herds, from time to time moving to other places that have grass, living only in the marsh-meadows about Lake Maeotis." Strabo then lists the Iapodes who lived near Illyria (modern Croatia, Albania): "They are indeed a war-mad people, but they have been utterly worn out by Augustus. Their cities are Metulum, Arupini, Monetium, and Vendo. Their lands are poor, the people living for the most part on spelt and millet. Their armour is Celtic, and they are tattooed like the rest of the Illyrians and the Thracians." The description of these Celtic relatives is very similar to the record of Julius Caesar's "Gallic Wars" and others, such as Gerald of Wales' description of the Welsh people in his 1188 A.D. books, "The Journey through Wales" and "The Description of Wales." The populations of Celtic-Latin peoples are believed to have shared a common language and certainly dominated Western Europe from the time of the Trojan War.
While there is no doubt that the Etruscan language, as shown on this site, is Indo-European and closely related to Latin, the work is not complete until other relationships are examined. We need to better understand what the Etruscan scripts say, and to do that, though we can read them, we need to be able to understand what we are reading. This is where an understanding of other like mythologies and languages is important and introduced in this work. For instance, in the "Tomb of the Lioness," in Tarquinia, a mural (See Etruscan_Murals) shows dancers and musicians on either side of an enormous vase or cauldron, and above them a lioness and a leopardess. What mythology is being represented here? Can the dance be similar to the Celtic ritual on the Gundestrop Cauldron? As will be seen in this work, the images from the Etruscan tombs are not just pretty images, though many have deteriorated; they tell a story. Our purpose ought to be to understand that story, to hopefully find at least a piece of the story in the extant Etruscan scripts. We need to step beyond the efforts of the "historians" of the past.
Because so many of the Etruscan murals recall Greek mythology — many contain names that coincide with Greek gods and godesses — we can presume that they adopted Greek themes to themselves, like the Latins. The Greek Zeus is the Latin Jupiter, for instance, and he is called Tinia by the Etruscans. We also know from the Aeneid of Vergil (born in Cisalpine Gaul, 70 B.C.) that the Lydian refugees with Aeneas were able to enlist the Etruscans (Tyrrhenians) to aid them in their war against the indigenous Latins at Rome. Mentioned in that tale is also the fact that nearby was a Greek colony. The Greeks did influence Etruscan works of art, justifying the title of the "Hellenic" period in Etruscan "history." I put the word, history, in quotes for a reason: What is known about the Etruscans is from archaeological data and bits and pieces of testimonials from the Greek and Latin historians. Here we shall attempt to put more legitimacy to the idea of an Etruscan history, one that at least is composed of words and images, as we can see from the murals and mirrors, from their own hands — not others. Like the Greek mythology, Etruscan mythology focuses on patronymic relationships important to them. These characters are particularly associated with actors involved in the Trojan War and a few, like Alcestis and Admetus, provide moral lessons and conundrums. A modern representation of their history, from their point of view, is carried in a mirror about King Tarquin, whose powerful wife, Tanaquil, compelled him to move from Tarquinia to Rome where he became king. The mirror shows an augur warning Tarquin to beware.
mirrors: Translation of Miscellaneous Short
Inscriptions.d.html, Scripts AC, BR , AV,
SC ; and
Mirrors: BM, DJ, DG, DD, DC, DB,
DA, DE, DF, DK, DN Script AC is
written around an aryballos. We need an
image detailing the other side of the
aryballos to complete a translation. It
refers to the mistress Turan (Aphrodite,
Venus). Script BR is a bowl / plate found in Rome with other
shards at the base of the Capitol. It
carries two interesting words that relate to
other declensions involving the suffix "ii,"
as in RASIIA, ANIIA and Tarquii.
Script SC is a small shard from Cetamura and indicative of the importance of a small piece of pottery carrying text, for the text is LAVS INI...The word, LAVS (L. laus, laudis, praise) is used in Script TC, Tabula_Cortonensis.html, TC-211 is in the following context: LAVS ISA. The Cortonensis text appears to controvert the translation of the Cetamura shard by Dr. Nancy Thomson de Grummond, Florida State University, who stated that the shard contains the name of the owner: "Lausini." (Updated 5.30.09)
The Divine_Mirror tells the story
of the bargain Agamemnon made with Helen for her
hand in marriage to his brother Menelaus, the
abudction of Helen by Alexander (Paris) prince
of Troy. In the Judgment of Paris, Alexander was
asked to judge between Hera, Athena and
Aphrodite, as to which was the fairest.
