1/27/2012 Etruscan Phrases showing
Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns and
vocabulary. Translation of the Perugia Cippus (Cippus
Perusinus) Script "K."
Translation of the Perugia Cippus, Script "K"
(from a work published in 1981)
About the Translation
This work, is being updated, reflecting a
reconciliation to other works, such as the Zagreb
Mummy, Tavola Cortonensis and many short texts. The
Perugia Cippus stands out among all the Etruscan texts
as an actual history, listing names of queens and
kings. The many names of queens also gives thought to
the role of women in Etruscan society. This stele may
have been placed at a school (Etr. SKVL) outside of
Perugia. Reconciled words are in our Etruscan
Glossarya.pdf . Our update is on "Work
Notes on the Perugia Cippus." Related documents
Notes on the Tavola Cortonensis." January 20,
2012. For the Zagreb Mummy see "Work
Notes on the Zagreb Mummy." (These documents are
available at acadameia.edu/Mel
Cippus Perusinus or Cippus of Perugia is a stone
tablet discovered on the hill of San Marco, near
Perugia, Italy, in 1822. It is written on two sides.
The date of the inscription is considered to be 3rd or
2nd century BCE.
This script appears to be a history,
including a great queen whose name is Sarina. She
appears to have been responsible for uniting the 12
cities of Etruria under a time when they were
quarreling. A small bronze bust of her with her name
carved on her forhead is in the Louvre. She was an
extraordinarliy beautiful woman as can be seen in her
bust. The character "y" appears to be "i," "y," and is
shown as I. The
stela is inscribed on two sides and is in the Perugia
Museum. Images of the stela are courtesy of the
following is the text, details of which are below. The
text is being reworked using the new glossary and
wonderful images supplied by the Archeological Museum
of Perugia. (1) The
images have been downsized for the internet (450
pixels wide vs. ~1500 pixels). The larger image makes
us quite confident in the transcriptions here offered.
The cippus is proving
to be a history and most interestingly
seems to have identified a Queen Hinera of the Valley
of Fiesole (ancient Florence) – see K65, K66 – whose
name also appears in the Zagreb Mummy's wrappings
closest to the mummy's body. This has to be verified,
but it may be that between the two documents there is
a disclosure of not only the Queen of the Etruscan
city Fiesole but also the name of the person of the Zagreb
Mummy, who died in Egypt. This is, thus,
becoming an Etruscan history, not from others, such as
the Romans and Greeks, but from the Etruscans
themselves. K65 is the beginning of a new section of
the text, suggesting that the previous section deals
with a dynasty of the Clensi, featuring Queen Sarina
(K45-K52). The Clensi are mentioned in the text on the
bronze statue of Prince Metelis.
by the request of Tanna, of the household diety there
you love to wander; they cleanse the great queen
K13 she rests of the ancestor born of the hall of the
K20 of the goddess whether you of the lords arrive at
K26 of the Etruscans she encloses she loves the city
of Henna, Sicily through
K31 twelve (12th month or year 12)the great queen you
bedew of the altars by
K36 of Perae lamented of them I assembled of the
K43 you have of these
matters wept over, the ghost (L. laria (Larua)-ae)]
K46 of the prince himself; the great queen Sarina
there she calls
K52 Behold! supposing that of these matters I weaken
she unites you with an oath; to dine
K58 I am drawing out the favorable of her to the
senate there; I kiss, I do not know
K64 the Cleneron to cultivate
K67 of the Falisci of you to her the great queen
K74 Hinera you capture; you surrounded with a wall of
the key of you; I mass
K79 truly, through the serene within there the matters
of your valley
K86 of the great queen I keep of you truly through the
possession of, of myself
K92 I mass/bunch the lambs indeed; the key there of
the ancestory she has of the great
K100 queen of a thousand she longs for upon the pole
on I obtain/merit
K107 CN there; the great queen Dia to yourself you
K113 you point out the mare; the great queen you
K119 the female defendant of the breath of air/spirit
you have it; you point out of the Rasne (Etruscan)
K124 the great you whirl around/roatate she takes an
oath of the ancestor indeed she leads
K136 you indeed through which CN there she has the
male defendent you shear
K1 E VRAT TANNALARE
(I from K6) [Translation: by, from (L. e, ex) request
(L. oratu) Tanna, of the household diety (L. lars,
laris) I helped? (L. succurro-currere; It. soccorrere;
Welsh, swcro)] See K39 and K148 for other uses of SVCI
in this text.
