The Phrygian language
|Image of Marduk from the Ishtar Gate|
142. Inscriptioncommemorating the rebuilding of the palace in Assur, stone slabe, published in KAH, II, No. 58. Tukulti-Urta, king of universe, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters (of the world), the Sun of all peoples, the mighty king, king of Karduniash (Babylonia), king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the upper (and) lower sea, king of the mountains and the wide (desert) plains, king of the Shubari (and) Kutî, and king of all the Nairî-lands; the king whom the gods have caused to attain unto his heart's desire (lit., victory) and who, through the splendor of his might, has made himself ruler of the four regions (of the world), am I; son of Shalmaneser, king of the universe, king of Assyria; (grand)son of Adad-nirâri, king of the universe, king of Assyria.
143. At the beginning of my rule, in my first year of reign, the Kutî, Ukumanî, the lands of Elhunia and Sharnida, (and) Mehri, my hand conquered. The tribute of their lands, and the abundance of their mountains, yearly I received, in my city Assur.
At that time the Kurtî, the lands of Kutmuhi, Bushshi, Mummi, Alzi, Madani, Nihani, Alaia, Teburzi, Burukuzzi, the whole of the wide Shubarî-land, I burned with fire. The kings, their rulers, I brought in submission to my feet and imposed taskwork.
144. Remote (?) mountains, where there were no roads, whose paths no (former) king knew, in the strength of my transcendent might I crossed and forty-three kings of the Nairî-lands boldly took their stand, offering battle. I fought with them, I brought about their overthrow. With their blood I flooded the ravines and gullies of the mountains. All of their lands I brought under my sway. I imposed tribute and gifts (toll) upon them for all time.
145. Trusting in Assur, Enlil (Bêl) and Shamash, the geat gods, my lords, (and) with the help of Ishtar, queen of heaven and earth, who went at the head of my army, I forced Kashtilash, king of Karduniash (Babylonia), to give battle; I brought about the defeat of his armies, his warriors I overthrew. In the midst of that battle my own hand captured Kashtilash, the Kassite king. His royal neck I trod on with my feet, like a galtappi. Stripped and bound, before Assur my lord, I brought him. Sumer and Akkad to its farthest border, I bought under my sway. On the lower sea of the rising sun, I established the border (i.e., frontier) of my land.
146. At that time, in the temple area of my city Assur, on the north side, I cleared away great (quantities) of earth from wide areas, 20 musarû, by the rod (?). Below I built (lit., brought) up its foundation. [Like] the solid mountain I made strong [its foundation walls]. I built Elugalukurkurra, my royal dwelling, which I love. From its foundation to its top I completed it, and I set up my memorial stele.
147. In the days to come, let (some) future prince, when that palace becomes old and falls into decay, restore its ruins, anoint my memorial stele with oil, offer sacrifices, and return it to its place. (Then) Assur and Adad will hear his prayers. He who blots out my inscribed name and writes his name (in its stead), who destroyes my memorial stele, puts it in some other place, or some hidden place, whoever plans and does any such evil deed or if he prevents the gods who dwell in Assur from entering into my palace at the feasts, or directs them to another palace, causing them to leave that palace and to desert it, may Assur and Adad, the gods of heaven and earth, ruin his kingdom, destroy his name and his seed from the land. May the king, who would harm him, deprive him of his throne (and) give his land to whomever he pleases. May Ishtar, the lady, lover of the years of my rule, bring about the overthrow of his land. Before his foes may he not be able to stand. Into the hand of his foes may she give him.
149 (From another inscription on a damaged slab, KAH, I, No. 16) ... then, from Tarsinâ, an inaccessible (?) mountain between the city of Shasila (and) the city of Barpanish on the other side of the Lower Zab, from the mountains of Sukushki and Lalar, [the region of the widespreading Kutî, and the Ukumanî, the land of Elhunia, up to [Sharnida], the lands of Mehri, Kurtî (?) [Kutmuhi, Bushshe, Mumme, and all of the Kashiari region; the lands of Alzi, [Madani], Nihani, Alaia, [Teburzi (?) and Burukuzzi, all of the widespreading [Shubarî], in their totality, to the limit [of their territory], I accomplished their overthrow]. (Text preceeded by the usual titles and followed by a comment on the raising of the stele and a blessing to those who restore and a curse against those who deface it)
152. (A third, damaged inscription) Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, the mighty king, king of Assyria, conqueror of the mighty and (?) faithless, enemies of Assur, destroyer of the lands of the Ukumanî and Kurtî, who were insubmissive and all of them evil people; who tramples down the land of Kutmuhi, the armies of the Kurtî (in their) mountain fastnesses; who overthrows the forces of the land of the Shubarî in [its] totality; who destroyes the land of Alzi and Purukussi, all of whom were insubmissive. The duly appointed prince, who, under the protection of Assur and the great gods, advances to the four corners (of the earth); who has neither subduer nor conqueror; who seizes the enemies' country, north and south; the great king, mighty in battle, who has brought under his sway all of the lands of the Nairî, and has brought forty-three kings, their rulers, in submission to his feet; who has added the lands of Azalzi and Shepardi to the territory of his country; who has accomplished the overthrow of the land of Sumer and Akkad; [who has overthrown (?) the land of Pil-.............and ..............; the son of Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, (grand)son of Adad-nirâri, king of Assyria. (Text is followed by commentary on restoration of the palace and temple and a blessing for those who restore and a curse against those who would deface his inscription).
