6/10/2022 Etruscan Phrases showing Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns and vocabulary.
Translation of short inscriptions.

Translation of Short Inscriptions (continued)
Scripts, Pottery and Stele:PA, PB, PC, PD, PE, PG, PJ, PK, PL, PM, PN, PO,

For the latest update of these translations see Translation of Etruscan Devotional Plates III (PDF)
January 9, 2015 (Contains Scripts PO  through PZ).

by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)

General note: We shall attempt to get better and, where appropriate, more complete images of the texts. The Etruscan artifacts that contain texts are scattered in private and museum collections around the world and are thus very difficult to locate. With the cooperation of curators and owners of the artifacts in supplying the desired images the understanding of Etruscan history will become more complete. It is the objective of this site to present accurate images with credits to the source of the images and the location / provenance of each artifact containing text. Until better images are received we must make do with what we have.

Script PA – Kyanthos from the Tomb of the Calabresi, Cerveteri, seventh century B.C., Museo di Villa Giulia, Rome (Image: "L'etrusco dalla A alla 8," Biovanna Bagnasco Gianni).

To me (L. Dat. mihi) victory / Nike (L. Nike); then, at that time (L. tum) a friend (L. amicus-a; Fr. ami-e) Mathuma / Maduma?
IPV) RENA [Translation : ....the camp followers (L. lixa-ae) of Thebes, city in Boeotia? (L. Thebae-arum) she / it reigns, supports (L. regno-are)
PA-10 IE
RE ERA ISTE EPA [Translation: yesterday (L. heri, or here; It. ieri; Fr. heir) the mistress (L. era-ae, f.) that of yours (L. iste, ista, istud) she spies, watches out for? (L. speculor-ari; it. spiare; Fr. épier)
S (VNAS) T..A? F8E (UBE, UVE) LERO (LERV) Translation: a wood, grove? (L. nemus-oris) or not even, neither (It. nemmanco, nemmeno) one ( (L. unnus-a-um, unius, uni, una; It. un, uno, una; Fr. Un, une; Welsh, un-au) you go to meet , go to (L. obeo-ire) god (Lar, laris, lares) or triumph, vicotry? (L. laurus-i) or the spectre, ghost larua-ae).

Script PB — Kyanthos from the Tomb of the Duke of Vetulonia, Museo Topographico dell'Etruria, Florence (Image: "L'etrusco dalla A alla 8," Biovanna Bagnasco Gianni).

PB-1 MINIMU (MINIMV) LO FANI FANI) PEUV, PEUB (PEF8) [Translation: minimul, the least (L. minimus; It. minimo) of them, it (L. id, ille, illa, illud; It. lo) of the temples (L. fanum-i) of the youth (L. pubes-is)
PB-5 LAKONAI (LAKVNAI) E FENE Le [Translation: Laocoon, a Trojan priest (L. laocoon-ontis) or Spartan (L. Laco, [Lacon]-onis) from, out of (L. e) you come (L. venio, venita, veni, ventum; It. venire) there (Fr. le, la)]

Script PC – Kyanthos from Tomb BB6, Necropolis of Casone di Monteriggioni, Museo Guarnacci, Volterra. (Image: "L'etrusco dalla A alla 8," Biovanna Bagnasco Gianni).

AL) THI (I?) LEPSI THALIO (ALIV) E ME MESNA MERTAN SINAM OLO (VLV) [Translation: you are born (L. nascor-i) to me (L. Acc. me) I speak, to speak (L. oro-are) Italian? (Itali-orum and -um, the Italians; Italia-ae, Italy, Italicus and Italus-a-um, Italian, adj.; Fr. Italian) your (L. ti) hare, rabbit (L. lepus-oris)? retaliation (L talio-onis) from, by (L. e) me (L. me, Acc.) of Messana? (L. Messana-ae, town in Sicily) or harvest (L. messis-is) I oil (L. oleo-ere)

Script PD
Script PD – Oniochoe.