Alexander chose Aphrodite (Etr. TVRAN). The son
of King Priam of Troy, Aescus (Etr. Aecai)
prophesied that Alexander would be the cause of
the destruction of Troy. Cassandra also
prophesied of its destruction, but when she
received her gift of prophecy she was told that
no one would believe her. The goddess Artemis,
virgin of the hunt and sister of Apollo, was
also involved with the prophecy, since Agamemnon
had bragged that he could shoot as well as
Artemis. An anomaly exists in this mirror,
however, since the name MEAN appears above the
head of the character known as Artemis. The name
Artemis appears in many other Etruscan mirrors,
causing one to wonder why that character was
given the name MEAN in the "Divine Mirror." If
the prophet Calchas is to believed, Artemis was
so enraged over the idle boast she demanded the
sacrifice of Agamemnon's daughter, Iphigenia.
When the sacrafice was about to be made, Artemis
switched the girl for a deer and sent her off to
become a high priestess of the Taurians. In the
mirror MEAN is accompanied by a deer and is
crowning Alexander, while Agememnon shakes hands
with Helen, to the alarm of Aescus (Etr. Aecai)
while LASA THIMRAE, who carries a wand and an
unguent bottle, departs the room. The unguent
bottle is seen in many Etruscan tomb murals.
MEAN appears in other mirrors, seated before
Manerva, Aphrodite and Heracles (Script CBZ),
between Heracles and the prostitute Larentia
(Script CZ) and seated before Adonis and a
Bacchante who is shouting "euan.")
In the top panel of the mirror are four figures of interest: TVRAN (Aphrodite) HERCLE (Heracles) EPEVR (Epior?) TINIA (Etr. Zeus) and RALNA (Nemesis?). Of the characters shown in the mirror, Heracles is the most perplexing, who holds a cherub, EPEVR, in his hand. Heracles had no involvement in the Trojan War, to our recollection. EPEVR or EPE VR appears to be the son, Eros, of TVRAN (Aphrodite). Some accounts say that Aphrodite caused her cherub-like son to shoot his arrows of love at Helen, causing her to fall in love with Alexander. The presentation of EPEVR appears to suggest that Heracles is the father of Eros by Aphrodite, an anamoly. Aphrodite was also involved in the conception of Helen, since she pursued Zeus, causing him to change into a swan in his chase of Nemesis, who had changed into a goose. Zeus caught Nemesis who laid an egg containing the most beautiful girl in the world, Helen. The egg was given to Leta, the wife of KingTyndareus of Sparta, who raised the child as her own. Aphrodite had other lovers, such as Anchises, and gave birth to a son by him whose name is Aeneas.
The suffix "ia" in Tinia, and "ai" in the name of Helen, Elenai, led to the identification of the suffixes as determinants for proper names (genitive case?), as in the case of Atai (Hades), Acai (Aesacus) and Phersipnei (Persephone), the latter seen in the judgment scene of the tomb of Orcus. Helen's name is spelled in another declension as ELENEI on mirror MM-1. Also on this page is a mirror, Script OB, from Tarquinia in the possession of Oberlin College that is of the Judgment of Paris, containing the names, MINRFA (Minerva), Uni, Turan and a variant spelling of Alexandar; i.e, on DM-6, ELCHINTRE and OB-4, ELACHSNTRE. (12.08.07)
More mirrors are at Miscellaneous Short Inscriptions.d.html: BM, DD, DC, DB, DA, DE, DF, DG, DH, DK, DN, DO Script DF carries another complex story, combining that of Orestes with Jason, the leader of the Argonauts who sought the Golden Fleece. Both stories involve the revenge of the son of the father's murder. Orestes took revenge upon Clytemnestra, his mother, and her lover, over their murder of Agamemnon. Jason, son of Aeson, took revenge upon Pelias who had murdered his half-brother, Aeson, for the throne of Iolcus.
Translation of Miscellaneous Short Inscriptions.c,html Scripts GA, MR, MM, OU, VG, VA, CH, MG, MH, PF, LM, DP, DQ, DR, DS, PF Script GA is from the necropolis of Gouraya near Algiers, Algeria. Script MR is a mirror containing what appears to be the Nereid Thetis, the goddess of wisdom, Minerva, the goddess of discord, Eris, and Heracles.
Translation of the two Lemnos stele, Script S [~60 words] (6.13.06) This script is being reworked and seems quite poetic, repeating the word eternal (L. aevus-i; Etr. AFIS).
Translation of the Tavola
Cortonensis, Script TC, [~284 words] the latest find of an Etruscan
script. This is a letter of demand which appears
to relate to passage money and is addresssed to
a commander of the Etruscans. Rasna, the name of
the Etruscans, is mentioned twice in the text.