164. Another inscription, from three that commemorate the founding of the buurb of Assur called Kar-Tukulti-Urta.... On my accession to the royal throne, in my first year of reign, I carried off 28,800 Hittite warriors from the other side of the Euphrates, and in the Iaurî mountains, my hand conquered the Kurtî and Ukumani as far as Sharnida (and) Mehri. The tribute of their lands and the abundance of their mountains, yearly I received. Kutmuhi, Bushshi, Alzi, Madani, Nihani, Alaia, Teburzi, Burukuzzi, ---all of the widespreading Shubarî, with fire I burned. The kings, their rulers, I brought in submission to my feet and imposed taskwork.
165. Mighty mountains, a wearisome region, whose paths no (former) king knew, I crossed in the strength of my transcendent might, I cut through their ranges with bronze axes and opened wide their closed paths. (11) I fought in battle with 43 kings of the Nairî-lands, I brought about the defeat of their armies. All their lands I brought under my sway. The kings of those Nairî-lands, I galled their necks with copper fetters. To Ekur (or, the temple), the great mountain, my tutelary shrine, before Assur, my lord, I brought them. I made them take the oath by the great gods of heaven and earth. Tribute and gifts for all time I imposed upon them.
166. Under the protection of Assur, Enlil, Shamash, Sin, the great gods, my lords, and with the help of Ishtar, queen of heaven and earth, who goes before my hosts, forced Kashtiliash, king of Karduniash (Babylonia), to give battle. I brought about the defeat of his armies, his warriors I overthrew. In the midst of that battle my own hand captured Kashtiliash, the Kassite king. I carried him stripped and bound before Assur, my lord. Sumer and Akkad, in its totality, I brought under my sway. The lands of Mâri, Hana, Rapiku, and the mountains of Ahlamâ, the lands of Hargamush, Mukanash, Bît-Kulla, Akriash, Sikkuri, Huzush, Turnasuma, Hashshiluna, Shâda, Suppane, Tursinuhlia, Duri, Uzamia, Harnaphi, Shaddishshe, Ulaiash, Ulmuiaus (?); Hussaush, Ezâush, Damnaush, Arinni, Birite, Arraphi, Kurbata, Aalishna, Shadappa, Kamzikla, Kammarash, Elurê, Kammienza, Albadâ, Sikabda, Shabila, - these I brought under one rule. The tribute of their lands and the abundance of their mountains they brought before me. The prince, recipient of their gifts (bribes), the shepherd, their guardian, and the leader, who guides them aright, am I.
167. At that time Assur, the lord, desired a city of me, across the river from my city, Bait-ilâni, and commanded the building of his abode. At the command of Assur, on the bank of the Tigris, in the wastes of the flooded fields, where neither house nor dwelling existed, (where) neither rubbish nor earth had been poured, and (where) neither rubbish nor earth had been poured, and (where) bricks had not been laid, I built Assur's city on the other side of the river. Kar-Tukulti-Urta I called its name. Cutting through the low-lying places according to the cord and carrying it across the difficult (places) of the high mountains through tunnels (lit., tunneled rock), I opened up a canal (mihirtu), called "Establishing the Life of the Land, Bringing Abundance," and caused the fields of my city to be abundantly watered. By the abundance of the waters of that canal, I secured fixed dues for Assur and the great gods, my lords, for all time.
168. At that time, in my city Kar-Tukulti-Urta, the town which I had built, I erected a holy house, an awe-inspiring dwelling, (for) the abode of Assur, my lord. Ekurmesharra I called its name. In it I completed a mighty temple tower (ziggurrat), as a dwelling for Assur my lord, and set up my memorial steles. (The next text contains the curse against defacing the inscription)
171. Another inscription from the group, KAH, II, No. 61, repeats text beginning at paragraph 164). It adds: ....The remote (?) mountains of the Nairî-lands I cut through, according to the cord.
176. In the midst of that city (Kar-Tukulti-Urta) I took great (quantities) of earth (from) beside the Tigris, and piled (it) up 120 tikpi high. Above those tikpi I built a palace correspondingly large, a mighty palace, (for) my royal abode.
177. At that time the wall of Kar-Tukulti-Urta, the great city, the bulwark (?) of my dominion, I built. From its foundation to its top I completed it, and I set up my memorial tablet.