VMAS) PHVTVM [Translation: one thousand (L. mille - milia [millia]) or name, Milo, of the house, home (L. domus-us) warm (ed) (L. foveo, fovere, fovi, fotum, to warm, keep warm, caress, to stay constantly in a place; particle, fotus); alternatively THUMAS : to tame, break in, conquer (L. domo, domare, domui, domitum; domas 2nd pers. sing. present)

Note: In a Phrygian sherd we have MILAS, probably the plural of MILV. (See Phrygian1.html) Thus, "one thousand you tame warmed."

Script PG

Script PE

Script PG, Aryballos, bucchero (Image: "L'etrusco dalla A alla 8," Biovanna Bagnasco Gianni).

PG-1 SI LARFAIA or LARFAI ATELICLES or TELICLES LEKTVM VTA [Translation: if, supposing that (L. si; It. se, Fr. si) the ghost, spectre (L. larva (larua) -ae) of the Ateli Ateli, name, (L. Attalus-i, adj. Attalicus-a-um, name of several kings of Pergamum; or Atelicles, or Telicles) chosen, excellent (L. lectus-a-um) he is at leisure (L. otior-ara) Thus: "Supposing the ghost / spirit of Atelicles the chosen he is at leisure."

Note: The "F" faces towards the word to which it belongs. Some Etruscan texts used this technique to separate words. The final "S" in Atelicles also faces the word to which it belongs.

Script PE, Aryballos, ceramic (Image: "L'etrusco dalla A alla 8," Biovanna Bagnasco Gianni).

PE-1 MvLAKAS: SELA: ASKA MIELE IUAN (IFAN) [Translation: you make gentle, soften (L. mollesco-ere); the chair, seat (L. sella-e; It. selle; Fr. selle, seller, to saddle) of food (L. esca-ae) honey (L. mel, mellis; It. miele) of eternity, a lifetime (L. aevum-i; aeus-i) or Euan, name of Bacchus]

Note: This vase no doubt was used to pour wine, in which case we would read: "You soften the seat of food the honey of Bacchus / Dionysus

Script PQ, Tablet Museo Civico, Viterbo
Script PQ (right)

Note: As can be discerned in looking at the tablet's two borders, there appears to be a missing section of the tablet adjoining the right-hand side.
PQ-1 P IPE SI CALE [Translation: ...P ipe (unknown word; first word may be tipe, type, model); himself, herself, itself (L. se, sese; It. si; Fr. se) you call, summon (L. calo-are)]
PQ-4 CINA VS MES [Translation: he burns, incinerates (L. incendo-cendere; It. incindiare; cynnau, Welsh) the bone (L. os, oris, mouth; os, ossis, bone; It. osso, bone; Fr. os, bone) you pass (L. meo, meare, to go, pass; 2nd pers. pres. mes)]
) NAPER [Translation: the fountain? (L. f  fons, fontis, in the Spring, Abl. Sngl. fonte; It. fonte, Fr. fonte)  Naper, name of a queen in Perugia Cippus, Script K] (The character "P" is not a "t" in this case; compare with TRE, line PQ-13)
PQ-9 LEIEM RVI [Translation: lioamness (L. lea-ae and laena; 1st decl. Acc., le) of the king, regent (L. rex, regis; It. re; Fr. roi)]
ENaS) the altar (L. ara-ae; 1st Decl. Accus. pl. -as) of Athens (L. Athenae-arum, Acc. Sngl. Athēnās. Note: The "s" of "Athens" is on the next line.
PQ-13 S CLAEI: TRE [Translation: ...S Cleo, the muse of history (L. Clio-us; possibly 5th Decl. gen.-ei; See ELINEI, Helen of Troy's name, and PHERSIPNEI, Gr. goddess Persephone) three (L. tres, tria; It. tre; Fr. trois; Toch., tri, traiy; Gr. tria; Welsh, tri, tair)] Note: The "S" ends a word on the missing tablet; Claei is undoubtedly a noun. Tre refers to the next line, because of the separating punctuation.
EN) SVME [Translation: "Then," is probably the end of a word or name from the missing tablet; sume, we are (L. summus; It. siamo; Fr. sommes] Note: See ATHEN, PQ-11.

