The Phrygian language
||Atnana||Ellipi?||Ianzû district||Lower Zab river (h)||Nihani (h)||Simashpatti||Tuna|
|Abitikna||Auigash||Elhunia||Idib'ileans (Hatti)||Lubdu||Nirdu||Sinabu||Turtan Province|
|Alaia||Bala||Ezieda||Ishtar-aurâ river||Lusia||Parsuash||Sinzi iriver||Uaiais district|
|Alzi (h)||Bât-Burutash||Gimdakrikka||Kâbani||Malhina||Sab'ai||Sumbi district||Ubula|
|Argishtiuna||Bît-Sangibuti||Hatte||Kilissa||Mummi (h)||Shinuhtu||Teburzi (h)||Ushurnu|
|Armariali district||Burukuzzi (h)||Hilakku||Kishesim||Muski||Shubari (h)||Tesammia||Zaranda district|
|Ashtania||Dirra||Hubushna||Kuta (Kutti)||Nâme river||Shurda||Til-garimmu||x|
|x||x||I conquered the land of Kutmuhi in its length and breadth..I burned their cities with fire..The rest of the people of the land of Kutmuhi ..crossed over to the city of Shereshe, which is on the further bank of the Tigris, and they made that city their stronghold (Tiglath-Pileser I -217); From the cities at the foot of the mountains of Nipur and Pasate I departed, the Tigris I crossed, and I drew near to the land of Kutmuhi, I received tribute from the lands of Kutmuhi and Mushki (442); I departed from the city of Calah, I crossed the Tigris, and I went down unto the land of Kipani (480); I marched against the land of Kutmuhi a second time (Tiglath-Pileser I -227)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C.
|Kurtê||x||x||Kili-Teshub, son of Kali-Teshub (Irrupi)||At that time also I beat down the forces of the Kurtê like a gust of wind (?), who had come, together with the troops of the land of Kutmuhi, to rescue and to help the land of Kutmuhi ..and the river Nâme carried down the dead bodies of their fighting men into the Tigris..Kili-Teshub, the son of Kali-Teshub, whom men also called Irrupi, their king, my hand captured in the midst of the battle. (Tiglath-Pileser I -217); I marched against the land of Haria and the wisespreading troops of Kurtê, (over) lofty hills which no king had ever entered..All of the Kurtê had banded together their widespreading troops, and had bravely taken their stand in the mountain of Azu to wage war.. (Tiglath-Pileser I -229)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I||Mt Azu|
|Haria||x||x||x||I marched against the land of Haria and the wisespreading troops of Kurtê.. Twenty-five cities of the land of Haria, which lay at the foot of the mountains of Aia, Shuira, Idni, Shêzu, Shelgu, Araznibiu, Urusu, and Anitku I captured. (Tiglath-Pileser I -229)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I||Mt Azu ?ff>>
Mt. Araznibiu, Mt. Urusu
|Nâme river||x||x||x||and the river Nâme carried down the dead bodies of their fighting men into the Tigris (Tiglath-Pileser I -207)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I|
|Urratinash||x||x||Shadi-Teshub, son of Hattu-shar||(The people) of Urratinash, a stronghold of theirs which lies on Mount Panari, -terror and fear of the splendor of Assur, my lord, overwhelmed them, and, to save their lives, they carried off their gods, and fled like birds to the tops of the lofty mountains...Shadi-Teshub, the son of Hattu-shar (?), the king of Urratinash, embraced my feet before I drew near (to him) in his own land. His sons, the offspring of his loins, and his household, I took as hostages.. I conquered the broad land of Kutmuhi in its entirety (Tiglath-Pileser I -223)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I||Mt. Panari|
|Mildish||x||x||x||I marched against the land of Mildish, (with its) haughty and insubmissive (people). I traversed mighty mountains, - a difficult region, where my chariots could not pass (Tiglath-Pileser I -224)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I|
|Shubartu||x||x||x||Against Shubartu, with a second attack upon Kutmuhi; I subdued the land of the Shuarî (Tiglath-Pileser I -224)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I|