The sender appears to be of the Latins. The text
is amazingly consistent with the body of the
other Etruscan texts and from it I have acquired
more vocabulary. It seems to involve a conflict
over passage through a domain that also has a
complaint regarding daughters-in-law (nuora),
thus suggesting a family alliance that has been
broken. A short introductory text is on one side
and on the reverse one finds the rest of the
message. Shades of French and Italian are strong
in this text. I am revisiting the text for the
fourth time, reconciling it to the other
Translation of the Novilara Tablet, Script L . [~76 words] It was found near Pesaro and dates around the 5th to 4th century B. C. This script uses characters common to the Osco-Umbrian scripts. (9.10.06).
of the Siculian Tablet, Script F.
words] It is a
short letter from a grandson, Brutus, to his
grandfather dating around the 5th century B.C (9.11.06)
of theMagliano Lead Disk, Script M.
the oldest of the texts dating from circa. 600
B.C. It is written in a spiral (labyrinth) much
like the Phaestos Disk. It uses the TH more
extensively than other scripts. This script,
like the Tavola Cortonensis, is a military
document, and it too invokes Dione, Minerva and
Tinia in the defense of its oration.(Updated 6.16.06). This script has been updated in
correspondence with our Etruscan Glossary.
Translation of the Perugia Cippus, Script K. [~195 words] It contains a list of queens and refers to their power and relationships. Much of the script seems to be a record of a Queen Sarina. Her bust is in the Louvre Museum. She was an extraordinarily beautiful woman, as can be seen from the bronze bust. The bronze has her name inscribed on its forehead. I have updated the translation reflecting findings from the other scripts and reviewing a better copy of the script supplied by the Perugia Museum. We can confirm the word, RINA, queen, used throughout this text with a name, like SARINA, through the bronze bust in the Louvre. The text is unusual since it lists queens and no king is mentioned.
The cippus is proving to be a history and most interestingly seems to have identified a Queen Hinera of the Valley of Fiesole (ancient Florence) – see K65, K66 – whose name also appears in the Zagreb Mummy's wrappings closest to the mummy's body. This has to be verified, but it may be that between the two documents there is a disclosure of not only the Queen of the Etruscan city Fiesole but also the name of the person of the Zagreb Mummy, who died in Egypt, Hinera, the queen of Fiesole (Florence)? This is, thus, becoming an Etruscan history, not from others, such as the Romans and Greeks, but from the Etruscans themselves. K65 is the beginning of a new section of the text, suggesting that the previous section deals with a dynasty of the Clensi, featuring Queen Sarina (K45-K52). The Clensi are mentioned in the text on the bronze statue of Prince Metelis. So far, we have three documents being linked together in the Perugia Cippus.
Of interest are words on the lateral side of the cippus that seem to be more related to the Italian language: K188 — RONCHVLeR (RVNKVLeR), to swallow up (It. ringolare — ringhiottire) or to recoil, fall back, withdraw (It. rinculare; reculer; L. recello-ere) and K194 — CECHASI (CEKASI), (It. checchessia, anything, everything, chicchessia, anyone, anybody; Fr. quelquechose). This is the more challenging part of the text which seems to conclude: "and indeed the gods there to swallow up, fall back, I bind; as far as anything you inhabit." On the front of the monument may be the name of Perugia (Perusia) which begins with a phrase: LERI TEVeNS (TE8eNS) TEIS, the lords divine (L. dius-a-um; adj. divinus) of the gods RASNE SIPA AMA HENNA PER the Etruscans (Rasne) she encloses (L. saepio, saepire, saeps, saeptum) she loves Henna (L. Henna [Enna], f. city of Sicily with a temple of Ceres); through, by (L. per) XII FEL RINA RVRAS ARAS, twelve of the great (Fel) queen (L. regina-ae, f.; It. f. regina; Fr. reine, f.) (PE)RASCEM VLiM, at Perusia (Perugia, Perusia, Tuscan town; "em" suffix, accusative) at times, for a long time now, often (L. olim). The cippus may be the most important Etruscan text found to date. (Updated 12.25.06).
Partial translation of the Capua Tile, Script CP [~126 words that can be read – script largely unreadable] This script is so badly damaged only a portion of it can be made out at the moment. I need a better copy of the tile! It contains the name of the goddess Aph, a partial genealogy of the Etruscan gods which appear to have been born out of Aph, including the god Tini and an interesting reference to HIPA RIV, the "river horse" which may relate to the Egyptian goddess of fertility which had the body of a hippopotamus with human breasts and features of other animals. Places and boundaries, providing somewhat of a geography lesson from Etruscan times, are mentioned, including rivers relating to the people of Pisa and the Oscans. This is so far the most interesting of the Etruscan scripts. (10.06.01).
