1.21.12 Etruscan Phrases showing Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns and vocabulary. Translation of the Tavola Cortonensis.


Translation of the Tavola Cortonensis

 by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)



About the Translation


1.21.12 - We are in the process of updating all of the Etruscan Phrases pages, based on the Etruscan Phrases Glossary spreadsheet. These updates are presented as Work Notes PDF files. For this page see "Work Notes on the Tavola Cortonensis." January 20, 2012.  For the Zagreb Mummy see "Work Notes on the Zagreb Mummy." (These documents are available at acadameia.edu/Mel Copeland)

This work is based upon a reconciliation with other scripts of the Etruscan Phrases home page. This is a letter to Prince Salinis and the Salini demanding fare (nalum) for the passage through the region. The town Velcha, is mentioned twice and a prince Pomeius (of Pompeii?) is mentioned. The defenders are in a fortress upon a craig and the opposing commander notes that he will stay until the beseiged queen pays the fare (possibly a ransom). The letter refers to married women / daughters-in-law (nuora). The letter concludes with repetitious phrases demanding the passage money. The letter repeatedly employs the gods when making its lawful case and in the final line concludes the demand before the face of the gods to hand over the face of the passage money. The text mentions the Rasna (name the Etruscans called themselves) twice and refers to its author as of the Latins. The name, Rasna, also appears at Z1578, of the Zagreb Mummy script, and K26, K119, a list of kings and queens of the Etruscans. Places in Campania and the Oscans are mentioned, and it may be that the author, identified as of the Latins, was from the area of Bologna (Felsini) which is mentioned early in the script. The tablet was found in Cortona, not far from Felsini. Where you see the I am working.

The words for the translation below are selected from the Etruscan_Phrases.html, and Etruscan GlossaryA.xls. Characters that are underlined are difficult to read and may not be correct.

The two drawings of the Tavola Cortonensis on this page were from an Italian newspaper when various versions of the script were published July 4, 1999. The photo is from "The Etruscans," by Federica Borrelli and Maria Cristina Targia, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

Each line of the script is preceeded by an alpha-numeric locater; i.e., TC1 is the first line, TC7 is the second line, TC19 is the third line.

The following is the translation of the text, based upon the other scripts. It is being reworked based upon the new photo providing a clearer reading. Corrections will be reflected in Etruscan GlossaryA.xls.

Begining of the script:

TC270 to Prince Salini I plead to it
TC283 namely to the goddess Ral we plead; you kept of the god Tinia to the
TC290 gods of anyone; to the Salinis of the prince of her who of the god Tini out of the movement/departure
TC298 to stand oneself you threaten yourself; you scatter until I demand of you to stop
TC307 we confirm upon the river upon the river the salt of the Velches; I plead
TC318 you omit an odor of it; to sneak away we speak; the god Tini , his movement; to flirt we speak of her
TC327 the goddess Ral here; those she cleaves to; she loves there; the gods of something of it
TC338 of the Latins..............money/fare

