1/27/2012 Etruscan Phrases showing Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns and vocabulary. Translation of the Perugia Cippus (Cippus Perusinus) Script "K."



Translation of the Perugia Cippus, Script "K"

 by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)


About the Translation

1.27.12  This work,  is being updated, reflecting a reconciliation to other works, such as the Zagreb Mummy, Tavola Cortonensis and many short texts. The Perugia Cippus stands out among all the Etruscan texts as an actual history, listing names of queens and kings. The many names of queens also gives thought to the role of women in Etruscan society. This stele may have been placed at a school (Etr. SKVL) outside of Perugia. Reconciled words are in our Etruscan Glossarya.pdf .  Our update is on "Work Notes on the Perugia Cippus." Related documents are:  "Work Notes on the Tavola Cortonensis." January 20, 2012.  For the Zagreb Mummy see "Work Notes on the Zagreb Mummy." (These documents are available at acadameia.edu/Mel Copeland)

The Cippus Perusinus or Cippus of Perugia is a stone tablet discovered on the hill of San Marco, near Perugia, Italy, in 1822. It is written on two sides. The date of the inscription is considered to be 3rd or 2nd century BCE.
This script appears to be a history, including a great queen whose name is Sarina. She appears to have been responsible for uniting the 12 cities of Etruria under a time when they were quarreling. A small bronze bust of her with her name carved on her forhead is in the Louvre. She was an extraordinarliy beautiful woman as can be seen in her bust. The character "y" appears to be "i," "y," and is shown as I. The stela is inscribed on two sides and is in the Perugia Museum. Images of the stela are courtesy of the museum.

The following is the text, details of which are below. The text is being reworked using the new glossary and wonderful images supplied by the Archeological Museum of Perugia. (1) The images have been downsized for the internet (450 pixels wide vs. ~1500 pixels). The larger image makes us quite confident in the transcriptions here offered.

The cippus is proving to be a history and most interestingly seems to have identified a Queen Hinera of the Valley of Fiesole (ancient Florence) – see K65, K66 – whose name also appears in the Zagreb Mummy's wrappings closest to the mummy's body. This has to be verified, but it may be that between the two documents there is a disclosure of not only the Queen of the Etruscan city Fiesole but also the name of the person of the Zagreb Mummy, who died in Egypt. This is, thus, becoming an Etruscan history, not from others, such as the Romans and Greeks, but from the Etruscans themselves. K65 is the beginning of a new section of the text, suggesting that the previous section deals with a dynasty of the Clensi, featuring Queen Sarina (K45-K52). The Clensi are mentioned in the text on the bronze statue of Prince Metelis.

Mel Copeland

K1 by the request of Tanna, of the household diety there
K6 you love to wander; they cleanse the great queen themselves;
K13 she rests of the ancestor born of the hall of the beloved lord
K20 of the goddess whether you of the lords arrive at the gods
K26 of the Etruscans she encloses she loves the city of Henna, Sicily through
K31 twelve (12th month or year 12)the great queen you bedew of the altars by
K36 of Perae lamented of them I assembled of the knights; Behold!
K43 you have of these matters wept over, the ghost (L. laria (Larua)-ae)]
K46 of the prince himself; the great queen Sarina there she calls
K52 Behold! supposing that of these matters I weaken she unites you with an oath; to dine
K58 I am drawing out the favorable of her to the senate there; I kiss, I do not know
K64 the Cleneron to cultivate
K67 of the Falisci of you to her the great queen
K74 Hinera you capture; you surrounded with a wall of the key of you; I mass
K79 truly, through the serene within there the matters of your valley
K86 of the great queen I keep of you truly through the possession of, of myself
K92 I mass/bunch the lambs indeed; the key there of the ancestory she has of the great
K100 queen of a thousand she longs for upon the pole on I obtain/merit
K107 CN there; the great queen Dia to yourself you hold
K113 you point out the mare; the great queen you bedew/moisten
K119 the female defendant of the breath of air/spirit you have it; you point out of the Rasne (Etruscan) which
K124 the great you whirl around/roatate she takes an oath of the ancestor indeed she leads
K136 you indeed through which CN there she has the male defendent you shear


TANNALARE SVCI (I from K6) [Translation: by, from (L. e, ex) request (L. oratu) Tanna, of the household diety (L. lars, laris) I helped? (L. succurro-currere; It. soccorrere; Welsh, swcro)] See K39 and K148 for other uses of SVCI in this text.