Translation of sheet
1 of the Pyrgi Gold Tablets, Script Au. [~72 words]
These gold tablets were found in the sanctuary
of Pyrgi, dating circa. 5th century B.C. This is
an oration during the Festival of Hera with
regard to a controversy (polemic) involving the
goddess Aph. The Etruscan tablets are a
dedication to Uni, the Roman Juno, and affirms
her seat as the main sigoddess of the site. She
is addressed in the two tablets both as Uni, the
Etruscan Juno, whose name may also be in the
text as IVNO. Juno is the moth and fertility
goddess of the Romans and the occasion of the
dedication is on the feast called Heraea (L.
Heraea-orum). The oration calls Uni and Janus,
the god of wisdom, to the rock together before
the Italian magistrates' seats to resolve a
controversy (polemic). The beginning of the
oration acknowledges the goddess Thia, (L.
Dia-ae), mother of Mercury (Gr. Hermes) "to you
Maia" and the god Janus. Maia was the oldest
daughter of Atlas and the Oceanid Pleione. One
of the Pleaides, Maia was shy and lived quietly
in a cave on Mount Cyllene, in Arcadia. Zeus
seduced her, from which a son, Hermes, was born.
Hermes was a precocious child and while still in
swaddling clothes stole the cattle of Apollo,
hiding them in his mother's cave. Hermes (Roman
Mercury) seems to have played a very strong role
in the Etruscan religion, and a dedication of
his feast days can be read at Script HT. Mercury seems
to have had a large presence in Celtic religion
the reference to Maia also acknowledges the
calendar date of the Heraea held in Pyrgi, we
are tempted to postulate that the confusing,
mysterious date for the Heraea, at least among
the Etruscans, coincided with the later Roman
month of Maius. Like the old Greek lunar
calendars, the early Roman calendar involved 10
months: Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Iunius,
Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October,
November and December (September, "seventh
month," October, "eighth month," November,
"ninth month," and December, "tenth month." The
calendar was later revised to include ianuarius
and Februarius. In order to keep the calendar
year roughly aligned with the solar year, Numa,
the second king of Rome (715-673 B.C.), added an
"intercalated" month every other year at the end
of February of 22 -27 days, called the
Interclaris, or Mensis Intercalaris, sometimes
also known as Mercedonius or Mercedinus. The
leap month was added from time to time at the
end of February, which was shortened to 23 or 24
days. The resulting year was either 377 or 378
We know that the Etruscans used "Roman numerals" in their dating system, seen in Scripts AN, for instance. Since the Romans received their alphabet (that which is used for English) from the Etruscans, we can rightfully assert that the Roman Numerals should be called "Etruscan Numerals," setting the heritage where it belongs. The Roman Calendar may also owe its origin to the Etruscans, who no doubt were influenced by the Greek calendars of 10 lunar months. As may be revealed in the Pyrgi Gold Tablets, the Etruscan calendar may, in fact, be influenced by the date of the Heraea Festival, just as the Greek calendar(s) were influenced by the Heraea and the Olympiad held every four years. The following, which is relevant to the date of the Pyrgi Heraea, is from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympiad:
An Olympiad, especially in ancient literature, was a period of four years (Polybius, Histories 9.1.1) counting inclusively (the fifth year during which the games were held was also the first year in the beginning of the new cycle), starting with the games at Olympia. The ancient Olympics, it is believed, originated from Heracles, the eldest of five brothers, who matched them in a race and crowned the winner with an olive branch. The games, in accordance with the number of brothers, were held every fifth year (Pausanias, Description of Greece (Elis 1) 5.7.6-9). By our modern calendar system (Gregorian), the first Olympiad is reckoned to the year 776 BC, which year is arrived at deductively. The first year of the common era (1 CE/AD) is equivalent to the seven-hundred and fifty-fourth year from the founding of Rome (AUC 754) according to the Varronian epoch. The founding of Rome, in turn, is testified as being April 21, in the third year of the sixth Olympiad (OL 6) (Plutarch, Romulus 23-24; Eutropius, History 1.1). So deductively speaking, the first year of the games and the start of the first Olympiad was the summer of 776 BC.
may conclude that the Festival of the Heraea
referred to in the Pyrgi tablets has to do with
the first month of the Etruscan year, probably
coinciding with the Elean month Parthenios. That
the mother of Mercury is addressed in the Pyrgi
dedication — both as Dia and
suggests a coincidence with the old Roman month,
Maius (May). Uni (Juno) and Ianas (Janus) are
addressed in the scripts. The month of June
(after Juno) follows May and January (named
after Janus, the god of ports and doors,
beginnings and endings, became the 11th month,
after which February was added. We may assume
for the moment that the Etruscans at Pyrgi had
only a 10 month calendar, and beginning with
Martius as the first month would celebrate
Juno's feast day, March 1, called the
Matronalia, the primary feast of Juno, the chief
Roman goddess. On this day, lambs and other
cattle were sacrificed to her. Also on this day
the Feriae Marti, the festival of Mars, the
Roman god of war, was held. March 1 is also New
Year's Day in the old Roman calendar.