TC1 and to the rocks you know you shake him of the eleven
TC7 at the vineyard here we stop here to dine to hold the undertaking of Argos
TC19 at the boundary you plead; the gods to the Sulla; the army here you scatter; to possess the boundary/region
TC28 to herself they join together; they err of the elegant indeed of the king we shall scatter there
TC38 you left from the rich; to the Etruscans [number, 96?] I flowed over the army of the rocks; I fear
TC46 and indeed you take up the oil here; to yourself the boundary I hold here; the coast she will hold herself; you burn
TC56 she knows beforehand the salt of the house; since to suppose you bear to plead of the beginning
TC61 you are of the rocks; yours, you know how to....the daughter-in-law to be born of the god / lord of your rock
TC71 the goddess Uni; you denied; of the battlements; lord of the army, to us of the lords of the Salini
TC80 I celebrate the fare /passage money of your god; Velara (or the great altar); the god(dess) Ral that person is your god Velara
TC90 the princes to the great rocky Pompeius (Pompey); the prince of us of the Latins
TC103 we settle the fare / passage money; the tool of the [city of] Felsini; the great regent there; the great Luis (3) indeed
TC108 the Oscan; the map he navigates over of the new return; the ghost I rush upon of your god
TC120 the god you lift you bathe at / by the rock; the party in a law-suit he goes against out of the straight-forward
TC127 you love happiness; the cause of the gods, ai!; ... I made straight the bow; the gods
TC137 ......gods of another squadron / ship..ac...the gods, ai! of the rock
TC144 ..your [river] Arno of the lionesses; of the rocks; afterwards
TC150 I dine thus; I notice because you scatter of the god Dis; the stone they violate, abandon
TC161 I demand yourself to reason; upon the river you love; like your shore
TC170 born; we confirm; I demand of you to stop; of you; as of the gods; if supposing that the opportunity he expects
TC179 you hunger yourself; to the king; I explode thus; to swindle to us to reason you argue; to her
TC190 he is pleased of the legal controversy of anyone, anything; the rocks here; you know of the divine law; the army to stay they make plain to the mind
TC201 from which time I recorded the daughters-in-law evil to call of yours the god of you; I collect of the queen; praise and that to
TC213 to be silent there to me the Etruscans ....RIS to us the Latins of fame
TC220.......the arms Oscan.....RAL the clan here; of the god
TC231 hers; your god the god Terminaus (god of boundaries)
TC236 in woe! the clans of the bow; of Velcha
TC241 I join together here; Velcha; the cause of the prince
TC248 to the years of the fare passage money here; the gods, they ordain...
TC260 the bow?; your god; I strive over to us; the face there of the fare / passage money
TC266 until I plow the border; I protect if however the passage money of the great
TC271 to the face of the gods here I demand the faces of the passage money/fare

(TC1) ETPETRVIS SCE FESE LI VNTS F [Translation: and (L. et) to the rock/promentories/rocks (It. pietra) you know (L. scio, scir, scivi or scli, scitu) you shake/ annoy (L. vexo-are) him, him, it, them (L. ille, illa, ilus; he, hic, ille, is; It. lui, lo, gli; Fr. le, lui, celui) of the eleven (l. undecim, It. undici, Fr. onze)] Note: In Tuscany today hilltop towns are often referred to as "rocks."

(TC7) (F)INA CeRESTvM CeCENVTENR VRS ARCVS [Translation: at the vineyard (L. vinea-ae) here (Fr. ici) we stop, await or alternatively I stop, await (L. restem, 1st pers. sing. conjunctive; L. resto-stare-sti, to make a stand, resist, oppose, to stand still, stay behind, draw back, survive, to await; It. restare; Fr. rester) here (Fr. ici); to dine (L. ceno-are); to hold (L. teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum) the undertaking/beginning (L. orsus-us, m.) of Argos/ place name (L. Argos & Argi-orum, capital of Argolis in the Peloponnese) (6)] Note: FINA begins on line TC1.

(TC19) VR VRAS LARIS AL SFLA PES CeSPANTETENR VR [Translation: at the coast/boundary (L. ora-ae) you plead (L. oro-are); the hearths/ household deities to the (It. al) Sulla; the army (L. m. pes, pedis.) here (Fr. ici) you scatter (It. spandare); to possess (L. teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum) the region (L. ora-ae)]

(TC28) SA SeRAN SAR Ce EReN TERSNA RVI SPANeRIM Le [Translation: to herself (L. se or sese; It. si; Fr. sa; region is f.) they join together (L. sero, serere, serui, sertum) I hoe, weed, cultivate (L. sario-ire; It. sarchiare; Fr. sarcier) here (Fr. ici); they err, wander (L. erro, errare, erravi, erratum) of the refined/rounded/elegant (L. teres-retis) indeed (L. ne (nae); It. ne; Fr. ne); alternatively Tersna, name of the king; of the king (Fr. roi) scatttered, spread out (L. sparsum) or alternatively, scatteredwe shall scatter / spill (L. spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum; particle, sparsus-a-um, spread out, scattered, speckled; It. spandare, fut. ind. spanderemo) there (le) Note: Le may apply to TC38. This phrase makes sense as: "to herself they join together; I cultivate here; they err of Tersna the king, scattered there." The "NA" is found as a determinative, as in the name of the goddess, RALNA, mother of Helen of Troy (See Divine_Mirror.html)