180. Rebuilding of the Temple of the Assyrian Ishtar, recorded on three gold and stone inscriptions. The first inscription KAH, II, No. 48: Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe the great king, the king of Assyria, favorite of Assur, priest of Assur, rightful ruler (lit., true shepherd), beloved of Ishtar, who subjected the Kutî to their farthest border; son of Shalmaneser, priest of Assur, (grand) son of Adad-nirâri, priest of Assur.
181. When the temple of the Assyrian Ishtar, my lady, which Ilu-shuma (1939-1900 B.C.), my ancestor, priest of Assur, a king who went before me, had built aforetime, - 780 years elapsed and that temple fell into decay and became old; (then,) at the beginning of my reign, I cleared away its ruins and penetrated to its foundations. That temple,, a temple of (divine) law, the abode of her delight, E-anna, the shrine of her splendor, an awe-inspiring dwelling, which surpassed the earlier (temple which was) before it, I (re)built and made it bright as the heavenly abode. From its foundation to its roof I completed it. My memorial stele I set up. (What follows is the usual curse against those who would deface the inscription; the other two inscriptions contain about the same information. There is another group of three inscriptions that relate to the restoration of the temple of Ishtar Dînitu. The texts include a short summary of conquests; another inscription on a gold and silver tablet records the restoration of the Temple of Ishtar Anunaitu; there are a few more, short inscriptions, two on limestone and another on pottery.
205. The inscription on a stone from the court of Assur's temple refers to his conquest of the lands of the Nairî and : the lands on the shore of ...........the upper sea ...........my hand conquered.....their kings I brought under my sway, at my feet .............and I imposed] taskwork ........................)
Shalmaneser I (1273-1244 B.C.) (4), son of Adad-Nirâri I
Luckenbill says that Shalmaneser I's inscriptions provides the first preserved detailed account of military operations conducted by an Assyrian king. He says, "..in Adad-Nirâri's inscriptions we still have nothing but sweeping statements of victorious marches reaching as far as Carchemish on the banks of the Euphrates. But in the Introduction to an inscription of Shalmaneser, recording the restoration of Assur's temple, we have what corresponds to the 'first campaign' of the later Assyrian annals. At the time of his accesson the whole land of Uruadri (Urartu, Armenia, the name occurs here for the first time) revolted. A vigorous campaign follows in which Shalmaneser attempts to make good Assyria's claim to much of the 'Hittite' country. The text of the inscription engraved upon a stone tablet is published in KAH, I, No. 13.
113.1 (Col. I) Shalmaneser, prefect of Bêl, priest of Assur, the holy, viceroy of the gods, favorite prince of Ishtar, who restores (purifies) the cult and the freewill offerings, who increases the bloody sacrifices and the offerings for all the gods; founder of splendid cities, builder of Eharsagkurkurra, the abode of the gods, the mountain of the lands; awe-inspiring despot, (v., chief priest, prefect of Anu and Bêl), shepherd of all peoples, whose deeds (lit., ways) increase the good for Assur, strong warrior, mighty in battle, who burns up the enemy, thunders (like Adad) among his foes, who bursts forth like a flame of fire, who is bold in battle, and, like the snare of certain death, is the onset of his arms; the legitimate ruler, who goes about, trusting in Assur and the great gods, his lords, who has no rival, who seizes the territory of the enemy north and south; the lord to whose feet Assur and the great gods have brought all kings and rulers in submission. When the lord Assur chose me for his legitimate worshipper, and, for the ruling of the black-headed people, gave me scepter, sword,and staff, he presented me the diadem of legitimate rulership.
114. At that time, at the beginning of my priesthood, the land of Uruadri rebelled (v., adds, became estranged from me and stirred up enmity), and to Assur and the great gods, my lords, I raised my hands in prayer, I mobilized my armies, went up against their mighty mountain fastnesses. The lands of Himme, Uadkun, Bargun, Salua, Halila, Luba, Nilipahri, Zingun, - eight countries with their forces, I conquered. Fifty-one of their cities I captured, I burned, as booty I seized their property. The whole land of Uruadri, in three days' time, (Col. II) I brought in submission at the feet of Assur my lord. Their young men I selected (?), took (them) for service, chose them to fear me. Heavy tribute for a mountainous region (to pay?), for all time I imposed upon them. The city of Arina, a strongly fortified mountain fortress, which had formerly revolted, despising the god Assur, by the help of Assur and the great gods, my lords, I took that city, I destroyed it and scattered kudime over its (site). Its dust I gathered and in the gate of my city Assur I poured it out (as a witness) for the days to come.