Maius is the third month of the old Roman calendar, and on May 1 a cow was sacrificed to Maia, the mother of Mars (Gr. Ares). May 1 was also the Celtic feast of Beltane, marking the first day of Summer. May 15 was the festival of the Mercuralia, the festival of Mercury, the Roman god of merchants and travellers. April 9 was the feast of Ishtar, known today as Easter, and April 18 was when the festival of Maia began (see http://syrylynrainbowdragon.tripod.com/april.html). It may be that the Etruscan Heraea was coincident with the Feast of Ishtar then in the 6th century B.C., somehow relating to the "3rd month," of Maius (May). Perhaps further examination of the Pyrgi Gold Tablets will clarify this. The third sheet is in Punic and refers to the goddess Ishtar. Updated 9.14.06)
Translation of sheet 2 of the Pyrgi Gold Tablets, Script Au, [~105 words] This page carries the second page of the Pyrgi script. Also on the page is a third gold tablet which is in Phoenician, "Lamina B" script. Images of the gold sheets are from "The Etruscans." (5) Its translation by Sabatino Moscati is:
To [our] Lady Ishtar. This is the holy place // which was made and donated // by TBRY WLNSH [= The faries
Velianas] who reigns on // Caere [or: on the Caerites], during the month of the sacrifice // to the Sun, as a gift
in the temple. He b//uilt an aedicula [?] because Ishtar gave in his hand [or: raised him with her hand] // to
reign for three years in the m//onth of KRR [=Kerer], in the day of the burying // of the divinity. And the years
of the statue of the divinity // in his temple [might be ? are ?] as many years as these stars.
Etruscan scripts largely coincide with the
Phoenician. There are some corrections, however.
Velianas is Fel Ianus (the great Janus).
Fel is a term meaning "great" used frequently in the Etruscan scripts on this site. The name Caere is read as "heart" in the context of getting to the heart or kernel of the matter which concludes acknowledging the polemic involving the goddess Aph. Updated (9.14.06)
The Tavola Eugubine Script N is being updated based upon better images of the tablets. [~755 words] A general note on the Tavola Eugubine should be listed here. The vocabulary is consistent with the vocabulary used in the other Etruscan scripts on this website. To translate an entire corpus of scripts, using common grammatical rules and a consistent vocabulary, without a "Rosetta Stone," is a big challenge in itself. But one can make a fair translation, knowing that all languages have rules of grammar and following the rules there is the liklihood of repetition. These scripts, together with the Zagreb Mummy script, fortunately contain a lot of repitition. And they use the same grammar/vocabulary; and both are consistent with other scripts. Where you see an alpha-numeric locater for a word, which points to several different Etruscan scripts, know that the same word works well in the same context in the translations where it appears. The Tavola is thus Etruscan. My vocabulary, built from the various scripts, defines what Etruscan is. It is old, rich in inflections, like Latin and Greek. It is like Latin but recalls shades of Italian and French. These are the closest languages to which Etruscan is related. (01.24.07).
Translation of the Tavola Eugubine Script Q [~920 words] – Script "Q" is a funeral oration and like Script N interchanges repeated formulas which contain the names of gods who were on the side of Troy during the Trojan war. We have added copies of the images, from Citta di Gubbio to complement / verify our transcription.
The ephitets towards the end of the text focus on Eos (the goddess of dawn; also the dawn) and Apollo who in a more ancient form was linked to the sun god, Helios. Escaping the sometimes impish Eros, god of love, is mentioned; Venus, the goddess of love, Jupiter and others are placed in the context of salvation, returning to the day. The repetition of "blessed" and many synonyms used for death, wasting away, etc. demonstrate their preoccupation with it. This text also addresses the demon Tuchulcha, not by name, but as TRE 8IPER, Tre Viper. He as well as a host of gods and goddesses are addressed in the context of being chased away, using a verb (L. abeo) "be off with you." The formulas recount how the people in the crowd are brothers of Atigerius the patriarch of the gens of Cato. Script Q shows the way the Etruscans expressed themselves during a funeral liturgy, recalling the repitition we have all seen in most liturgical documents. Page is being updated based on the better images. (02.11.08).