|Shuarî||x||x||x||I subdued the land of the Shuarî ..and upon the land of Alzi, and the land of Purukuzzi, which had withheld their tribute and tax (Tiglath-Pileser I -224)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I|
|Shubari||x||x||x||Tukulti-Urta, king of universe, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters.. king of the Shubari (and) Kutî, and king of all the Nairî-lands (Tukulti-Urta I-142); At that time the Kurtî, the lands of Kutmuhi, Bushshi, Mummi, Alzi, Madani, Nihani, Alaia, Teburzi, Burukuzzi, the whole of the wide Shubarî-land, I burned with fire. (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Shubarî||x||x||x||Then, from Tarsinâ, an inaccessible (?) mountain between the city of Shasila (and) the city of Barpanish on the other side of the Lower Zab, from the mountains of Sukushki and Lalar, [the region of the widespreading Kutî, and the Ukumanî, the land of Elhunia, up to [Sharnida], the lands of Mehri, Kurtî (?) [Kutmuhi, Bushshe, Mumme, and all of the Kashiari region; the lands of Alzi, [Madani], Nihani, Alaia, [Teburzi (?) and Burukuzzi, all of the widespreading [Shubarî], in their totality, to the limit [of their territory], I accomplished their overthrow] (Tukulti-Urta I-149); who overthrows to the remote(st) regions the widespreading Kutî, like grain (?), who conquers the Lulubî and Shubarî, who plunders the evil foe (Shalmaneser I, Vol. I, 125); king of the universe, king of] Assyria; conqueror of ...........the Shubarî, the Lllumî .......Musrî, who, trusting in Ishtar (Shalmaneser I, Vol. I, 134)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.
|Musrî||x||x||x||...........the Shubarî, the Lllumî .......Musrî, who, trusting in Ishtar (Shalmaneser I, Vol. I, 134)||x||x||1273-1244 B.C.||Shalmaneser I|
|Lulubî||x||x||x||who conquers the Lulubî and Shubarî, who plunders the evil foe (Shalmaneser I, Vol. I, 125);||x||x||1273-1244 B.C.||Shalmaneser I|
|Alzi||x||x||x||..and upon the land of Alzi, and the land of Purukuzzi, which had withheld their tribute and tax,(Tiglath-Pileser I -224); who overthrows the forces of the land of the Shubarî in [its] totality; who destroyes the land of Alzi and Purukussi, all of whom were insubmissive. (Tukulti-Urta I-152)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I|
|Purukuzzi||x||x||x||..and upon the land of Alzi, and the land of Purukuzzi, which had withheld their tribute and tax (Tiglath-Pileser I -224); who overthrows the forces of the land of the Shubarî in [its] totality; who destroyes the land of Alzi and Purukussi, all of whom were insubmissive. (Tukulti-Urta I-152; See also 164)||x||x||1114-1076 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser I|
|Bushshi||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Mummi||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Alzi||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Madani||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Nihani||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Alaia||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Teburzi||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Burukuzzi||x||x||x||burned; See Shubari (Tukulti-Urta I-143)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Lower Zab river||x||x||x||(Tributary of Tigris that flows from N. Iran into Iraq, between Irbil and Kirkuk)..Then, from Tarsinâ, an inaccessible (?) mountain between the city of Shasila (and) the city of Barpanish on the other side of the Lower Zab, from the mountains of Sukushki and Lalar, [the region of the widespreading Kutî, and the Ukumanî.. (Tukulti-Urta I-149)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta||Mt. Tarsinia|
|Shasila||x||x||x||between the city of Shasila (and) the city of Barpanish on the other side of the Lower Zab (Tukulti-Urta I-149)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta||Mt. Tarsinia|