115. At that time the whole land of Musri I brought in submission to the feet of Assur my lord.
116. When, at the behest of the great gods, I advanced against the land of Hanigalbat with the mighty hosts of my lord Assur, I forced my way over difficult roads and narrow passes. Shattuara, king of Hani (v. has, Hanigalbat), the army of Hittites and Ahlamî (Arameans) with him, I surrounded. Hecut off (seized) the passes and my water supply. Because of thirst and fatigue my army bravely advanced into the masses of their (v. adds, widespreading) troops, and I fought a battle and I accomplished their defeat. I killed countless numbers of his defeated and widespreading hosts. Against (the king) himself, at the point of the spear, unto the setting of the sun I waged battle. (Lower Edge) I cut down their hordes, 14,400 of them I overthrew and took as living captives. Nine of his strongholds, his capital city, I captured. One hundred and eighty of his cities I overturned to tells and ruins. The army of Hittites and Ahlamî (Arameans) his allies, I slaughtered like sheep. (Rev. Col. III) At that time, from the city of Taidi to the city of Elhat, the stronghold of Sudi, the stronghold of Harran as far as Carchemish, which is on the bank of the Euphrates, I captured their cities. Their lands I brought under my sway, and the rest of their cities I burned with fire.
117. Thereupon, the land of the Kutî, whose numbers are countless as the stars of heaven, who know how to plunder, came down upon me and fought with me, and stirred up enmity. To Assur and the great gods, my lords, I raised my hand in prayer, saying: "They faithfully promised me their good faith." I left the camp of my army behind, I took the choicest third of my chariots, rushed into the midst of battle with them. From the border of the land of Uruadri to the land of Kutmuhi, remote (?) regions, a land of far-reaching (lit., distant) stretches (lit., leagues), the bodies of their widespreading hosts I poured out like water. With the corpses of their warriors I filled the wide plain. His booty, his cattle, his family (?) and his property I carried away to my city Assur.
118. Shepherd, duly appointed, whose name Anu and Bêl named for the days to come, am I; of an ancient line (everlasting seed), one who knows the gods; son of Adad-nirâri, prefect of Bêl, priest of Assur, (grand)son of Arik-dên-ilu, prefect of Bêl, priest of Assur.
119. When Eharsagkurkurra, the temple of my lord Assur, which Ushpia, priest of Assur, my ancestor, had built aforetime, fell into ruins, then my ancestor Erishu (Erishum II, ~1812 B.C?; Erishum I, ~1870 B.C.?; Erishum III, 1506-1584 B.C.?), priest of Assur, restored it. One hundered and fifty-nine (159) years passed after the reign of Erishu and that temple (again) fell into ruins. Then Shamshi-Adad (Shamshi-Adad I, 1813-1781 B.C.; Shamshi-Adad II, 1583-1578 B.C.; Shamshi-Adad III, 1561-1546 B.C.), priest of Assur, had restored, became old and weak (lit., gray and old), fire broke out in it, its sacred edifice, every santuary (ashar sâgi), the shrines, the vestments, yea, all the property of the temple of Assur my lord, were burned with fire.
120. At that time I tore down the temple in its totality, I cleared away the earth from it, went down to its foundation, built its foundation walls of mighty stones, like the structure of the mountains. An illustrious temple, a lofty dwelling-place, a noble shrine, a magnificent abode, whose front was highter than (that) of the earlier (shrine), cunningly constructed, manifesting glory. befitting the dignity of his exalted divinity, worthy of his sovereignty, I restored with great care (lit., I went to much trouble and restored) for Assur, my lord. Over against its foundations, (tablets of) stone, silver, gold, iron, bronze, lead (together with) herbs in herbs I placed. In oil, choice oil, resin (blood of cedar), honey (?) and butter (or, cream), I laid its walls. From its foundation to its top I rebuilt it. I set up my memorial tablet, I established its feasts.
121. When the lord Assur enters that temple and makes his joyful abode in its noble shrine, may he look upon the splendid work(s) (which I performed upon) that temple, my he rejoice, may he hear my prayers, listen to my supplications, the decree for the peace of my priesthood, for my posterity in the priesthood, for joy of reign, by his exalted word, for the days to come, may he mightily decree.
122. The memorial tablets of former kings I anointed with oil, poured libations upon them, and to their places I returned them. (What follows is the usual blessing to those who restore his work and curse against those who deface it. Another stone tablet has a short inscription that commemorates the restoration of Assur's temple, published in KAH, I, No. 14.)
125. An inscription on a clay tablet which appears in KAH, I, No. 15. Shalmaneser, prefect of Bêl, priest of Assur, the mighty king, king of all peoples, ruler (lit., shepherd; perhaps, fold) of the tribes of men; who cares for the temple, beloved of the exalted god Enlil; who burns the foe, who is unsparing, lord of the battle, consuming the enemy, harsh toward the unfaithful, who humbles the wicked (foe), tramples on the mighty, subjugates all mountain districts, who overthrows to the remote(st) regions the widespreading Kutî, like grain (?), who conquers the Lulubî and Shubarî, who plunders the evil foe, north and south; son of Adad-nirâri, prefect of Bêl, priest of Assur; (grand)son of Arik-dên-ilu, prefect of Bêl, priest of Assur.