Translation of the Tavola Eugubine Script R. [~671 words] This is a blessing of the people through supplication of the gods. It is a feast of lights, and it begins with an address to Oph (L. Ops, goddess of abundance?): "you pull, bring forth the day." The blessing refers to a pyre and various images, linking the light of the pyre and the sprinkling of water in the names of specific gods and godesses. The orator calls out/summons Apollo, Phabia, the goddess of the moon, Lune (Diana), Phobea, etc. in addressing the castle which is apparently located in Pisa. The ritual connects an ancient form of Apollo (Phoebus) with Helios, the sun, and in the middle of the text the orator contrasts a goddess of the earth, Eph, with the moon and the sun. Tavola II para. 2 appears to be a letter, addressed to the descendents of Atigerius in Achaia; it also addresses the same in Gordos, and the port of Pyrae. It complains about the sacrifice of mares without blemish, endorsing the sacrifice of lambs. It is a celebration of light which is illuminated by Script "G" which repeats some phrases (R164; R204) in script "R." And these repititions are connected with the aegis of Jupiter/Zeus which is the source of lightning. The Etruscans interpreted lightning bolts. (Being updated, reflecting the Etruscan Glossary and Grammar, 2.11.08).
of the Tavola Eugubine Script G.
A short text which is written by another hand
which renders the "T" as a "Y". The hand that
wrote Script "N" and "Q" is not the same as the
one that wrote script "R," and "G" is completely
different. See comment on Script "R," for both
scripts cover a festival of "lights" which
refers to a three-fold supremacy or monarchy:
that of three planes. Three are noted: the
goddess Eph, who is of the earth; Jupiter, the
sky-god; and Lune, the goddess of the moon. The
pyres appear to be related to the worship of Eph
and also Pha and symbolic of the light of the
sun and the moon; and Jupiter/Tini/Zeus rule
over all through their shield (aegis) of
lightning bolts. The introductory phrase of this
script is a repeat of a phrase in script R. The
script concludes, "I go before the arbitrator
Translation, Aph.html, an inscription from Santa Marinella. This text is on two sides of a lead foil, found in a temple precinct believed to be dedicated to the goddess Minerva (Gr. Athena). The text begins rather with an address to Uni (Juno; Gr. Hera) . Although there are claims that this is dedicated to Minerva, her name is not on this image or the transcriptions seen on the lead foil. The Pyrgi scripts mention a controversy over the goddess Aph, which name is mentioned in this script as well. Ashtar is mentioned on the Punic gold tablet found with the Etruscan Pyrgi gold tablets. (12.11.06).
Translation of Lydian, showing its relationship to the Etruscan language (new 6.26.06).
of Phrygian, showing its relationship to
the Etruscan language . Of interest is the
discovery of a stele from Southeastern Turkey,
Zincirli, that appears to record in the Phrygian
language the conquest of that area by the
Assyrian king, Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.). The
area is known to historians as Cilicia, and the
eastern corner (area of the Seyhan and Ceyhan
rivers) is recorded in Assyrian documents as Kûe
or Que. The text of the Phrygian relief from
Zincirli lists the name Kuom. Because the
Phrygian script is from an area that is not
recognized by archeologists as part of Phrygia (Phrygia proper
being far to the west of Turkey, in the bend of
the Halys river), the stele implies an extension
of the dominion of Phrygia well beyond the
territory attributed to them by historians.
Because of this anomaly we revisited the
abundant Assyrian texts from the 12th century
B.C. to the time of Sennacherib to ascertain any
connection from the Assyrian records that would
imply Phrygian sovereignty over the area of Que.
The records not only confirmed that the
Phrygians (called Muski, Mushki, by the
Assyrians) possessed Que, the texts ( of Assur-nâsir-pal
(884-859 B.C. ) also
locate the Phrygians just across the Tigris
river from Armenia (Urartu). This may imply that
the Phrygians entered Anatolia (Turkey) by way
of the Caucasus Mountains,
against the historical theory that they crossed
the Hellespont from Thrace into Anatolia.
Equally fascinating are the monuments of the
"Three Kalas" of Midas City, located near the
Halys River, that appears to contain the name of
the mythical Phrygian king Midas. King Midas is
remembered as the king of the Mygdonians of
Phrygia, son of king Gordius and the goddess
Cybele who founded Ancyra (Ankara). He is said
to have been the discoverer of both black and
white lead, but he is best known for his
connections with gold.