Note: TVRVNE, K165, and TANNA, K-3, may have a
historical link. TANNA may be Danaë, the daughter
of Acrisius, king of Argos, and Eurydice. Though
imprisoned by her father she bore Perseus by Zeus.
Acrisius set mother and child adrift in a chest, but
they reached the island of Seriphus. There King
Polydectes tried to force her to marry him, but
Perseus eventually rescued her and took her home to
Argos. According to Vergil (Aeneïd,
7.371-372, 7.406-413) Danaë emigrated to Italy
and founded Ardea, the capital city of her descendant
Turnus, king of the Rutulians (Rutuli). The Rutuli
were a tribe living in Latium. Under Turnus they led
other Latin tribes against Aeneas. With this in mind,
seeing that this cippus contains a historical account,
it may be that the Perugia Cippus is a confirmation of
Virgil's myth covering the descendants of Aeneas, of
the Trojan War.
AME FAKeR LAVTiNFEL RINA SE [Translation: she
wished? (L. amo-are) to do, produce, be of service to
(L. facio, facere, feci, factum; pass. fio) Lautin, of
the great queen (L. regina-ae, f.; It. f. regina; Fr.
reine, f.) herself (L. se, sese)]
Note: On FAKeR see Z656. Lautin might be Latinus, a
king of Latium, which was a large area extending
southward from Rome. Latinus, a son of Faunus and
Marica, a Laurentine nymph, was a great-grandson of
Saturn. According to Vergil's Aeneid, in which he is a
principal character, he would have welcomed Aeneas,
with the Trojans, to Latium and offered him the hand
of his daughter, Lavinia (Oracles had warned that she
should marry a foreigner). Latinus' wife, Amata,
however, favored the suit of the Rutulian king Turnus.
When war enued with the Trojans, the aged Latinus
abdicated. Some other Roman traditions say that
Latinus fought the Trojans and was killed. Lavinia
finally marreid Aeneas and Latinus thus became an
ancestor of the Romans, giving his name to their
A8VNAS SaLE LER CARV [Translation: the
stela (L. stela-ae and cippus-i; It. cippus; Gr.
stele, stellein, to set up) of Avonas, name of the
hall (It. sala, f.; Fr. salle, f.) or seat, chair (L.
sella-ae) of the lord, god, penate (L. lar, laris,
lares) beloved (L. carus-a-um)] Note: A8VNAS declines. See K57, A8VNES.
TE SANVOS (SAN8VS) LERI TEVeNS (TE8eNS) TEIS [Translation: to you
(L. te) the race, family, life blood, strength,
progeny? (L. sanguis-inis) or alternatively the
restored? (L. sano-are; sanabo, to restore) or
alternatively, I heal, restore (L. sano-are) of you
(L. vos, 2nd person pron. pl.) of the lords divine (L.
dius-a-um; adj. divinus) of the gods] Note: SANVOS is probably a noun or
SAN VOS. VOS appears by itself at K68. See "Etruscan
RASNE SIPA AMA HENNA PER;
[Translation: the Etruscans (Rasne) she encloses (L.
saepio, saepire, saeps, saeptum) she loves Henna (L.