Note: TVRVNE, K165, and TANNA, K-3, may have a historical link. TANNA may be Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, and Eurydice. Though imprisoned by her father she bore Perseus by Zeus. Acrisius set mother and child adrift in a chest, but they reached the island of Seriphus. There King Polydectes tried to force her to marry him, but Perseus eventually rescued her and took her home to Argos. According to Vergil (Aeneïd, 7.371-372, 7.406-413) Danaë emigrated to Italy and founded Ardea, the capital city of her descendant Turnus, king of the Rutulians (Rutuli). The Rutuli were a tribe living in Latium. Under Turnus they led other Latin tribes against Aeneas. With this in mind, seeing that this cippus contains a historical account, it may be that the Perugia Cippus is a confirmation of Virgil's myth covering the descendants of Aeneas, of the Trojan War.

K6 AME FAKeR LAVTiNFEL RINA SE [Translation: she wished? (L. amo-are) to do, produce, be of service to (L. facio, facere, feci, factum; pass. fio) Lautin, of the great queen (L. regina-ae, f.; It. f. regina; Fr. reine, f.) herself (L. se, sese)]

Note: On FAKeR see Z656. Lautin might be Latinus, a king of Latium, which was a large area extending southward from Rome. Latinus, a son of Faunus and Marica, a Laurentine nymph, was a great-grandson of Saturn. According to Vergil's Aeneid, in which he is a principal character, he would have welcomed Aeneas, with the Trojans, to Latium and offered him the hand of his daughter, Lavinia (Oracles had warned that she should marry a foreigner). Latinus' wife, Amata, however, favored the suit of the Rutulian king Turnus. When war enued with the Trojans, the aged Latinus abdicated. Some other Roman traditions say that Latinus fought the Trojans and was killed. Lavinia finally marreid Aeneas and Latinus thus became an ancestor of the Romans, giving his name to their language.

K12 STeLA A8VNAS SaLE LER CARV [Translation: the stela (L. stela-ae and cippus-i; It. cippus; Gr. stele, stellein, to set up) of Avonas, name of the hall (It. sala, f.; Fr. salle, f.) or seat, chair (L. sella-ae) of the lord, god, penate (L. lar, laris, lares) beloved (L. carus-a-um)] Note: A8VNAS declines. See K57, A8VNES.

K18 TE SANVOS (SAN8VS) LERI TEVeNS (TE8eNS) TEIS [Translation: to you (L. te) the race, family, life blood, strength, progeny? (L. sanguis-inis) or alternatively the restored? (L. sano-are; sanabo, to restore) or alternatively, I heal, restore (L. sano-are) of you (L. vos, 2nd person pron. pl.) of the lords divine (L. dius-a-um; adj. divinus) of the gods] Note: SANVOS is probably a noun or SAN VOS. VOS appears by itself at K68. See "Etruscan Phrases" GrammarA.xls.

K24 RASNE SIPA AMA HENNA PER; [Translation: the Etruscans (Rasne) she encloses (L. saepio, saepire, saeps, saeptum) she loves Henna (L. Henna [Enna], f. city of Sicily with a temple of Ceres); through, by (L. per)]

K29 XII FEL RINA RVRAS ARAS PE (PE in line K35) [Translation: twelve of the great (Fel) queen (L. regina-ae, f.; It. f. regina; Fr. reine, f.) Ruras, Roras, name or alternatively, you water/bedew (L. roro-are) or you live in the country (l. ruro-are) the altars (L. ara-ae) ]

K35 (PE)RASCEM VLiM LE SCVL SVCI EN [Translation: at Perusia (Perugia, Perusia, Tuscan town; "em" suffix, accusative) at times, for a long time now, often (L. olim), there, them (LE) the school, debate (L. schola-ae) I helped (L. succurro-currere; It. soccorrere; Welsh, swcro) Behold!/Come! (L. en)]

K41 ES RIE PLvTV LARV [Translation: you are (L. sum, esse, fui, futurus) Rhea (L. Rhea-ae) of Pluto? a spectre/mask, ghost (L. Larua, -ae)] Note: If RIE is THIE - The "TH" appears to be a lower case Greek thelta (delta). The name Thieple may be Deïple, possibly named after the daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea who was married to Tydeus and the mother of Diomedes. Diomedes was an Argive leader whose father, Tydeus, was killed in the expedition remembered as "Seven against Thebes." When Diomedes reached manhood he married Aegialeia, daughter of Adrastus or Aegialeus. Together with the other sons of the Seven, called the Epigoni, he marched against Thebes and razed it in vengeance for their father's deaths. (End of Section / paragraph)

K45 AVLE SIFEL RINA SARINA Le CL (CL part of K52) [Translation of the prince (L. aule) and if, but if (L. si; It. se, Fr. si) the great (Fel) queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine) Sarina; there (le)]

K52 (CL)ENSIRIIRILiS CVNACENVE [Translation: the Clensi; of Rhea, old name of Cybele? (L. Rhea-ae); I relax, weaken, release (L. relaxo-are; It. rilassare; Fr. relâcher); she unites by oath (L. coniuro-are); to dine (L. ceno-are)] Note: the E is part of the next word / line; Prince Metelis, statue of an orator, mentions the name of the Clensi (AL-6).