Whne I built the high namari in Eharsagkurkurra, the temple of Assur, my lord, by (?) the upper (or, shining) gates (?) of the Lamassê, on a base (?) of copper I placed large panels (?); cornice, molding, columns (doorposts), and door-leaves of copper I set up. At that time the old bît hiburni I burned (?), in their totality I tore them down. Sixteen (?) cubits I increased the width. I made its inner wall x bricks thick, its outer wall, 2 bricks, and I built the erinakki. hiburni and radati I restored to their places, made them larger than they were before, from their foundation to their tops I rebuilt and completed them, and set up my memorial stele. The stele of my ancestors I anointed with oil, .........of stone, silver and gold ..........to their places I restored them. (What follows is the usual text blessing those who restore and cursing those who deface his work and two other, short texts on door-sockets).
129. Restoration of the Temple of Ishtar of Assur, on an alabaster tablet, text KAH, II, No. 42. Shalmaneser, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Adad-nirâri, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Arik-dên-ilu, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur.
When the temple of the Assyrian Ishtar, my lady, which Ilu-shuma, priest of Assur, my ancestor, son of Shalim-ahu, priest of Assur, had built aforetime and completed, - that temple fell into decay, and Sargon (Sharru-kin) (Sargon I, ~1840 B.C.?), priest of Assur, son of Ikunu (Ikunum ~1850 B.C.?) priest of Assur, restored it. Again it fell into decay and Puzur-Assur, my ancestor, priest of Assur, son of Assur-nirâri, restored it. (Once more) that temple fell to decay, and Adad-nirâri (1305-1274 B.C.), my father, priest of Assur, restored it. Then I, Shalmaneser, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, repaired the weak places of that temple, stopped up its breaches (tirâti), and set up my memorial stele. (What follows is the usual text blessing those who restore and cursing those who deface his work; a stele on the resotation of the court of the Ninevite Ishtar at Assur, bricks from the palace with short inscriptions, a short alabaster inscription on the repairs of the gate of Libur-Shalhi at Assur.)
134. Restoration of the Temple of Ishtar of Nineveh, from (six) fragments of bowl inscriptions, from Kuyunjik, now in the British Museum. [Shalmaneser, the great king, etc............son of Adad-nirâri, [the great king,] the mighty king, king of the [universe, king of Assyria, (grand)son of Arik-dên-ilu, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of] Assyria; conqueror of ...........the Shubarî, the Lllumî .......Musrî, who, trusting in Ishtar, his lady, [marched forth; who has no rival; the king], who in the midst of battle [has fought] .........their ...............
135. When the temple of Ishtar, lady of Nineveh, my lady, [which] Shamshi-[Adad ..........had built ...........which] Assur-uballit (Assur-uballit I, 1363-1328 B.C.), my [ancestor], had restored, - that temple ..........in the street ........I repaired its weak places, and its fallen (parts) ..........I renewed and restored] them to their place. That temple from its foundation to its [top I completed ............my memorial stele] and cyldinders (perhaps, bowls), I set up.
Adad-Nirâri I (1305-1274 B.C.) (4)
This king, Adad-Nirâri I, provides several notations on his ancestors, in the context of honoring them for having either first built or later restored a specific structure in Assur. It was apparently the tradition to record the event on stones and bricks in the walls of the monuments with the basic who, what, when and where information successors to the long-lived dynasty would want to know. We are particularly interested i n the events leading up to the Trojan War era, circa. 1180 B.C. Because Adad-nirâri I was engaged in so much restorative work it appears that his time represented a period of peace and "restoration." After him there is a gap in the Assyrian historical record, probably caused by the same "invaders" that brought about the destruction of Hattusus and Troy. What happened between the reign of Assur-nâdin-apli, (1206-1203 B.C.) and Assur-resh-ishi I (1132-1115 B.C.)? We see in the historical record that Urartu and Commagene were viewed as land within the border of Assyria. The Assyrian kings were constantly conducting military campaigns in these areas and lands adjacent to them, and they record how the Mushki (Phrygians) and others would be allied with the rebels, which would have provoked campaigns against the Mushki. They claim to take their campaigns to the northern sea (Black Sea?), which would be a natural extension of a military campaign into the lands of the Mushki which they say are in the land(s) of Tabal. The power of the Mushki is noted in the record with regard to the disposition of Que or Kue, which they say was originally occupied by the Mushki and lost by them to Assyria, then reoccupied. If Que is another name for Cilicia it would imply that the Phrygians (Mushki) had conquered the Cilicians. We leave the issue as an occupation of Que, leaving the matter of occupation of Cilicia an unresolved matter. Adad-Nirâri I is important to the context of Phrygian influence in the sense that we can surmise that his time was a period of relative peace and not as consumed by defending the lands of Urartu (Armenia). [Comment also placed in Note 7)