Henna [Enna], f. city of Sicily with a temple of
Ceres); through, by (L. per)]
XII FEL RINA RVRAS ARAS PE (PE in line K35)
[Translation: twelve of the great (Fel) queen (L.
regina-ae, f.; It. f. regina; Fr. reine, f.) Ruras,
Roras, name or alternatively, you water/bedew (L.
roro-are) or you live in the country (l. ruro-are) the
altars (L. ara-ae) ]
LE SCVL SVCI EN
[Translation: at Perusia (Perugia, Perusia, Tuscan
town; "em" suffix, accusative) at times, for a long
time now, often (L. olim), there, them (LE) the
school, debate (L. schola-ae) I helped (L.
succurro-currere; It. soccorrere; Welsh, swcro)
Behold!/Come! (L. en)]
ES RIE PLvTV
LARV [Translation: you are (L. sum, esse, fui,
futurus) Rhea (L. Rhea-ae) of Pluto? a spectre/mask,
ghost (L. Larua, -ae)] Note: If RIE is THIE - The "TH"
appears to be a lower case Greek thelta (delta). The
name Thieple may be Deïple, possibly named after
the daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea who was married
to Tydeus and the mother of Diomedes. Diomedes was an
Argive leader whose father, Tydeus, was killed in the
expedition remembered as "Seven against Thebes." When
Diomedes reached manhood he married Aegialeia,
daughter of Adrastus or Aegialeus. Together with the
other sons of the Seven, called the Epigoni, he
marched against Thebes and razed it in vengeance for
their father's deaths. (End of Section / paragraph)
AVLE SIFEL RINA SARINA Le CL (CL part of
K52) [Translation of the prince (L. aule) and if, but
if (L. si; It. se, Fr. si) the great (Fel) queen (L.
f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine) Sarina; there
(CL)ENSIRIIRILiS CVNACENVE [Translation: the
Clensi; of Rhea, old name of Cybele? (L. Rhea-ae); I
relax, weaken, release (L. relaxo-are; It. rilassare;
Fr. relâcher); she unites by oath (L.
coniuro-are); to dine (L. ceno-are)] Note: the E is
part of the next word / line; Prince Metelis, statue of an
orator, mentions the name of the Clensi (AL-6).
8ELIC LAR RAL Se A8VNES [Translation: to the
epic (L. epicus-a-um; It. epica, f.; Fr.
épique, f.); the warlike (L. bellicus-a-um)
godess (L. Lar, Laris, m.) Ral (Ralna? wife of the
supreme god, Tini) herself (L. se, sese; It. si; Fr.
se) of the Avones] Note: "NA" and "NE" are
augmentative suffixes. In script DM RALNA, the goddess
and mother of Helen of Troy, is seated next to TINIA
(Zeus / Jupiter). A8VNES
declines; See A8VNAS, K12. It is possible that
this is A8VNES could be the Sabines, a people north of
CLENaRVN KVLeRE [Translation: the
Cleneron she / she cultivated/worshiped (L. colo,
colere, colui, cultum; coleret)] (end of section /
8ALASKIEM 8VSLE FEL RINA [Translation: the
valley (L. valles-is; It. vallata, valle, f.; Fr. val,
m.); I call by name, summon, move (L. cieo, ciere,
civi, citum; cieam) Vosle (Fiesole, Faesulae) or
alternatively, you (L. vos, you, pl.) to it (It. le;
Fr. le, m.) of the great queen (L. f. regina; It. f.
regina; Fr. f. reine)] Note: Fiesole is an old
Etruscan city, a part of Florence (Firenze).
HINeRA CAPE MVNI CLET MASV;
Translation: [Hinera she captures (L. capio, capere,
cepi, captum; imperative, cape) or alternately, to the
cape, end (It. capo) Moniclet, name? or
alternatively, the ramparts or fortifications (L.
moenia-ium) clet (unknown), to mass/I build (Fr.
masser; L. f. massa-ae, a lump, mass; It. f. massa,
mass, bunch;, maso, boulder)] Note: Hiner, Hinera,
Hinerv ( L. hinnio-ire, to neigh, whinny) is a name
mentioned at Z1205, Z1083, Z1405, Z1639, Z1628, the
first wrappings of the Zagreb Mummy. The Perugia
Cippus appears to be identifying Hinera as a queen of
the valley of Fiesole / Florence, and, if this is
correct, we have an exciting link in another document,
the Zagreb Mummy, whose person may have been Hinera.
This prospect, of course, is tentative until the
cippus is proofed.