(TC38) ESI E RICRASNA SIIIC INNI PES PETRVS PAF [Translation: ESI E RIC, I/you left (L. exeo-ire-li- [ivi]-itum) from (L. e, ex) the rich (It. ricco) (4) to the Etruscan (Rasna) of (text unreadable) I/you flowed over (L. inno-nare) the army (L. pes, pedis); the rocks/promentory (It. pietra); I fear (L. paveo, pavere, pavi) Note: Applying the "L" from TC28, LESIE carries a suffix suggesting a proper name, as in the case of the Etruscan Phersipnei (Persephone – Etruscan_Mural.orcus.gif) and ELINAI (Helen – See Divine_Mirror.html); the proper form should be LESEI or ESEI. RIC appears to be an adjective or noun, wealthy, rich, and is used five times in the Zagreb Mummy script. Another word is RIKE, RIKES, used in the Tavola Eugubine, Script Q. The "K" suggests "g" as in L. rigo-are, to water. The "E" faces the word ESI and thus belongs with that word.]

(TC46) AC TRA VLA CeTI VR TEN _ VR CeTENRA SA CINAT or CINA Te PR [Translation: and also/indeed (L. ac, atque) she takes up / pulls (L. traho, trahere, traxi, tractu), the oil (L. oleum -i; It. olio, m. Fr. huille, f.) or earthen pot (It. olia, f.) or olive (L. oliva, olea) here (Fr. ici); to yourself/of yours (L. tibi) the coast/boundary (L. ora-ae) I hold (L. teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum) the coast (L. ora-ae) here (Fr. ici); she will hold (L. teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum) herself / itself (L. se, sese) Cina, yours (te) PR] Note: Cina may be the territory of Siena or the town Torrita di Siena, near Cortona; in any event, since this tablet lists cities, the context of a city would appear to be appropriate here.

(TC56) (PR)INISERA CeSAL CaSa E SIS FERE CVSVR VRSVM [Translation: she knows beforehand (L. praenosco-ere; It. preannunziare, to announce, to forebode) here (Fr. ici); the salt (L. sal, salis, m.) of the house (L. f. casa-ae); since (L. e, ex) to wish/ to be willing/suppose (L. si vis, sis) you bear (L. fero, ferre, tuli, latum) / as a general rule – L. fere) to give as a reason/plead (L. causor-ari) of the beginning/understanding (L. orsa-orum)] Note: For VRSvM see Z1654.

(TC61) ES PETRVSTA SCE F _ _ _ NVRA NATVR (1) LAR Te PETR [Translation: you are (L. es) of the rocks/promentories (It. pietra); yours/thine (L. tibi, ta) you know how to (L. scio, scir, scivi or scli, scitu)....the daughter-in-law/young married woman (L. nurus-us f.) to be born (L. nascor-i, natos and [gnatus]) of the household god/hearth (L. lar, laris, m.) of your (L. tibi; It. ti) rock (It. pietra)] .

(TC71) VNI APNIPINI LAR TePILVS (2) CE LARIS SALINI F [Translation: the goddess Uni; you denied (L. abno-nuere-nui); of the wings/battlements along the top of the wall (L. pinna-ae); the household god/hearth (L. lar, laris, m.) of yours (L. tibi; It. ti); the army of us (It. ce) of the household gods/hearths (L. lar, laris, m.); of the Salini/salt-marsh, salt-works (L. salinae-arum, f.)] Note: PINI declines like a verb; F goes with the next line.

(TC80 ) (F)ET (5) NAL LAR Te FELARA LAR RAL IS A LAR Te FELARA [Translation: I celebrate (L. festus-a-um, f. of a holiday, festive, of people, keeping holiday; n. as subst. a feast; Fr. feter, to celebrate; It. festeggiare) the fare / passage money (L. naulum-i) of the household god/hearth (L. lar, laris, m.) of you/of yours (L. tibi; It. ti) Velara; name meaning, he/she conceals/is veiled (It. velare) or alternatively, the great (fel) altar L. ara, f. altar, refuge, protection); the goddess (L. lar, laris, m.) Ral (name) that person (L. is, ea, id) at (L. a) of the household god/hearth (L. lar, laris, m.) of you/of yours (L. tibi; It. ti) of Velara; name meaning, he/she conceals/is veiled (It. velare)] Note: A name akin to Ral is Ralna, a wife of the god Tin who is the mother of Helen of Troy. See the Divine_mirror.html for her grouping in the Etruscan pantheon.