72. (Comment by Lukenbill: In Adad-nirâri I (ca. 1300 B.C.) we come upon an ambitious and able ruler. Under him the Assyrian state made its first great strides toward becoming a world-power. We are dependent upon building inscriptions for our information as to his activities at home and abroad. Apparently the arrangement of the king's conquests by yearly "campaigns" in the introductory paragraphs of dedicatory inscriptions had considerable difficulty in establishing itself as a correct literary form. The start in this direction, made by Arik-dên-ilu, (1317-1306, son of Enlil-nirari) does not seem to have been followed up by his immediate successors. However, the extent of Adad-nirâri's activities, if not the chronological order thereof, may be gathered from the long Introduction prefaced to a nmber of building inscriptions. This Introduction, with variants, follows:
73. Adad-nirâri, illustrious prince, honored of god (v., the gods), lord, viceroy of the gods (or, viceroy of the land of the gods), city-founder, destroyer of the mighty (or, perhaps, haughty) hosts of Kassites, Kutî, Lulumî, and Shubarî; who destroys all foes north and south (lit., above and below); who tramples down their lands from Lubdu and Rapiku to Eluhat (v. adds, who conquers Taidi, Shuri, Kahat, Amasaki, Hurra, Shuduhi, Nabula, Ushshukani and Irridi, the whole Kashiaeri region, as far as Eluhat, the fortress of Sudi, the fortress of Harran, as far as Carchemish, which is on the bank of the Euphrates); who captures all peoples, enlarges boundary and frontier; the king to whose feet Anu, Assur, Shamash, Adad and Ishtar have brought in submission all kings and princes; the exalted priest of Enlil, son of Arik-dên-ilu, viceroy of Enlil, priest of Assur, conqueror of the lands of Turuki and Nigimhi in their totality, together with all their kings, mountains, and highlands, the territory of the widespreading Kutî (V. adds, conqueror of Kutmuhi and all of its allies), the hordes of the Ahlamî and Sutî, the Iauri and their lands, who enlarged boundary and frontier; grandson of Enlil-nirâri, priest of Assur, who destroyed the armies of the Kassites, whose hand overcame all of his foes, who enlarged boundary and frontier; great-grandson of Assur-uballit (Ed. note, 1363-1328 B.C.), the mighty king whose priesthood in the great temple was glorious (lit., surpassing), the peace of whose reign was established to distant lands (firm) as a mountain (v. adds, who subjugated Musri); who destroyed the armies of the widespreading Shubarî, who enlarged boundary and frontier. (What follows is a text with the conventional blessing to those who restore and curse against those who deface the inscription; another short inscription, on an albastar stone, the "mushlal," repeats the blessings and curses).
81.Another inscription on an albastar stone. At that time the great wall of the new city, with a rampart (? mulû) facing ............, and which (extends) from the great wall of the middle of the city (or, Inner City) around (?) to the river, which Puzur-Assur (~Puzur-Assur I: 1940 B.C.; Puzur-Assur II: ~1850 B.C.; Puzur-Assur III:1519-1496) my ancestor, a king who lived before my time, had built aforetime; - that wall my ancestor Assur-bêl-nishsêshu inclosed (with an incasing wall). Again it gave way, and my ancestor Eriba-Adad (1390-1364 B.C.), viceroy of Assur, a king who lived before my time, rebuilt the fallen wall from its foundation to its top, its gates and piers (towers?) as well, here strengthening, there incasing. That wall became weak and fell into ruins (once more) and Adad-nirâri (1305-1274 B.C.), viceroy of Assur, repaired it. I strengthened the weak places, and rebuilt the fallen (parts), from its foundation to its top. I made it fourteen bricks thick, according to my large brick measure, and set up (my) memorial steles. The memorial steles of my ancestors I set up beside my own. (The text is followed with the blessings and curses. Another text on a clay tablet records the restoration of the east wall originally built by Puzur-Assur; texts on clay tablets and a stone record the restoration of the quay wall; numerous short inscriptions were on bricks.)
98.9 One of many inscriptions on vases. Palace of Adad-nirâri, kingof the universe, son of Arik-dên-ilu, king of Assyria, son of Enlil-nirâri, king of Assyria: booty from the city of Taidi (v., the city of Irridi).
100. 10 Restoration of the palace. At that time the palace of my city Assur, which Assur-nâdin-ahhe (Assur-nâdin-ahhe I: 1450-1431 B.C.; Assur-nâdin-ahhe II: 1400-1391 B.C.) offspring (?) of my ancestors, a king who reigned before my time, had built aforetime: - the wall at (lit., of) the head of the gate of the Scepter, which faces the pilu which is in that palace, wherein was built the shrine of my lord Assur, (Rev.) and yearly my lord Assur goes to dwell in that shrine: - that wall became weak and I cleared away its ruins. I renewed it, I restored it to its place and I set up my memorial stele.