NAPER SaRAN CSL RII 8ALSTIF [Translation: truly
(L. ne [nae]) throughout (L. per) or alternatively,
Naper, name?; they hoe/weed (L. sarrio [sario]-ire-ui
and -ivi); or alternatively, they make clear, make
bright (L. sereno-are) 44 of Rhea, old name of Cybele?
(L. Rhea-ae), you strengthened/fortified with a
palisade (L. vallo-are; 2nd pers. pl. imp.,
vallavistis) or alternatively, you were well, strong
(L. valeo, valere, valuisti); F belongs on the next
line] Note: CSL
appears to be a numeral. In Greek the sum would be:
(F)EL RINA HVT NAPER PENEIS
[Translation: to the great queen (L. regina, f.; It.
regina, f.; Fr. reine, f.) high, lofty, eminent,
important (Fr. haut; hausser, to raise, lift) Naper,
name? of Peneis, place, River Peneus in Thessaly,
Greece, also the river god, Peneius, father of the
MASV ACNINACLE LeA8VNA FEL
[Translation: I mass (Fr. masser; (L. f. massa-ae, a
lump, mass; It. massa, f., mass, bunch) of the lamb
(L. agna-ae f., of a lamb, agninus-a-um) or
alternatively, Acnina, name; the key (L. f. clava-ae;
It. f. chiave; Fr. f. clé) there of Avona the
RINA MeLER SINIAIN TEMA ME [Translation: queen (L.
f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine) of a
thousand/great many (L. milarius (millarius)-a-um; It.
millanta, adj.; Fr. millier) of Sinia (Siena?) in (L. in) the theme
(It. tema) or fear (It. tema, timore); (ME to line
107)] Note: the suffix, "ia," of SINIA identifies it as a
(ME)R CN LeFEL RINASIA SATENE [Translation: ) I
obtain/merit (L. mereo, and mereor) of Gnaeus (abbrev.
Cn) there (Fr. la, le) ; the great queen (L. f.
regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine) whether, if (It.
sia) to yourself (L. se, sese) you hold (L.teneo,
tenere, tenui, tentum) or alternatively, Satene, name]
Note: CNL could be a Greek number whose sum equals
TESeNE ECAFEL RINA RVRAS R [Translation: you point
out or alternatively, the design (L. designo-are, to
design); behold! (or adv., "this is") the great (fel)
queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine)
Roras, name, or alternatively, you bedew/moisten (L.
roro-are) Note the R goes on the next line]
(R)A VRA HE LV TESeNE RASNE CEI [Translation: the
defendant/party in a lawsuit (L. rea-ae, f. reus-i,
m.) she speaks, talks (L. oro-are; Palaic, wer) you
have/hold (L. habeo-ere) it (It. lo) the design or
alternatively, you design/point out (L. designo-are)
the Etruscan (Rasne) any, some (L. quae)]
TESeNS TEIS RASNES KIMeRS P
[Translation: designs (L. designo-are, to design) of
the gods (L. deus, divus; di [dii], divi) of the
Etruscans (Rasnes) the chimaera-ae, f (see the Chimaera of
Arezzo) (P to K123)] Note: TESeNS TEIS RASNES all agree in number,
suggesting that TESENS is a noun.
(P)EL RVTAS CVNA A8VNA MENA [Translation: the skin
(L. pellis-is; It. pelle; Fr. peau; peler, to skin)
you whirl around (L. roto-are; rotas, you rotate) she
conspires/takes an oath (L. coniuro-are) of Avona,
name she leads (It. menare; Fr. mener)] Note: See SPEL
HE Se NAPER CI CN Le HAREV TVSE
[Translation: you have (L. habeo-are) itself, herself
(L. se, sese; It. si; Fr. se) Naper, name; who, which
(L. qui, quae, quod; It. chi; Fr. qui) CN (L. Cn,
Cnaeus-i, abbreviation of name, Cnaeus) there (le) or
alternatively this is a number, Greek, 100, CNL; to
draw out, empty (L. haurio, haurire) the leader, ruler
(L. dux, ducis) (End of side 1)
FEL RINA (S to line K148)
[Translation: the great (Fel) queen (L. f. regina; It.