(TC90) AVLES A FEL PVMPVI RVCIV AVLE CE LATINA SE; [Translation: the lords/princes (L. aule) to (L. a); the great/good Pompeius (Roman gens; possibly the town Pompeii-orum) rocky (Fr. rocheux-e, adj. rocky, stony; It. roccioso); a prince (L. aule) to us (It. ce) Latin (L. Latinus-a-um)].

(TC103) (SE)TM NAL ARNSA 8ELSiNI FEL RINA LeFEL (3) LVIS NA; [Translation: [settled/we settle (L. sedeo, sedere, sedi, sessum) the fare/passage money (L. naulum-i); the tool/implement (It. arnese, m.) of the people of Felsina (later called Bologna, after the Boii invaders ); the great/good regent there; the great/good Luis [based on you shine (Fr. luire] indeed (L. ne [nae])] Note: See FELeRE at Z1236.

(TC108) VSCE FELVS INA NV8 RESA LARV SLANSV LAR Te [Translation: the Osci (L. Osci-orum, an ancient people of Italy); the skin/fleece (L. vellus-eris – used here to refer to a map?) he sails over, navigates (L. inno-nare) of the new (L. novus-a-um; It. nuovo; Fr. neuf, nouveau) yield, surrender, return (It. resa, f.); the ghost/spectre/mask (L. larva [larua]-ae) I thin out (It. slanciare) or alternatively hurl myself/ bring out to myself (It. lanciare; Fr. se lancer, to rush); of the god (L. Lar, Laris, m.) yours (L. te) Note: The Oscans occupied the territory south of Rome to Naples / Pompeii]

(TC120) A LAR Te LEFE LAFES AN PETRVRA V8E E PRV [Translation: to (L. a) the god (L. Lar, Laris, m.) yours (L. te) you lift up (L. levo-are) you (pl) bathe/moisten (L. lavo, lavare, lavere, lavi, lautum or lotu or lavatum) by, at the the rock (It. pietra, f.); the party in a law-suit (L. rea-ae, f.) he goes against (L. obeo-ire-ivi-itum) out of (L. e, ex) the straight-forward/prose (L. prosus-a-um);]

(TC127) S AME FILiK E CVSV LARI AI _ _ LENI ARC LARIS [Translation: (S belongs with line TC120, PRV) you love (L. amo-are) happiness/good luck (L. felix-icis) out of (L. e, ex); the cause (L. causa; It. causa, f.; Fr. cause) of the gods (L. Lar, Laris); ai! (L. ai!, interjection of grief); _ _ I made straight (L. lineo-are) the bow (L. arcus-us, m. the bow); the gods (L. Lar, Laris)]

(TC137) ......V...................................text damaged.............................LARIS ALIS ALAE...AC...LARIS AI PETR [Translation: ...(unreadable)...the gods (L. Lar, Laris) of another, different (L. alis, alid, old form of alius -a- aliud, another, other, different) wing, poet. of the oars of a ship, squadron (L. ala, ae, f.) ..AC....of the gods (L. Lar, Laris) ai! of the rock/stone (It. pietra, f. stone; Fr. pierre, f.; Gr. petra)]

(TC144) .....S ARN Te LEI PETRVS PVIA [ Translation: ...s the Arno (L. Arnus-im, chief river of Etruria) of you/yours (L. te) of the lionesses (L. lea-ae & leaena, f.); of, by the stones/rocks (It. pietra, f. stone; Fr. pierre, f.; Gr. petra); afterwards ( It. poi; Fr. puis)

(TC150) CENSICSIKV KE SPARSES TISSAS LEISIN [Translation: I dine (L. ceno-are); in this way/thus; I sign / notice (L. signo-are) because (It. che) you scatter/circulate (L. spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum) of the god Dis/underworld (L. Dis, Ditis m., Pluto); the stone/pebble (It. m. sasso) they violate (L. laedo, ladere, laesi, laesum) or alternatively, they abandon (Fr. laisser)]