102. Five inscriptions on the restoration of the temple of Ishtar. Adad-nirâri, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Arik-dên-ilu, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Enlil-nirâri, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur.
When the temple of the Assyrian Ishtar, my lady, which aforetime Ilu-shuma (~1890 B.C.?), priest of Assur, my ancestor, son of Shalim-ahi (Shalim-ahum, son of Puzur-Ashur I, 1939-1900 B.C), priest of Assur had built and completed, (when) that temple fell into decay, then Sargon (Sharru-kin) (Sargon I ~1850 B.C.?), priest (v. prefect) of Assur, son of Ikunum (~1440 B.C?), priest (v., prefect) of Assur, restored it. It again fell into deay and Puzur-Assur (Puzur-Ashur III, 1519-1496 B.C), my ancestor, priest (v., prefect) of Assur, son of Assur-nirâri (Assur-nirâri I, 1545-1520 B.C.) priest (v., prefect) of Assur, restored it. that temple and its namaru, the shuhuru (v., bît-shuhuru) of the court, and the hurush of Ishtar, of the court, which they (also) call the altammu of Ishtar, (v., adds, and the temple of Ishhara, of the court), had again fallen into decay, and I, Adad-nirâri, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Arik-dên-ilu, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Enlil-nirâri, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur (of that temple) I repaired the weak places, its breaches (? tirâti) I stopped up, its foundation wall I strengthened with masonry. The beams of the bît-shuhuru which were dislodged and broken (?), and the beams of the bît-hurush of Ishtar, - their damaged parts I removed, I put innew beams. Irestored it (the temple) to its place and I set up my memorial stele. (What follows is the usuual blessing and curse)
105. A door-socket of the Gate of Anu and Adad is another text., and this is a portion of it: ...door-leaves of mighty fir (ashuhu) trees, with large new hinges (irriti), I made; with a covering (i.e., bands) of copper I covered (them), and in the gate of my lords Anu and Adad I set them up for all time to come. (What follows is the usual blessing and curse; other texts on bricks and pottery record repairs to the temple of Assur).
All images except that for Script XW are from:
1) "The Art of Mesopotamia," by Eva Strommenger, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., NY, 1964.
2) History of Arti in Persia, by Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez, Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1892.
3) A History of Art in Chaldaea & Assyria, by Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez, Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1892.
4) All quotes from Assyrian texts are from "Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia," (in 2 volumes) by Daniel David Luckenbill, Ph.D., Professor of the Semitic Languages and Literatures in the University of Chicago, Histories & Mysteries of Man Ltd., London, 1989. Paragraph numbers used here refer to Luckenbill's numbering.
5) Wikipedia lists various traditions involving Mount Judi, which suggest it was the final resting place of Noah's Ark. Another discussion on the controversy involving the true location of Mt. Judi is at arksearch.com.
6) Dates and the list of Assyrian rulers are from "The Wordworth Handbook of Kings and Queens," by John E. Morby, Wordsworth Reference, 1989.
7) Paragraph 92 - drove out Mitâ, king of Muski; who restored the captured fortresses of Kue. This is an important passage. Earlier the Annals connected Mitâ of Mushki allied in the rebellion of the Manneans. Now we are told that Mitâ had held sovereignty over Que. If the Zincirli Relief is of Sennacherib and his dominion over Que, considering the Phrygian writing one would postulate that the Phrygians during the time of Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) possessed the land of Que. The earlier statement in Sargon's Annals (721-705 B.C.) that Mitâ of Mushki held dominion over Que explains the reason for the Phrygian writing on a stone containing Sennacherib's name. This adds further evicence that at least one King Midas of Phrygia was subdued by Sargon. If this is the legendary King Midas it places him about 711 B.C., in the eighth year of Sargon's reign, at least circa. 721-705 B.C.
See also another reference to Mitâ whom Sargon "drove out" and in the same context says he (Sargon) restored the captured fortresses of Kue. This also is important since it suggests that Mitâ had taken the fortresses from Sargon.
In paragraph 99 another summary groups Kasku, all of Tabalu and Hilakku together, preceeding the description of driving out Mitâ, king of Mushki. The narrative then turns to another geographica area of conquest, beginning with the defeat of Egypt at Rapihu, counting together Hanno the king of Gaza and the defeat of the seven kings of Ia', a province of Iatnana (Cyprus) located a seven days' journey in the midst of the western sea. Recognizing that an earlier text refers to Mushki being part of Tabalu, we may surmize that the description reads from north to south, with Kasku probably being above the Halys river, near the Black Sea, Tabalu would be a region stretching from Que, on the Mediterranean coast, north to Kasku. South of Tabaluproper would be Hilakku, which must be Cilicia. To the west of Cilicia would be Lycia , Caria and Lydia, none of which are (so far as we can see) mentioned in the texts. Sandwiched to the east of Tabalu (Mushki) would be the wide region of Kummuhu which seems to begin near Carcamish and stretch to Melitea and Gurgum, the territory east of Tabalu and Mushki.