K57 (E)PIC 8ELIC LAR RAL Se A8VNES [Translation: to the epic (L. epicus-a-um; It. epica, f.; Fr. épique, f.); the warlike (L. bellicus-a-um) godess (L. Lar, Laris, m.) Ral (Ralna? wife of the supreme god, Tini) herself (L. se, sese; It. si; Fr. se) of the Avones] Note: "NA" and "NE" are augmentative suffixes. In script DM RALNA, the goddess and mother of Helen of Troy, is seated next to TINIA (Zeus / Jupiter). A8VNES declines; See A8VNAS, K12. It is possible that this is A8VNES could be the Sabines, a people north of the Latins.

K63 CLENaRVN KVLeRE [Translation: the Cleneron she / she cultivated/worshiped (L. colo, colere, colui, cultum; coleret)] (end of section / paragraph)

K65 8ALASKIEM 8VSLE FEL RINA [Translation: the valley (L. valles-is; It. vallata, valle, f.; Fr. val, m.); I call by name, summon, move (L. cieo, ciere, civi, citum; cieam) Vosle (Fiesole, Faesulae) or alternatively, you (L. vos, you, pl.) to it (It. le; Fr. le, m.) of the great queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine)] Note: Fiesole is an old Etruscan city, a part of Florence (Firenze).

K71 HINeRA CAPE MVNI CLET MASV; Translation: [Hinera she captures (L. capio, capere, cepi, captum; imperative, cape) or alternately, to the cape, end (It. capo) Moniclet, name? or alternatively, the ramparts or fortifications (L. moenia-ium) clet (unknown), to mass/I build (Fr. masser; L. f. massa-ae, a lump, mass; It. f. massa, mass, bunch;, maso, boulder)] Note: Hiner, Hinera, Hinerv ( L. hinnio-ire, to neigh, whinny) is a name mentioned at Z1205, Z1083, Z1405, Z1639, Z1628, the first wrappings of the Zagreb Mummy. The Perugia Cippus appears to be identifying Hinera as a queen of the valley of Fiesole / Florence, and, if this is correct, we have an exciting link in another document, the Zagreb Mummy, whose person may have been Hinera. This prospect, of course, is tentative until the cippus is proofed.

K75 NAPER SaRAN CSL RII 8ALSTIF [Translation: truly (L. ne [nae]) throughout (L. per) or alternatively, Naper, name?; they hoe/weed (L. sarrio [sario]-ire-ui and -ivi); or alternatively, they make clear, make bright (L. sereno-are) 44 of Rhea, old name of Cybele? (L. Rhea-ae), you strengthened/fortified with a palisade (L. vallo-are; 2nd pers. pl. imp., vallavistis) or alternatively, you were well, strong (L. valeo, valere, valuisti); F belongs on the next line] Note: CSL appears to be a numeral. In Greek the sum would be: 56.

K79 (F)EL RINA HVT NAPER PENEIS [Translation: to the great queen (L. regina, f.; It. regina, f.; Fr. reine, f.) high, lofty, eminent, important (Fr. haut; hausser, to raise, lift) Naper, name? of Peneis, place, River Peneus in Thessaly, Greece, also the river god, Peneius, father of the nymph Daphne?]

K84 MASV ACNINACLE LeA8VNA FEL [Translation: I mass (Fr. masser; (L. f. massa-ae, a lump, mass; It. massa, f., mass, bunch) of the lamb (L. agna-ae f., of a lamb, agninus-a-um) or alternatively, Acnina, name; the key (L. f. clava-ae; It. f. chiave; Fr. f. clé) there of Avona the great (fel)]

K92 RINA MeLER SINIAIN TEMA ME [Translation: queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine) of a thousand/great many (L. milarius (millarius)-a-um; It. millanta, adj.; Fr. millier) of Sinia (Siena?) in (L. in) the theme (It. tema) or fear (It. tema, timore); (ME to line 107)] Note: the suffix, "ia," of SINIA identifies it as a proper name.

K97 (ME)R CN LeFEL RINASIA SATENE [Translation: ) I obtain/merit (L. mereo, and mereor) of Gnaeus (abbrev. Cn) there (Fr. la, le) ; the great queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine) whether, if (It. sia) to yourself (L. se, sese) you hold (L.teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum) or alternatively, Satene, name] Note: CNL could be a Greek number whose sum equals 100.