(TC161) RVK TI CVSVR VRAS SV RIVAME TAL SV RIFE [Translation: I propose/impose/demand (L. rogo-are) you (L. tibi); to give as a reason/plead (L. causor-ari) you beg (L. oro-are); upon (L. su; It. su) the river/stream (It. rio, m.); you love (L. amo-are); like (It. tale; Fr. tel, telle) upon (L. su; It. su) the shore, stream (L. rivus-i, stream; It. rifa, f. shore, bank, waterfront; Fr. rive, f. bank, shore, strand)]

(TC170) NAS RATvM RVK Te CESV Te TEL TEI SI ANSSPA; [Translation: born (L. nascor-i) we confirm (L. reor, reri, ratus) I demand (L. rogo-are) of you (L. te) to stop/stop! (L. cesso-are; It. cessare; Fr. cesser); of you (L. te); the same/like (Fr. tel, telle) of the gods (L. di [dii] divi); if/supposing that (L. si) the opportunity (L. ansa-ae, f., handle, occasion, opportunity; Fr. anse, f.,) he expects (L. spero-are)] Note: See TC150 and TC 298 for SPARSE; on RATVM see TC307 and Z1274.

(TC179) ESE TE RVI SALT SIC8RATV CE CVSVR VRASLA [Translation: you hunger (L. esurio-ire) yourself (L. te; It. te, Fr. te); the king (Fr. roi; L. rex, regis; It. re) I dance/sing with gestures (L. salto-are) or alternatively, leap over/explode (It. saltare; Fr. sauter) thus (L. sic); to cheat / swindle (L. fraudo-are) to us (It. ce) to give as a reason/plead (L. causor-ari) you argue (L. oro-are); to her (It. la; Fr. là)]

(TC190) RISA LIS FLA PETRVS Ce SCE FAS PES STAR KIAN [Translation: he is pleased (L. rideo, ridere, risi, risum) of the legal controversy/strife (L. lis, litis, f.) of anyone, anything (L. ullus-a-um); to the stones/rocks (It. pietra, f. stone; Fr. pierre, f.; Gr. petra) here (Fr. ici); you know (L. scio, scir, scivi or scli, scitu) of the divine law/fate/lawful (L. fas); or alternatively, you avoid (It. schiavare) the army to stand/stay (It. stare) of Chiane (Chianciano, Chiana Valley, near Chiuso. See Miscellaneous_Scripts.html, AB-1, CHIANA]

(TC201 E SICNI NVRE MALE CIAR Te CVC RINALAVS IS A [Translation: (E faces and belongs with KIAN) I recorded (L. signo-are) the daughters in law/young married women (L. nurus-us, f., It. nuora, f.) evil (L. malum-i, evil, harm, disaster, punishement; adv. male, badly, ill) to move, call (L. cieo, ciere, civi, citum) of yours (L. ti) I collect, bring, draw to one point (L. cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum) the queen (L. regina,; It. reginna, f.; Fr. reine, f.); praise (L laus, laudis; to praise, L. laudo-are) and that to (L. is, ea, id; she, it; with et-que, etc., and that too, and what is more) to (L. a)] Note: On RINA see Z530. LAVS IN I... or LAVSINI is at SC-1]

(TC213) SILAR MEK LeRASNA L_ _ _ RIS CE LATINA LAV [Translation: to be inactive/silent about (L. sileo-ere-ui) to me (It. meco) there the Etruscans (Rasna)_ _ _RIS; to us (It. ce) of the Latins (L. Latinus-a-um) of fame/praiseworthy action? (L. laus, ladis, f.)]

(TC220) ...(missing/damaged text).....NR ARMI VSC N F_ R _ _ RAL CLEN Ce LAR S [Translation: ...........N R the arms (L. arma-orum; It. arme, f.; Fr. arme, f.) Oscan (L. Osci-orum, an ancient people of Italy) N..F..R I rejoin (Fr. rallier) the clan (L. tribus, gens; It. tribu; Fr. clan), m. here (Fr. ici); the gods / lords (L. lar, laris)(L.]

(TC231) (S)ALAR TeTVRMNAS A_ _ N.....(damaged script) [Translation: at, by (L. a) the household god/hearth (L. Lar, Laris, m.) of you/yours (L. tibi; It. ti) Terminaus, the god of boundaries (L. Terminaus-i, m.)]

