4.17.12 Etruscan Phrases showing Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns and vocabulary – translation of the Lemnos Stele plus Etruscan Alphabet used at Etruscan_Phrases_a.html

 
 

Etruscan Phrases
Translation of the Lemnos Stele

by Mel Copeland
(based on a work published in 1981)


Note: This page is being updated together with other Etruscan Phrases pages through a set of Work notes. Associated with the document amending this page, "Work Notes on the Lemnos Stele," dated April 17, 2012, are the following pdf files:

Work Notes on the Novilara Stele (PDF) Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Pyrgi Gold Tablets (PDF) 
Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Magliano Disk (PDF) 
Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Zagreb Mummy (PDF) 
Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Cortonensis (PDF) 
Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Perugia Cippus (PDF) 
Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine (III) Script Q278-Q453 (PDF) 
Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine IIB Script Q1-Q273 (PDF)
 Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine IV Script Q543-Q915  Acadamia.edu
Work Notes on the Tavola Eugubine Ia Script N462-N748  Acadamia.edu


Etruscan Alphabet

The characters noted with a (pc) etc. can be found in earlier scripts., coded as follows: (eh) = Egyptian Hieroglyphs, dating circa. 3,300 B.C.; (c) = the Cypriot Syllabary dating circa. 1,500 B.C; (b) = Linear B, dating circa. 1,300 B.C; (pc) = Proto-Canaanite, circa. 2,500-2,000 B.C.; (ep) = Early Phoenician, circa. 2,000 B.C. (borrowed from the Sumerian script dating from about 3,000 B.C.), (h) = Hebrew, circa. 1,800 BC, (g) Greek, circa. 700 B.C. (concurrent with Etruscan). Not compared here but worthy of note is the Serbian alphabet which has many Etruscan characters and the early Germanic alphabet, called Runes, which was composed from the Etruscan alphabet as well. Other scripts, the Northeast and South Iberian Script, contain characters borrowed from Etruscan. The borrowing of a writing system by one culture from another does not necessarily imply that the phonetic or syllabic value of the character is retained. Note that the form of the character may not have the same phonetic value to Etruscan; what is indicated is that the character appears in the scripts listed, and where the form is close I identify the phonetic/syllabic value of that character for reference purposes.

 

Characters common to the Roman / English Alphabet
* = Letters which are common to the Zagreb Mummy Script

 A*

 C*

E *

 F*

 I*

 K*

L*

N* 

 t*

V*

 Z

 (ep) (g) (b = e)

 (pc = g)

(h = b)

 (g) (c)

 (ep)

 (c)

(ep)

(g)

 (ep)

(g) (c = la, nu)


  (pc)

(ep)

(g)

(ep)

(g)

(b = do)

 (c = lo)

(b = ro) 

(pc) (ep) (g)

(b = sa)

 (pc = s) (ep = s) (g)

(c= pe, zo)

(b = we)

 a

 c, que, k, s

 e

 f, v

 i

 k, que

l

 n

 Q (rare)

  t

o

 s

The tables below show the uncommon characters in the Etruscan Scripts 

 

 *

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 *

 *

 

 

 *

 

 (g)

 (c) (pc)

 

 (ep) (g)

 (ep)

( = L)

(pc = y)

 (ep) (g = g)

(h = s)

 

(c = mu) (ep)

 (b = da or sa)

(c = ta)

 (g)

 see Z above

 see Z above

 see Z above

(b = ya)

(pc)

 (ep)

(g)

  th

 K, ecH

 u ,o

 G, i, AE

Y

  L

rare

 G, I

F, V, O

 G, I

V,O

 M

 T

rare

 S

   S, Z

 S

  H

ech, H

 

 

 

 *

 O*

 P*

 V*


(rare)

also interchanged with the V in the Zagreb Script

 

*


(rare)

 L

8

 b

D

O,

(the loop is rare; see script PS)

 (c = pa)

(b = pa)

(ep = s)

 (c = se)

(b =re)

(g = psi)

 (b = twe)

 (ep)

(h = d)

 (c = Ro)

(pc = ')

(ep = ')

(g = ')

(b=kwe)

(c = mo)

(ep)

(g)

 (b = sa)

  (b = sa)

(pc)

(ep)

(c = li)