|Barpanish||x||x||x||between the city of Shasila (and) the city of Barpanish on the other side of the Lower Zab (Tukulti-Urta I-149)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta||Mt. Tarsinia|
|Lalar||x||x||x||from the mountains of Sukushki and Lalar, [the region of the widespreading Kutî, and the Ukumanî.. (Tukulti-Urta I-149)||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
|Zamua, east of the Tigris||Zamma||x||x||Against the rebels of Zamma (east of the Tigris) ..pass of Babite (448-452)..I departed from the city of Kazi, the Lower Zab I crossed. I entered the pass of Babite (452); crossed Turnat river; cities listed: Dagara, Bâra, Kakzi, land of Lullu, Bunâsi, belonging to Musasina; Larbusa, stronghold of Kirtiara, Dûr-Luluma, Bunisa..city of Tukulti-Assur-asbat I departed..The city of Briutu I captured, I burned; third campaign: I departed from the city of Kazi, the Lower Zab, crossed the Radânu river, land of Dagara, crossed the Turnat, to the city of Ammali, the stronghold of Arashtu, I drew near (452); city of Hudun and twenty cities of its neighborhood I captured; ..city of Kisirtu, thier stronghold, ruled by (lit., of) Sabini; Bâreans..men of Dûra and of Bunisa as far as the pass of Hashmar, I destroyed..I departed from the cities of Arashtua (the ruler's name), I entered the pass between the steep mountains of Lâra and Bidirg..to Zamri, the royal city of Ameka of the land of Zamua (453); from the city of Zamri I departed. I crossed the Lallû and marched to Mount Etini, a difficult region,..I set out after him. I crossed the Edir River and in the midst of the mighty mountains of Sû and Elaniu I slew multitudes of them..Ameka, to save his life, climbed up into Mount Sabua (454); The cities of Zamru, Arasitku, Ammaru, Parsindu, Iritu, and Suritu, his strongholds, together with 150 cities which lay round about, I destroyed ..marched against the cities of Ata, (man's name) of Arzizu, Arsindu (455); At that time I received copper..from the land of Sipirmena who(se inhabitants?) speak like women ...came down to the city of Tukulti-Assur-asbat, which the men of the land of Lullu call Arakdi...cities of Huduni, Hartishi, Hubushkia and Gilzani..Between the mountains of Aziru and Simaki..city of Mesu..stronghold. Mount Aziru (457) city of Atlila, which for the scepter of the king of Karduniash they had seized, had decayed..restored it. I surrounded it with a wall..called its name Dûr-Assur (458)||x||x||884-859 B.C.||Assur-nâsir-pal||Mt. Nisir
(aka Mt. Kinipa)
|Kishtan, district||x||x||x||In Kishtan and Halpi, districts of Kummuhi (Commagene) I defeated him (Sardaurri of Urartu) ; see also Kummuhu (797); see Kummuhu (813)||x||x||745-727 B.C.||Tiglath-Pileser III|
|Halpi, district||x||x||x||In Kishtan and Halpi, districts of Kummuhi (Commagene) I defeated him (Sardaurri of Urartu) see also Kummuhu (797) see Kummuhu (813)||x||x||745-727 B.C.||Tiglath-Pileser III|
|Tamurru||Tumarra||Tumur||x||Judî Dâgh, border Kutmuhu (Commagene); 2nd steep mountains, with Ukku||-||x||704-681 B.C||Sennacherib||Mt. Nippur|
|Sharum||Sharim||Sûra?||x||Judî Dâgh, border Kutmuhu (Commagene); anaother context: The tribute of the city of Sûra, - cattle, flocks, wine, vessels of copper, I received in the city of Irsia (Assur-nâsir-pal, 460) See Irsia.||-||x||704-681 B.C.
|Ezâma||Esâma||x||x||Judî Dâgh, border Kutmuhu (Commagene)||-||x||704-681 B.C||Sennacherib||Mt. Nippur|
|Halgidda||Halgidda||x||x||Judî Dâgh, border Kutmuhu (Commagene)||-||704-681 B.C||Sennacherib||Mt. Nippur|
Uriaik (Re: Tiglath-Pileser III): Urik (801)
|Judî Dâgh, border Kutmuhu (Commagene); another context: who caught the Iamaneans (Ionians, Cyprians) out of the midst of the sea in shoals (?), like fish, and subdued Cilicia (Kue) and Tyre; (117) tribute from Uriaik of Kûe (769); another tribute (801)||-||x||704-681 B.C.