In paragraph 117 Cilicia is identified with Kue. The list of conquests involving Urartu (Armenia) begins as usual with the Medes, then westward, the Mannean-land, Urartu (Armenia), Kasku, Tabalum, up to the land of Mushki. This says that in order moving across Anatolia and northward (upwards) are the lands of Kasku, then Tabalum, all of which he conquered up to Mushki. The text identifies Melitea and Gurgum, so north of Melitea must be Kasku, and west of the region Kasku and the cities Melitea and Gurgum would be Tabalu, Tabalum and northwest of it would be Mushki.
Paragraph 442 carries an interesting link of the lands of Kutmuhi and Mushki, which were entered after crossing the Tigris from the mountains of Nipur and Pasate. He doesn't mention crossing the Euphrates, which makes this entry interesting, since the Mushki (Phrygians) would be presumed to be well to the west of the Euphrates, on the Halys river. If the Mushki are the Phrygians then we have a confirmation of their presence circa. 883-859 B.C. But here we may have a record of the Mushki being adjacent to (west of?) the Van area. Their presence there, near Urartu, would suggest the entry of the Phrygians into Anatolia (from Thrace) via the Caucaus region.
Paragraph 72, Introduction. This king, Adad-Nirâri I, provides several notations on his ancestors, in the context of honoring them for having either first built or later restored a specific structure in Assur. It was apparently the tradition to record the event on stones and bricks in the walls of the monuments with the basic who, what, when and where information successors to the long-lived dynasty would want to know. We are particularly interested i n the events leading up to the Trojan War era, circa. 1180 B.C. Because Adad-nirâri I was engaged in so much restorative work it appears that his time represented a period of peace and "restoration." After him there is a gap in the Assyrian historical record, probably caused by the same "invaders" that brought about the destruction of Hattusus and Troy. What happened between the reign of Assur-nâdin-apli, (1206-1203 B.C.) and Assur-resh-ishi I (1132-1115 B.C.)? We see in the historical record that Urartu and Commagene were viewed as land within the border of Assyria. The Assyrian kings were constantly conducting military campaigns in these areas and lands adjacent to them, and they record how the Mushki (Phrygians) and others would be allied with the rebels, which would have provoked campaigns against the Mushki. They claim to take their campaigns to the northern sea (Black Sea?), which would be a natural extension of a military campaign into the lands of the Mushki which they say are in the land(s) of Tabal. The power of the Mushki is noted in the record with regard to the disposition of Que or Kue, which they say was originally occupied by the Mushki and lost by them to Assyria, then reoccupied. If Que is another name for Cilicia it would imply that the Phrygians (Mushki) had conquered the Cilicians. We leave the issue as an occupation of Que, leaving the matter of occupation of Cilicia an unresolved matter. Adad-Nirâri I is important to the context of Phrygian influence in the sense that we can surmise that his time was a period of relative peace and not as consumed by defending the lands of Urartu (Armenia).
8) Tiglath-pileser III follows the convention of grouping districts and provinces adjacent to each other together. Such groupings tend to follow the sequence of campaigns, usually from the northwest, Urartu, to the southwest and southeast (to Kummuhu, Commagene and east to Carchemish. Within the groupings districts tend to be listed in the same order, as if one were listing cities while referring to a map. If the campaign began in the southeast, such as Tyre and worked westward, the listing would group Kummuu, west of Carchamish, and Kûe (Que) adjacent to this province, region, in the west, together. North of Kûe they list Gurgum , Melid (Melitea) and Tabal together. Following them in this group is Tunai, Tuhan and Ishtunda. Then the list shifts to Ashkelon, etc., which relates to the dominion from Egypt to Syria and the Hittite territory north of Tyre.
9) Because of the reference to the land of Nairî, we know that Tushha is Tushba(Van), the capital of the Urartu. With note 7, paragraph 442, we can inquire, whether the Mushki had moved into the region of the Tigris river (just west of it) and whether the Armanians, or Urartu, had not emerged at that time ~880 B.C.
10. Paragraph 772 - The Zincirli relief is reputed to be written in Aramaic and says: "I am Barrakib, son of Panammuwa." The inscription by the moon-disk reads: "My lord, Ba'al of Harran." (See hittitemonuments.com/zincirli/zincirli19.htm) There is another orthostat / relief shown on this website that carries a long inscription said to be in Phonecian, "of King Kilamuwa from Hilani j." While the Zincirli short inscription appears to be Phrygian, we defer judgment as to its language until the longer inscription has been analyzed.
11) Paragraph (Vol. I) 165 - The reference to cutting through the mountain ranges with bronze axes and galling the enemies' necks with copper fetters is salient, since iron is not mentioned. Later Assyrian kings' inscriptions include the hewing out of the mountains with both bronze and iron implements.
Updated: 6.17.07; 6.18.07; 6.24.07; 6.26.07
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