f. regina; Fr. f. reine)]
SATINA SVCI (I from line K150)
[Translation: Satina I helped (help, to succor (L.
succurro-currere; It. soccorrere; Welsh, swcro) or
alternatively, associated, allied, an ally (L.
socia-ae, socius-a-um) ]
K150 E NESCIIP (IP to line K152); alternatively TF
[Translation: (E may be part of SVCI, K148) from (L.
e, ex) the ignorant? (L. nescio-ire, not to know, to
be ignorant; nescius-a-um, not knowing, ignorant,
unaware) or she did not know] See also K171 E NESCI.
K152 (IP)A or TFA SPE LANE [Translation: the two (L. duo-ae-o;
It. due; Fr. deux; Welsh, dau, dwy; Gr. Dyo; Persian,
do) you hope? (L. sperare; spes-ei, hope; It. sperare;
Fr. ésperer) of wool? (L. lana-ae)
K154 RI VOLVM
(8VLVM) [Translation: the matters (L. res, ri) of the
volume (L. volumen-inis, a scroll, book, wreath, fold;
It. volume; Fr. volume, bulk, mass, volume)]
K156 CHUAS (KFAS) FELaRI [Translation: the
end, dam, close (It. chiusa, f.) or alternatively, the
choice, alternative (Fr. choix, choisi, excellent) of
the great (fel) matters (L. res, ri) or alternatively,
the Felari] Note: See FELaR, FELaRA, FELaRE, sailing
ships? (L. velum-i, a sail; It. vellero, Fr. voilier,
K159 RENERI EST [Translation: the
Reneri she is (L. sum, esse, fui, futurus)]
K161 AC FEL RINA [Translation: indeed, and also (L.
ac) the great (Fel) queen (L. f. regina; It. f.
regina; Fr. f. reine)]
K164 ACILVNE, possibly ACIL VNE [Translation: the eagle
(L. aquila-ae) the one one (L. unnus-a-um, unius, uni,
una; It. un, uno, una; Fr. Un, une; Welsh, un-au);
probably, northern (L. aquilonius-a-um), i.e., "the
great northern queen." The next word at K165 appears
to be the city of Turin, and this would be the
northern most city.]
K165 TVRVNE (SC to line 168)
[Translation: of Turone (Turin? L. taurinus-a-um, of
or like a bull; Taurinorum, Turin)]
K168 SCVNE SIA LVCI (I from line 171)
[Translation: the shame? (It. sconcio, m.)
alternatively, a people: Scone? Tuscone? whether (L.
sive, seu; It. sia; Welsh, ai, os; Fr. si que, soit
que) of the Lucans or alternatively of the location
(L. locus-i, place, region)] Note: Because of the
punctuation mark after TVRVNE the SC goes with K168.
Likewise the punctuation mark is after the I in LVCI.]
K171 E NESCI A R (R to line K173)
Translation: from, out of (L. e, ex) the ignorant? (L.
nescio-ire, not to know, to be ignorant; nescius-a-um,
not knowing, ignorant, unaware) to, at (L. a)] See
also K151 E NESCI.
K173 (R)VMI CaSa AVONAS (A8VNAS) [Translation: the
Romans (L. Roma-ae; It. Romano; Fr. Romain) of the
house (L. casa-ae) of Avonas, name; NAS from line
K176 (NAS) PENaRIA (A
from K178) [Translation: of or for the provisions? (L.
penarius-a-um) or alternatively, a place, Penaria?]