K105 TESeNE ECAFEL RINA RVRAS R [Translation: you point out or alternatively, the design (L. designo-are, to design); behold! (or adv., "this is") the great (fel) queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine) Roras, name, or alternatively, you bedew/moisten (L. roro-are) Note the R goes on the next line]

K110 (R)A VRA HE LV TESeNE RASNE CEI [Translation: the defendant/party in a lawsuit (L. rea-ae, f. reus-i, m.) she speaks, talks (L. oro-are; Palaic, wer) you have/hold (L. habeo-ere) it (It. lo) the design or alternatively, you design/point out (L. designo-are) the Etruscan (Rasne) any, some (L. quae)]

K117 TESeNS TEIS RASNES KIMeRS P [Translation: designs (L. designo-are, to design) of the gods (L. deus, divus; di [dii], divi) of the Etruscans (Rasnes) the chimaera-ae, f (see the Chimaera of Arezzo) (P to K123)] Note: TESeNS TEIS RASNES all agree in number, suggesting that TESENS is a noun.

K123 (P)EL RVTAS CVNA A8VNA MENA [Translation: the skin (L. pellis-is; It. pelle; Fr. peau; peler, to skin) you whirl around (L. roto-are; rotas, you rotate) she conspires/takes an oath (L. coniuro-are) of Avona, name she leads (It. menare; Fr. mener)] Note: See SPEL at K152.

K129 HE Se NAPER CI CN Le HAREV TVSE [Translation: you have (L. habeo-are) itself, herself (L. se, sese; It. si; Fr. se) Naper, name; who, which (L. qui, quae, quod; It. chi; Fr. qui) CN (L. Cn, Cnaeus-i, abbreviation of name, Cnaeus) there (le) or alternatively this is a number, Greek, 100, CNL; to draw out, empty (L. haurio, haurire) the leader, ruler (L. dux, ducis) (End of side 1)

Lateral side:

K146 FEL RINA (S to line K148) [Translation: the great (Fel) queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine)]

K148 SATINA SVCI (I from line K150) [Translation: Satina I helped (help, to succor (L. succurro-currere; It. soccorrere; Welsh, swcro) or alternatively, associated, allied, an ally (L. socia-ae, socius-a-um) ]

IP (IP to line K152); alternatively TF [Translation: (E may be part of SVCI, K148) from (L. e, ex) the ignorant? (L. nescio-ire, not to know, to be ignorant; nescius-a-um, not knowing, ignorant, unaware) or she did not know] See also K171 E NESCI.

K152 (IP)A or TFA
SPE LANE [Translation: the two (L. duo-ae-o; It. due; Fr. deux; Welsh, dau, dwy; Gr. Dyo; Persian, do) you hope? (L. sperare; spes-ei, hope; It. sperare; Fr. ésperer) of wool? (L. lana-ae)

VOLVM (8VLVM) [Translation: the matters (L. res, ri) of the volume (L. volumen-inis, a scroll, book, wreath, fold; It. volume; Fr. volume, bulk, mass, volume)]

[Translation: the end, dam, close (It. chiusa, f.) or alternatively, the choice, alternative (Fr. choix, choisi, excellent) of the great (fel) matters (L. res, ri) or alternatively, the Felari] Note: See FELaR, FELaRA, FELaRE, sailing ships? (L. velum-i, a sail; It. vellero, Fr. voilier, sailing ship).

RI EST [Translation: the Reneri she is (L. sum, esse, fui, futurus)]

K161 AC FEL RINA [Translation: indeed, and also (L. ac) the great (Fel) queen (L. f. regina; It. f. regina; Fr. f. reine)]

K164 ACILVNE, possibly ACIL VNE
[Translation: the eagle (L. aquila-ae) the one one (L. unnus-a-um, unius, uni, una; It. un, uno, una; Fr. Un, une; Welsh, un-au); probably, northern (L. aquilonius-a-um), i.e., "the great northern queen." The next word at K165 appears to be the city of Turin, and this would be the northern most city.]

(SC to line 168) [Translation: of Turone (Turin? L. taurinus-a-um, of or like a bull; Taurinorum, Turin)]

K168 SCVNE SIA LVCI (I from line 171) [Translation: the shame? (It. sconcio, m.) alternatively, a people: Scone? Tuscone? whether (L. sive, seu; It. sia; Welsh, ai, os; Fr. si que, soit que) of the Lucans or alternatively of the location (L. locus-i, place, region)] Note: Because of the punctuation mark after TVRVNE the SC goes with K168. Likewise the punctuation mark is after the I in LVCI.]