|Kana||x||x||x||Judî Dâgh, border Kutmuhu (Commagene)||-||x||704-681 B.C||Sennacherib||Mt. Nippur|
|Kibsha||x||x||x||Judî Dâgh, border Kutmuhu (Commagene)||-||x||704-681 B.C||Sennacherib||Mt. Nippur|
|Sinzi, river||x||x||x||Sarduarri of Urartu, Sulamal of Melid (Melitene) Tarhulara [of Gurgum] ...........Kushtashpi of Kummuhu, to capture and plunder ...........between Kishtan and Halpi, districts of Kummuhu, ...........them. The river Sinzi I dyed red like wool (797)||x||x||745-727 B.C||Tiglath-Pileser III|
Listed with Hamath, Carchemish (99); another context: See Sardurri, Kushtashpi, rebels against Tiglath-Pileser III (769); The tribute of Kushtashpi of Kummhu, Rasunnu (Rezin) of Aram (772) Sarduarri of Urartu, Sulamal of Melid (Melitene) Tarhulara [of Gurgum] ...........Kushtashpi of Kummuhu, to capture and plunder ...........between Kishtan and Halpi, districts of Kummuhu, ...........them. The river Sinzi I dyed red like wool (797); tribute list (801); flight of Mati'-ilu or Sardaurrir to a place between Kishtan and Halpi, districts of Kummuhu (813); both defeated; I crossed the Tigris and entered the land of Kutmuhi. I opened a palace in the city of Tiluli and received the tribute of the land of Kutmuhi. From the land of Kutmuhi I departed, and I entered the pass of Ishtarâti (the goddesses) (Assur-nâsir-pal, 459); I departed from the city of Calah, I crossed the Tigris, and I went down unto the land of Kipani. The tribute of the rulers of the lands of Kipani I received in the city of Huzirina. While I remained in the city of Huzirina, tribute from Itti' of the land of Salla, and from Giridadi of the land of Ashsha, - silver, gold, catle, and flocks I received. At that time I also received beams of cedar, silver, gold, the tribute of Katazilu of the land of Kummhi. (480); lord Assur..made a revelation unto me and commanded that I should march a second time against the Nairî.. land of Kadish-haru (?) ........................Into the city of Abki I entered, from the city of Abki I departed. Five lions before the city of Malhina (?) in the land of Hatte I brought low with my terrible bow. Into the land of Kutmuhi I entered (Assur-nâsir-pal, 498); From the land of Kutmuhi I departed, and I entered the passes of the Ishtarâti (the goddesses). In the city of Kibaki I spent the night, and I received cattle, sheep, wine, vessels [of copper], as the tribute of the city of Kibaki. From the city of Kibaki I departed, unto the city of Matiate I drew near. The city of Matiate together with the villages thereof I captured. 2,800 (498); another context: On my accession to the royal throne, in my first year of reign, I carried off 28,800 Hittite warriors from the other side of the Euphrates, and in the Iaurî mountains, my hand conquered the Kurtî and Ukumani as far as Sharnida (and) Mehri. The tribute of their lands and the abundance of their mountains, yearly I received. Kutmuhi, Bushshi, Alzi, Madani, Nihani, Alaia, Teburzi, Burukuzzi, ---all of the widespreading Shubarî, with fire I burned. (Tukulti-Urta 164); 43 kings of the Nairî-lands, I brought about the defeat of their armies (Tukulti-Urta 165); another context: Thereupon, the land of the Kutî, whose numbers are countless as the stars of heaven, who know how to plunder, came down upon me and fought with me, and stirred up enmity. To Assur and the great gods, my lords, I raised my hand in prayer, saying: "They faithfully promised me their good faith." I left the camp of my army behind, I took the choicest third of my chariots, rushed into the midst of battle with them. From the border of the land of Uruadri to the land of Kutmuhi, remote (?) regions, a land of far-reaching (lit., distant) stretches (lit., leagues), the bodies of their widespreading hosts I poured out like water. With the corpses of their warriors I filled the wide plain (Shalmaneser I, Vol. I, 117)
|Gubla||(Byblos)||x||x||The tribute of Kushtashpi of Kummuhu, Urik of Kûe, Sibitti-bi'il [of Gubla] .....[Eni]-ilu of Hamath, Panammû of Sam'al, Tarhulara of Gurgum, Sulumal of Melid] ......Uassurme of Tabal, Ushhitti of Tunai, Urballâ of Tuhan, Tuhamme of Ishtunda] (8) .....Matan-bi'il of Arvad, Sanibu of Beth-Ammon, Salamanu of Moab, ......Mitinti of Ashkelon. Iauhazi (Jehoahaz) of Judah, Kaush-malaku of Edom, Musri .....Hânûnu (Hanno) of Gaza (801)||x||x||