 (c = le)

(pc = q)

 (b = su)

(pc) (ep)

 (ep)

(g)

 (c = Ro)

 S,Z

S,Z

 AE?;
CH*

 B

(rare)

 P

 R

 R

 V,F,u, o

 V,F,u

 L

 F, V

 G

(Tavola

Eugubine)

D

(rare)

O

 

About the Lemnos scripts:

There is a variation in the use of characters in these stele with regard to other Etruscan scripts. Words on the two inscriptions fall into the Etruscan Vocabulary. In Stone # 1 the "V" is missing and the "O" is substituted for it. The "8" is missing but as we saw in the Zagreb Mummy texts the "F" replaced it. The "S" in the Zagreb Mummy texts is more pronounced, showing the form of the "Z." The "S" which looks like an "M" in other scripts is turned on its side, as we also saw in an isolated instance in the Tavola Eugubine Script "G." The circle with a dot in the center is used as a"T"; the circle with an x in the center appears to be "X." The "O" – here represented as a square – in the other Etruscan scripts is an "R." Three vertical dots replace the usual colon, a punctuation mark. Where you see the colon recognize that it is really three vertical dots as you can see in the graphic. The use of a three-dot colon / punctuation is common to punctuation used on the Areyastis inscription which is written in Old Phrygian (OPhr.), according to Alexander Lubotsky.(1)

Lemnos was an island that had close relationships with the Troad and Phrygia and the Phrygian language appears to be related to the Etruscan language (See Phrygian.html). A glossary (~1700 word Excel spreadsheet) and grammar of Etruscan words, including the Lemnos text and Phrygian texts) are available from Etruscan_Phrases_a.html.

We begin with what I call "Funerary Stone # 1".

Translation:

S-1: The scimitar itself I energetically protect supposing that
S-8 the seas evil
S-10 whether the shields of eternity
S-15 to be torn in pieces; I sow, I am born again
S-18 the land of you he filled
S-22 The talk of peace through they join together, to wonder exceedingly he reigns there

S-50 He orders the laws of the hearths / houses of Asia; he departs to sow the prothetess of eternity I have; the tufa he watches
S-40 The circle he hangs on to not; Sivai; the rapier by I venerate; the altars; the shaft I have as to
S-30 Sivai; eternity; whether the shields of the sea we go; eternity to the burial place

S-1 HeRPAIE: Se: NAPH (NAø) THeCHSI ASI: ; [Translation: Herpaie, name, 5th decl. gen., perhaps based on the word for scimitar (L. harpes-es, f.), Se (L. se, sese) L. himself; unfortunate (L. nefas; It. nefasto; Fr. néfast) I protected /covered (L. tego, tegere, texi, tectum) Asians (L. Asia-ae)] Note: the "ie" suffix marks this word as a noun. See also the word NAPHAR (S-1).

S-8 :MARAS: MAF [Translation: seas (L. mare-is)] bad, evil (Fr. mauvais); "ie" and "ia" suffix are gen. or dat. endings.

S-10 SIA PAEFEIS: AFIS [Translation: whether? (L. sive, seu; It. sia; Welsh, ai, os; Fr. si que, soit que) of the shields (It. pavese, f.); eternity (L. aevum-in, n. a. aevus-i, m.)]

S-15 EFISeCHeR: SER ReNAIeCH SIFAI [Translation: to tear in pieces / disembowel (L. eviscero-are); I sow, set, plant (L. sero-serere, sevi, satum) I am born again (L. renascor-nasci, natus, to be born again, grow again) Sivai? (name, Sivai; Sanscrit: Shiva, the destroyer, responsible for the form of change and the shedding of old habits.)]

S-18 AKER: TA FARSITH [Translation: the land (L. ager, agri) of you, yours (L. ta) he fills(L. farcio, farcire, farsi, fartum)]

S-22 FAMA PASIA Pe: SER ReNAIMeR RINA IP [Translation: the talk (L. fama-ae, f.) of Peace ( L. pax, pacis) through (L. per): I sow, set, plant (L. sero-serere, sevi, satum) Renaimer the Queen / regent (L. rex, regina) there (L. ibi)]

 


Stele # 2:

 

This stone, as the other, reads in the “bostrophedon” style. This literally means "how the ox plows" in Greek. Each line switches the direction of reading. S-30 reads from left to right (top to bottom); S-40 reads from right to left (bottom to top); and S-50 reads from right to left (top to bottom). This style is also seen in the Capua Tile. The "O" in Stone # 1 above is now "square." The stone appears to begin at S-50 and the first letter appears to be the proto-Cananite "b" and certainly should be a consonant.