K178 (A) AMA FEL R (R to line K181)
[Translation: to (L. a) she loves (L.amo-are) the
K181 (R)INA AVO (A8V) II
[Translation:queen (L. regina-ae; It. regina; Fr.
reine); grandfather, ancestor (L. avus-i) II]
K183 RVR VNIE III [Translation: I
drop dew, moisten, bedew (L. roro-are) the goddess
Uni? by, from, out of III]
K186 SERIV II
AC L (L to line 188) [Translation: in ernest,
seriously (L. serio) II and also, and indeed (L. ac,
K188 (L)ARI Le RONCH
[Translation: of the gods (L. lar, laris) there (le,
la) I prey, torment, gnaw upon (Fr. ronger; L. &
It. rodere) or alternatively, to swallow up (It.
ringolare – ringhiottire) or to recoil, fall back,
withdraw (It. rinculare; reculer; L. recello-ere)]
K191 VLeR LICH (LIK) CA [Translation: Oler,
name? (L. olor-oris, a swan; ulolo-are, to howl, yell,
of a place: to resound with howling) I bind (L.
ligo-are) or alternatively, Olerlich, name, by which
way, as far as (L. qua)]
K194 CECHASI (CEKASI) CHOLE (KVLE) [Translation:
anything (It. checchessia, anything, everything,
chicchessia, anyone, anybody; Fr. quelquechose) you
inhabit, cultivate (L. colo, colere)]
names and places in the text:
Avonas - K12 STeLA
AVONAS (A8VNAS) SaLE LER CARV
Avonas - K173 (R)VMI CaSa AVONAS (A8VNAS)
Avones - K57.. LAR RAL Se A8VNES
Avona - K123 (P)EL RVTAS CVNA A8VNA MENA
Avona - K84 MASV ACNINACLE LeA8VNA FEL
Rasne - K24 RASNE SIPA AMA HENNA PER - name of the
K110 (R)A VRA HE LV TESeNE RASNE CEI
Rasnes - K117 TESeNS TEIS RASNES KIMeRS - Note:
teis is god, L. deus, divus
Henna - K24 RASNE SIPA AMA HENNA PER - name of
Henna, city in Sicily?
Romans - K173 (R)VMI CaSa AVONAS (A8VNAS)
Queen Ruras - K29 XII FEL RINA RVRAS ARAS
K105 FEL RINA RVRAS
Perascem, Perugia - K35 (PE)RASCEM VLiM LE SCVL SVCI
Queen Satina - K146 FEL RINA
(K148) SATINA SVCI
Queen Sarina - K45 AVLE SIFEL RINA SARINA
Queen Acilone - K161 AC FEL RINA (K164) ACILVNE -
Note: Luni is an Etruscan place, but this appears to
refer to the "northern queen: L. aquilonius-a-um,
northern. The next word is Turone, probably Turin, the northern city.
Turin - K165 TVRVNE - "the northern"
Etruscan city, Turin.
Luci, people of Lucas, city - K168 SCVNE SIA LVCI
Clensi, gens - K52 (CL)ENSI - name
also appears on the Prince Metelus statue, AL-6.
Clenarun, gens - K63 CLENaRVN KVLeRE
Vosle, Fiosole, Faesulae - K65 KIEM 8VSLE
Queen Hinera - K71 (FEL RINA) HINeRA CAPE MVNI - Hinera is
mentioned in the Zagreb Mummy, Z1205, Z1083, Z1405,
Peneis - K79 (F)EL RINA HVT NAPER PENEIS
Sinia - K92 RINA MeLER SINIA
CN, Gnaeus - K97 (ME)R CN LeFEL RINASIA SATENE
K129 NAPER CI CN Le HAREV TVSE
Satene - K97...SIA SATENE
Felari, gens - K156 CHUAS (KFAS) FELaRI
Reneri, gens - K159 RENERI EST
of LAR and LER:
General note: Both LAR and LER are used in this text
and also the Piacenza Liver. Both appear to
refer to the name, god. Because they both are in the
Piacenza Liver, the use of these names may be
something like this: Lar refers to gods of the air or
heaven and Ler may refer to gods of the underworld.
The Etruscan texts do not seem to use the terms
interchangably. LER is used in the Zagreb Mummy and
Script N. LAR does not appear in the Zagreb Mummy,
LER - K12...SaLE LER CARV
LERI - K18 TE SANVOS (SAN8VS) LERI TEVeNS (TE8eNS) TEIS; Note: teis is god, L.
deus, divus and tevens appears to be divine, L.
divinus, adj. Thus Leri Tevens are divine gods.
LAR - K57.. LAR RAL Se A8VNES
LARI - K188
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