|Uruadri||x||x||x||Uruadri rebelled.. I mobilized my armies, went up against their mighty mountain fastnesses. The lands of Himme, Uadkun, Bargun, Salua, Halila, Luba, Nilipahri, Zingun, - eight countries with their forces, I conquered. Fifty-one of their cities I captured, I burned, as booty I seized their property. The whole land of Uruadri, in three days' time, (Col. II) I brought in submission..The city of Arina, a strongly fortified mountain fortress, which had formerly revolted, despising the god Assur, by the help of Assur and the great gods, my lords, I took that city, I destroyed it (Shalmaneser I, 114); At that time the whole land of Musri I brought in submission (Shalmaneser I, 115)||x||x||1273-1244 B.C.||Shalmaneser I|
|Karduniash||Babylonia||x||x||forced Kashtiliash, king of Karduniash (Babylonia), to give battle. I brought about the defeat of his armies, his warriors I overthrew. In the midst of that battle my own hand captured Kashtiliash, the Kassite king. I carried him stripped and bound before Assur, my lord. Sumer and Akkad, in its totality, I brought under my sway. The lands of Mâri, Hana, Rapiku, and the mountains of Ahlamâ, the lands of Hargamush, Mukanash, Bît-Kulla, Akriash, Sikkuri, Huzush, Turnasuma, Hashshiluna, Shâda, Suppane, Tursinuhlia, Duri, Uzamia, Harnaphi, Shaddishshe, Ulaiash, Ulmuiaus (?); Hussaush, Ezâush, Damnaush, Arinni, Birite, Arraphi, Kurbata, Aalishna, Shadappa, Kamzikla, Kammarash, Elurê, Kammienza, Albadâ, Sikabda, Shabila, - these I brought under one rule.||x||x||1243-1207 B.C.||Tukulti-Urta|
4) All quotes from Assyrian texts are from "Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia," (in 2 volumes) by Daniel David Luckenbill, Ph.D., Professor of the Semitic Languages and Literatures in the University of Chicago, Histories & Mysteries of Man Ltd., London, 1989. Paragraph numbers used here refer to Luckenbill's numbering.
7) Paragraph 92 - drove out Mitâ, king of Muski; who restored the captured fortresses of Kue. This is an important passage. Earlier the Annals connected Mitâ of Mushki allied in the rebellion of the Manneans. Now we are told that Mitâ had held sovereignty over Que. If the Zincirli Relief is of Sennacherib and his dominion over Que, considering the Phrygian writing one would postulate that the Phrygians during the time of Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) possessed the land of Que. The earlier statement in Sargon's Annals (721-705 B.C.) that Mitâ of Mushki held dominion over Que explains the reason for the Phrygian writing on a stone containing Sennacherib's name. This adds further evicence that at least one King Midas of Phrygia was subdued by Sargon. If this is the legendary King Midas it places him about 711 B.C., in the eighth year of Sargon's reign, at least circa. 721-705 B.C.
See also another reference to Mitâ whom Sargon "drove out" and in the same context says he (Sargon) restored the captured fortresses of Kue. This also is important since it suggests that Mitâ had taken the fortresses from Sargon.
In paragraph 99 another summary groups Kasku, all of Tabalu and Hilakku together, preceeding the description of driving out Mitâ, king of Mushki. The narrative then turns to another geographica area of conquest, beginning with the defeat of Egypt at Rapihu, counting together Hanno the king of Gaza and the defeat of the seven kings of Ia', a province of Iatnana (Cyprus) located a seven days' journey in the midst of the western sea. Recognizing that an earlier text refers to Mushki being part of Tabalu, we may surmize that the description reads from north to south, with Kasku probably being above the Halys river, near the Black Sea, Tabalu would be a region stretching from Que, on the Mediterranean coast, north to Kasku. South of Tabaluproper would be Hilakku, which must be Cilicia. To the west of Cilicia would be Lycia , Caria and Lydia, none of which are (so far as we can see) mentioned in the texts. Sandwiched to the east of Tabalu (Mushki) would be the wide region of Kummuhu which seems to begin near Carcamish and stretch to Melitea and Gurgum, the territory east of Tabalu and Mushki.