S-30 SIFAI: AFIS: SIA PAEFIS: MAR AKeM:AFIS: ARMAI [Translation: Sivai; of eternity (L. aevum-in, n. a. aevus-i, m.) I enclose (L. saepio, saepire) eternity (L. aevum-in, n. a. aevus-i, m.); whether (L. sive, seu; It. sia; Welsh, ai, os; Fr. si que, soit que); the shields? (It. pavese, f.) to the sea (L. mare-is) I will go (l. ago, agere, agam, to set in motion, drive, go); eternity (L. aevum-in, n. a. aevus-i, m.); the armour, war (L. arma-orum)

S-40 RVM: HAR
A NO: SIFAI: EPI E PIO: ARAI: TIK: HV KE [Translation: Rome (L. Roma-ae; It. Romano; Fr. Romain) he hangs on to (L. haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum) not (It. no, adv. no, not; Fr. non, adv. no, not)
Sivai? (name, Sivai) the sword / rapier (Fr. épée, f. parer, to parry; It. parare, to adorn, hang, stop, shield, parry, protect) from / by (L. e, ex) I venerate (L. pio-are); the altars (L. ara, f. altar; hence, refuge, protection; arae, plur., name of certain rocks at sea); the shaft, column (Fr. f. tige) I have (L. habere, to have) that, as to, for, because (It. conj. che)]

S-50 LOPA IFS
I: øVKI (PHVKI) ASI APE: SERV SAIH EFISXeR: TOFE RVNA [Translation: He orders / commands (L. iubeo, iubere, iussi iussum) of the laws / commandments (L. ius, iuris, right, law, court of law; iussu, m. by order, by commandment; It. uscio, door, entrance, m.) of the hearths/houses (L. focus-i) or alternatively, seal (L. phoca-ae and phoce) of
Asia (L. Asia-ae) he departs / dies (L. abeo, abi-itum); to bring forth /sow / join (L. sero, serere, serui, sertum) the prophetess (L. saga-ae, f. ) to tear in pieces / disembowel (L. eviscero-are); the beam (It. trave, f.) or tufa (L. tofus [tophus]-i, m. ; It. m. tufo) he watches (It. ronda, f. ; Fr. rond, f.)]

Note: While the vowel "o" is unusual in the Etruscan scripts and always expressed as "V," the character "V" does not appear in this script. Thus, the omega applies here. The word LOPA is difficult to asses. If the first character is an "L" it ought to face to the left, the same direction of the other letters, such as "S" and "E." If it were the Etruscan character "O" = "R" (one of two "R's" the other being a "P," as used in this text) the word, "ropa, rupa" would apply. RVN, RVNA, etc. is used frequently in the Zagreb Mummy script pretty much in the same context as here. The combination of IH in the word SAIH is unusual and may be the equivalent in Latin of "ie," "iu," and in this case could be "je." APE is probably a verb. It conjugates in the Etruscan scripts: APA, APE, APEN, API (See Indo-European Table 1).

API may be the Cretan goddess Britomartis who was worshiped on the island of Aegina under the name of Aphaea. Minos, king of Crete, pursued the young woman amorously, and she in desperation leaped into the sea. She was saved by the nets of some fishermen; in other versions she drowned and became immortal. Her title as a goddess was Dictynna, which in Greek translated as "Lady of the Nets." I believe, however, that APE, etc. is a verb and the goddesses' name in Etruscan may be APH, a goddess of controversy in Etruscan scripts.


Notes:

* The character can be seen as a "CH" () in the name of Calchas, Script CH, Translation Miscellaneous Scripts.c.html.
1) Alesander Lubotsky, "The Old Phrygian Areyastis-inscription," availabe online as a pdf (http://www.ieed.nl/lubotsky/pdf/phrygian%20areyasti.pdf.) or html, originally appeared in Kadmos 27,1 (1988), 9-26.


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