A R (R to line K173) Translation: from, out of (L. e, ex) the ignorant? (L. nescio-ire, not to know, to be ignorant; nescius-a-um, not knowing, ignorant, unaware) to, at (L. a)] See also K151 E NESCI.

K173 (
AVONAS (A8VNAS) [Translation: the Romans (L. Roma-ae; It. Romano; Fr. Romain) of the house (L. casa-ae) of Avonas, name; NAS from line K176.]

K176 (NAS)
PENaRIA (A from K178) [Translation: of or for the provisions? (L. penarius-a-um) or alternatively, a place, Penaria?]

K178 (A)
AMA FEL R (R to line K181) [Translation: to (L. a) she loves (L.amo-are) the great (fel)]

K181 (
AVO (A8V) II [Translation:queen (L. regina-ae; It. regina; Fr. reine); grandfather, ancestor (L. avus-i) II]

E III [Translation: I drop dew, moisten, bedew (L. roro-are) the goddess Uni? by, from, out of III]

SERIV II AC L (L to line 188) [Translation: in ernest, seriously (L. serio) II and also, and indeed (L. ac, atque)]

K188 (L)ARI Le
RONCH (RVNK) [Translation: of the gods (L. lar, laris) there (le, la) I prey, torment, gnaw upon (Fr. ronger; L. & It. rodere) or alternatively, to swallow up (It. ringolare – ringhiottire) or to recoil, fall back, withdraw (It. rinculare; reculer; L. recello-ere)]

(LIK) CA [Translation: Oler, name? (L. olor-oris, a swan; ulolo-are, to howl, yell, of a place: to resound with howling) I bind (L. ligo-are) or alternatively, Olerlich, name, by which way, as far as (L. qua)]

SI (CEKASI) CHOLE (KVLE) [Translation: anything (It. checchessia, anything, everything, chicchessia, anyone, anybody; Fr. quelquechose) you inhabit, cultivate (L. colo, colere)]

(End of Text)

Probable names and places in the text:

Avonas - K12
Avonas - K173 (
Avones - K57.. LA
Avona - K84 MASV
Rasne - K24 RASNE SIPA AMA HENNA PER - name of the Etruscans
K110 (
Rasnes - K117 TESeN
S TEIS RASNES KIMeRS - Note: teis is god, L. deus, divus
Henna - K24
RASNE SIPA AMA HENNA PER - name of Henna, city in Sicily?
Romans - K173 (
Queen Ruras - K29 XII FEL
Perascem, Perugia - K35 (PE)RA
Queen Satina - K146 FEL
Queen Sarina - K45 AVLE
Queen Acilone - K161 AC FEL RINA (K164) ACILVNE - Note: Luni is an Etruscan place, but this appears to refer to the "northern queen: L. aquilonius-a-um, northern. The next word is Turone, probably Turin, the northern city.
Turin - K165
TVRVNE - "the northern" Etruscan city, Turin.
Luci, people of Lucas, city - K168
Clensi, gens - K52 (CL)EN
SI - name also appears on the Prince Metelus statue, AL-6.
Clenarun, gens - K63 CLENa
Vosle, Fiosole, Faesulae - K65
Queen Hinera - K71 (FEL RINA) HINe
RA CAPE MVNI - Hinera is mentioned in the Zagreb Mummy, Z1205, Z1083, Z1405, Z1639, Z1628
Peneis - K79 (F)EL
CN, Gnaeus - K97 (ME)R
Satene - K97...
Felari, gens - K156 CHUA
Reneri, gens - K159 RENE

Use of LAR and LER:

General note: Both LAR and LER are used in this text and also the Piacenza Liver. Both appear to refer to the name, god. Because they both are in the Piacenza Liver, the use of these names may be something like this: Lar refers to gods of the air or heaven and Ler may refer to gods of the underworld. The Etruscan texts do not seem to use the terms interchangably. LER is used in the Zagreb Mummy and Script N. LAR does not appear in the Zagreb Mummy, however.

LER - K12...SaL
SANVOS (SAN8VS) LERI TEVeNS (TE8eNS) TEIS; Note: teis is god, L. deus, divus and tevens appears to be divine, L. divinus, adj. Thus Leri Tevens are divine gods.

LAR - K57.. LA
LARI - K188 (L)ARI Le


1) Images of Perugia cippus: "cippo perugino," inv. com. n. 366, Museo Archeologico Naziionale di Perugia, courtesy of la Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Umbria, http://www. archopg.arti.beniculturali.it
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