While the god Dionysus was on his expedition to India with his train, old Seilenus wandered away and was captured by Phrygian peasants, who took him to the king. Some say that Midas caught him by mixing wine with water in a spring, presumably in the hope of profiting from his prophetic powers. In either case, the king entertained Seilenus graciously and then gave him a guide to lead him back to Dionysus and his company. Dionysus was so grateful to Midas that he offered to grant any boon that he asked. Midas, who was fond of luxury, asked that all he touched might turn to gold. Reluctantly the god consented. Midas was at first delighted with the results, but he soon discovered that when he tried to eat, the food turned to metal. Before long the ravenously hungry king was begging Dionysus to take back his miraculous gift. The god could not do that, but he advised Midas to wash in the river Pactolus. The king did so and his "golden touch" was transferred to the river, which forever after had gold-bearing sands. Midas then was asked to judge between Pan and Apollo as to which was the better lyre player. Midas awarded Pan with the distinction, but Apollo was so wrathful over the decision he changed the ears of Midas into the ears of an ass. He wore a Phrygian cap with its flaps covering his ears after that and only his barber knew that his ears were the ears of an ass. The barber could not keep the secret and one day whispered the secret into a hole in a deserted meadow. Reeds grew up on the spot and began whispering the secret. From that day passersby were astonished to hear them murmuring, "Midas has ass's ears." Historically, Midas was one dynastic title — alternating with the name of Gordius — of a succession of Phrygian kings who ruled in the valley of the Sangarius River. Gordion was their capital city. The Assyrian texts refer to the name of Midas (Mitâ); Sargon II (704- 705 B.C.) reports: "[I} drove out Mitâ, king of Muski; who restored the captured fortresses of Kûe." (1.03.08).
The Etruscans' view of their faith — after death — Etruscan_Faith.html
LINKS of interest (Etruscan_Phrases_f.html)
Old Etruscan_Phrases_a.html (now Etruscan_Phrases_x.html)
(1) Illiad, translated by W.
H. D. Rouse, A Mentor book, 1938, pp. 265 ff.
All quotes on the Illiad are from the
(2) Praying to the North Wind and the West Wind. Compare the importance of the Wind gods in the ceremony to their function in the Rig Veda, quoted in Banquet of the Gods.
(3) Following this Achilles began the games, consisting of chariot races, boxing and wrestling matches, spear throwing, throwing a lump of iron, and other feats.
(4) An interesting comment by the Roman historian Suetonius (70 A.D. - 130 or 140 A.D) refers to an Etruscan word. About 100 days before Augustus Caesar's death a bolt of lightning struck a statue of Caesar near the Campus Martius. A bronze plaque on the statue contained the word, Caesar, and the bolt melted the "C" in his name, leaving the letters, aesar. The "flash of lightning ..was interpreted to mean that he would live only a hundred days from that time, the number indicated by the letter C, and that he would be numbered with the gods, since aesar (that is, the part of the name Caesar which was left) is the word for god in the Etruscan tongue." [Lives of the Caesars, Suetonius, "The Diefied Augustus," XCVII]. There is one Etruscan word, AIS, that comes near to "aesar," and it appears in the Zagreb Mummy Script. In most instances it appears as a single word, AIS, and in a compound, AIS AN. At the end of the script, Z1861, the contruction, AIS ERAS appears. I translated AIS as "bronze object" and its use was in the context of worship, i.e., Z1861 "they shall turn / change; to the bronze you wander; to Zeus of the serene trellis you assemble."
(5) "The Etruscans," Federica Borrelli and Maria Cristina Targia, translated by Thomas Michael Hartmann, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 2004, J. P. Getty Trust.
(6) Bibliographical Data from our earlier work, "Catalogue of Etruscan Words," 1981, pdf file.
(7) Comment on Sources: Sources used in "Etruscan Phrasaes," are quoted in situ, as we prefer to place a link to the source where it applies. It is easier to update and, for the reader, easier to use. We may not agree with the data in all sources linked in "Etruscan Phrases." All of the data pertaining to the translation, grammar, and process of translating, the Etruscan language is original to this work and not developed from any other source. Because the common understanding among Etruscologists was that the "Etruscan language is not Indo-European and an isolate, unlike any language, modern or dead," which is contrary to the presentation of "Etruscan Phrases," there has been no need to refer to those sources, except as noted in situ on these pages. We credit sources on photographs, etc., where possible.