Script PK

Above: Script PJ, ceramic dish, Cerveteri, Museo Nazionale (Image: "L'etrusco dalla A alla 8," Biovanna Bagnasco Gianni).

PJ-1 A MI FEXIES FETRAS [Translation: To (L. a) my (L. meus, mihi) Vexies (name, plural; Re: L. vexillum-i, a standard, flag, a company, troop) young (L. fetura-ae, fetus-us; feturas, 1st Decl. Accus. pl.) Note: the "M" seems to be written backwards and is unusual. If FETRAS is plural, then Vexies must be plural and may be "troop."

(Left): Script PL, stele of "Aninies."

I ANINIES [Translation: Larthi Aninies (L. Anio-enis, and poet. Anienus-i, m. the Anio, a tributary of the Tibur)]

Above: Script PK, Stele known as "Avil Tite," which we title, "Tities Oxiem."

SIEM) VLIE NIKE [Translation: me, my (L. me, meus, mihi) suitable (L. habilis-e, suitable, easily managed, fit, convenient) of the [tribe] Titem (L. Tities-ium; -em, 3rd Decl. Acc.) Oxiem? eighth? (L. octavus; It. ottavo, Fr. huitiem) oil (L. oleum-i; It. olio; Fr. huile) of the goddess Nike [victory]]

Note: The Etruscan peoples were organized in a Confederation of 12 cities, each perhaps being dominated by a tribe. Thus, if there were 12 tribes, this warrior may have beloged to the Eighth Tribe.

Script PN (Above)

PN-1 ALC [Translation: someone (someone, something (L. aliquo, aliqua, aliqui..)
PN-2 TAMERA [Translation: name, Tamera?]
PN-3 TESARE ....[Translation: to weave, compose (L. texo-texere; It. tesere; Fr. tisser)] (rest unreadable)

(Above): Script PM

IA) PHARSIES or THARNIES (ARNIES) [Translation: name, Larthia, Pharsies or Tharnies] Re: L. Daunias-idis is Apulia.

PM-4 VCHVLEIM VIRI RIVS TIE? [Translation: eye (L. oculus-i; -im, Acc.?) of man (L. vir, viri) of the day (L. day (L. dies-ei, day; diu, by day; diutiuus, longer; Welsh, dydd; Scot, di). Note: This man appears to be an augur, since he is not armed.

Script PO, (Left) Tomba Scudi, Tarquinia

PO-1 _N:
SILAR: AM CE: MECH (ME) Le: RASNA V(S) [Translation: behold (L. en) to be silent (L. sileo-ere-ui; It. silenzio, silence; Fr. silence, silence); I love, like (L. amo-are) to us (It. ce); me, with me, to me (It. mecco) there (Fr. le, la); the Etruscan (Etr. Rasna) bone or mouth (L. os, oris, mouth; os, ossis, bone; It. osso, bone; Fr. os, bone);

PO-9 ORO (VRV)? ROSTIA CE: VCNTM: HA CLE [Translation: I speak (L. oro-are) of Rostia, person's name (re: L. rosetum-i, a garden of roses) to us (It. ce) we / I sing? (L. occento-are, to sing a seranade to; we sing, occentamus; Conj. pres. 1st person, occentem)
PO-13 UN RV (FNRV) [Translation: One (L. unnus-a-um, unius, uni, una; It. un) I bedew (L. roro-are)
PO-14 BRINAI (8RINAI) [Translation: Brinai, name]


*Mythology from Edward Tripp, "The Meridian Handbook of Classical Mythology," 1970.


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