In paragraph 117 Cilicia is identified with Kue. The list of conquests involving Urartu (Armenia) begins as usual with the Medes, then westward, the Mannean-land, Urartu (Armenia), Kasku, Tabalum, up to the land of Mushki. This says that in order moving across Anatolia and northward (upwards) are the lands of Kasku, then Tabalum, all of which he conquered up to Mushki. The text identifies Melitea and Gurgum, so north of Melitea must be Kasku, and west of the region Kasku and the cities Melitea and Gurgum would be Tabalu, Tabalum and northwest of it would be Mushki.
Paragraph 442 carries an interesting link of the lands of Kutmuhi and Mushki, which were entered after crossing the Tigris from the mountains of Nipur and Pasate. He doesn't mention crossing the Euphrates, which makes this entry interesting, since the Mushki (Phrygians) would be presumed to be well to the west of the Euphrates, on the Halys river. If the Mushki are the Phrygians then we have a confirmation of their presence circa. 883-859 B.C. But here we may have a record of the Mushki being adjacent to (west of?) the Van area. Their presence there, near Urartu, would suggest the entry of the Phrygians into Anatolia (from Thrace) via the Caucaus region.
Paragraph 72, Introduction. This king, Adad-Nirâri I, provides several notations on his ancestors, in the context of honoring them for having either first built or later restored a specific structure in Assur. It was apparently the tradition to record the event on stones and bricks in the walls of the monuments with the basic who, what, when and where information successors to the long-lived dynasty would want to know. We are particularly interested i n the events leading up to the Trojan War era, circa. 1180 B.C. Because Adad-nirâri I was engaged in so much restorative work it appears that his time represented a period of peace and "restoration." After him there is a gap in the Assyrian historical record, probably caused by the same "invaders" that brought about the destruction of Hattusus and Troy. What happened between the reign of Assur-nâdin-apli, (1206-1203 B.C.) and Assur-resh-ishi I (1132-1115 B.C.)? We see in the historical record that Urartu and Commagene were viewed as land within the border of Assyria. The Assyrian kings were constantly conducting military campaigns in these areas and lands adjacent to them, and they record how the Mushki (Phrygians) and others would be allied with the rebels, which would have provoked campaigns against the Mushki. They claim to take their campaigns to the northern sea (Black Sea?), which would be a natural extension of a military campaign into the lands of the Mushki which they say are in the land(s) of Tabal. The power of the Mushki is noted in the record with regard to the disposition of Que or Kue, which they say was originally occupied by the Mushki and lost by them to Assyria, then reoccupied. If Que is another name for Cilicia it would imply that the Phrygians (Mushki) had conquered the Cilicians. We leave the issue as an occupation of Que, leaving the matter of occupation of Cilicia an unresolved matter. Adad-Nirâri I is important to the context of Phrygian influence in the sense that we can surmise that his time was a period of relative peace and not as consumed by defending the lands of Urartu (Armenia).
8) Tiglath-pileser III follows the convention of grouping districts and provinces adjacent to each other together. Such groupings tend to follow the sequence of campaigns, usually from the northwest, Urartu, to the southwest and southeast (to Kummuhu, Commagene and east to Carchemish. Within the groupings districts tend to be listed in the same order, as if one were listing cities while referring to a map. If the campaign began in the southeast, such as Tyre and worked westward, the listing would group Kummuu, west of Carchamish, and Kûe (Que) adjacent to this province, region, in the west, together. North of Kûe they list Gurgum , Melid (Melitea) and Tabal together. Following them in this group is Tunai, Tuhan and Ishtunda. Then the list shifts to Ashkelon, etc., which relates to the dominion from Egypt to Syria and the Hittite territory north of Tyre.
9) Because of the reference to the land of Nairî, we know that Tushha is Tushba (Van), the capital of the Urartu. With note 7, paragraph 442, we can inquire, whether the Mushki had moved into the region of the Tigris river (just west of it) and whether the Armanians, or Urartu, had not emerged at that time ~880 B.C.
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