My commentary relative to the history of the Etruscans is a composite, sifted from many works, including those listed in the "Catalogue of Etruscan Words," bibliographical data which include perhaps one of the best works on the Etruscans: "The Etruscans," by Massimo Pallottino, Indiana University Press, 1975 (first published in 1942). An Etruscologist from Italy categorized the "Etruscan...non-Indo-European theorists" in an email to the author as the "Pallottino School," an appropriate nomenclature, I think. However, my "Catalogue of Etruscan Words," 1981, used examples from Staccioli's works to illustrate the erroneous linguistic view we can call the "Pallottino School." Pallottino's Part 3, "The Etruscan Language," includes a short "vocabulary" and pronunciation table that is based on the study of short inscriptions, usually on tombs. His analysis covers the efforts of those who preceeded him. Their conclusions on the language have been misleading scholars at least since 1942. I am indebted to Edward Tripp's "The Meridian Handbook of Classical Mythology," New American Library, 1974 for the Greek Mythology used in "Etruscan Phrases."
*Background documents: —
beam me up to Maravot's_Index.html
Updated: 9.6.98; 9.20.98;
11.8.98; 11.28.98; 12.12.98; 1.17.99; 3.7.99;
3.27.99 (pg. 4); 5.31.99; 7.3.99; 7.18.99;
7.31.99; 8.22.99; 8.29.99; 9.6.99; 9.11.99;
10.3.99; 10.17.99; 11.14.99;11.21.99;
11.28.99; 12.2.99' 12.13.99; 12.25.99;
3.5.2000; 5.27.2000; 7.4.2000;
6.30.02;7.06.02; 7.28.02; 8.04.02; 8.11.02;
8.25.02; 9.15.02; 9.22.02; 9.29.02; 10.13.02;
10.25.02; 11.08.02;12.02.02; 12.08.02;
12.22.02; 12.28.03; 1.01.03; 1.12.03; 2.02.03;
2.09.03; 2.16.03; 2.22.03; 3.02.03; 3.16.03;
4.05.03; 4.13.03; 5.04.03; 5.11.03; 5.18.03;
5.26.03; 6.01.03; 6.08.03; 6.22.03; 6.29.03;
7.13.03; 7.20.03; 8.31.03; 9.07.03; 9.14.03;
9.21.03; 9.28.03; 10.13.03; 10.26.03;
11.11.03; 11.17.03, 11.19.03; 11.23.03;
11.27.03; 12.04.03; 12.07.03; 12.11.03;
12.14.03; 12.22.03; 12.28.03; 1.04.04;
1.11.04; 1.17.04; 1.26.04; 2.01.04; 2.08.04;
2.17.04; 2.21.04; 2.29.04; 3.02.04; 3.20.04;
3.25.04; 4.07.04, 4.22.04; 4.25.04; 5.14.04;
5.16.04; 5.22.04; 6.21.04; 7.01.04; 7.09.04;
7.11.04; 7.12.04; 7.14.04; 7.17.04; 8.01.04;
8.04.04; 8.17.04; 8.26.04; 8.27.04; 9.24.04;
10.07.04; 11.21.04; 1.29.05; 2.23.05; 4.17.05;
5.02.05; 5.19.05; 5.30.05; 7.22.05; 9.04.05;
11.14.05; 11.17.05; 11.21.05; 11.22.05;
1.31.06; 2.01.06; 2.02.06; 4.10.06; 5.08.06;
5.09.06; 5.11.06; 6.04.06; 6.16.06; 6.23.06;
7.16.06; 7.23.06; 7.25.06; 8.16.06; 8.22.06;
8.28.06; 8.29.06; 9.10.06; 9.16.06; 9.23.06;
9.27.06; 9.28.06; 9.29.06; 10.01.06; 11.13.06;
11.20.06; 11.22.06, 11.26.06; 11.29.06;
12.03.06; 12.05.06; 12.11.06; 12.18.06;
12.25.06; 1.13.07; 1.24.07; 1.29.07; 2.03.07;
2.16.07; 2.17.07; 2.22.07; 2.23.07; 3.04.07;
3.10.07; 3.11.07; 4.03.07; 4.17.07; 4.27.07;
4.30.07; 5.01.07; 5.08.09; 6.13.07; 11.07.07;
12.08.07; 1.01.08; 1.06.08; 1.07.08;
2.11.08;3.0508; 6.12.08; 11.02.08; 1.04.09;
1.15.09; 2.13.09; 5.22.09; 5.30.09; 10.22.09;
2.16.10; 4.19.10; 10.20.10; 10.22.10;
10.26.10; 1.10.11; 4.17.11; 5.16.12; 5.19.12;
5.23.12; 7.11.12; 7.24.12; 8.09.12; 12.07.12;
12.27.12; 1.28.13; 2.10.13,; 3.02.13; 3.07.13, 5.26.13; 7.13.13;
11.21.13; 1.15.14; 4.18.14; 6.08.14;
11.16.14; 1.12.15; 5.13.16
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