(TC236) IN AICLENI ARCFELKE..... (missing text/tablet) [Translation: towards, in (L. in) woe!, ai (L. ai) the clans (L. tribus, gens; It. tribu; Fr. clan) of the the bow (L. arcus-us, m. the bow) of Velcha (town in Campania, possibly an Oscan town)]

(TC241) SER CeFELKE CVSV AVLE (missing text/table) [Translation: I join together (L. sero, serere, serui, sertum) here (Fr. ici) to Velcha (town in Campania) I plead (L. causor-ari) of the prince/lord (L. aule)]

(TC248) ANI NAL Ce LARIS 8VLiN (missing text/table) [Translation: name Ani, or alternatively, to the years (L. annus-i) of the fare/passage money (L. m. naulum-i) here (Fr. ici) the household gods/hearths (L. Lar,Laris, m.) they ordain (L. volo, velle, volui)]

(TC 260) RCLAR TePET CE VSI NAL (....missing text/table....) [Translation: the bow? (L. arcus-us, m. the bow); the household god/hearth (L. Lar, Laris, m.) of you/yours (L. tibi; It. ti); I assail/strive after/make good for/request (L. peteo-ere-ivi and -li-itum) for/to us (It. ce); the talk/face (L. os, oris) of the fare/passage money (L. m. naulum-i)]

(TC266) IN AR VRTEC SI NALFEL (missing text/table) [Translation: until (L. in) I plow (L. aro-are) the border (L. ora-ae, f.); I cover/ protect/shield (L. tego, tegere, texi, tectum) but if/if however (L. sin) the fare/passage money (L. m. naulum-i) of the great (fel?)]

(TC271) VSLARIS CeCVSV VSI NAL [Translation: to the face (L. os, oris) of the gods (L. Lar, Laris) here; I demand (L. causor-ari) the talk/faces (L. os, oris) of the fare/passage money (L. m. naulum-i)] Note: coins had the faces of the rulers on them. In Roman times the face on the coin, Caesar, was viewed and worshipped as a god. Here the comparison of the face of the gods and the face of the passage money would be logical.


Beginning of the script:

(TC279) AVLE SALINI CVSV AL [Translation: [to the Prince (L. aule) of the Salini I give as a reason/plead (L. causor-ari) to the/to it (It. al)]

(TC283) SILiCILAR RAL CVSVSSTI TIN AL [Translation: craig (L. silex-icis) or alternatively namely (L. scilicet); the household goddess (L. Lar, Laris, m.) Ral, probably the goddess Ral, consort of the god Tinia on the Divine_Mirror.html, we give as a reason/plead (L. causor-ari); you stood (L. sto, stare; It. stare; Fr. stationner; Avestan, astaya) of the god Tinia to the (It. al)]

(TC290) LARIS ALCSALINIS AVLE LA CEI TIN E ITIS; [Translation: the gods (L. Lar, Laris, m.) of someone/anyone (L. aliqui, aliquae); to the Salinis of the prince (L. aule) of/to her (It. la) of who/that (L. quae) of the god Tini out of (L. e, ex) the movement, departure (L. itus-us)]

(TC298) STAR Se MINAS Se SPARSE IN RVK Te CESV [Translation: to stand (It. stare) oneself you threaten (L. minor-ari; minito-are and minitor-ari; Fr. menacer) yourself (L. se, sese); you scatter (L. spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum) until (L. in) I demand (L. rogo-are) of you/yours (L. tibi; It. ti) to stop/cease (L. cesso-are; It. cessare)] Note: "I demand you to stop" is repeated at TC 170.

(TC307) RATvM SV RIV SV RIV SAL FELKESCVSV SA [Translation: we confirm (L. reor, reri, ratus); upon (It. su) the river/stream (It. rio, m.) upon (l. su; It. su) the river/stream (It. rio, m.) the salt (L. sal, salis, m.) of the Velches (ancient Etruscan town, Velcha?); I give as a reason/plead (L. causor-ari) of myself] Note: If SA is reflexive feminine, this letter is written by a woman.

(TC318) VLES LAFILeR VRVSTINI ITIS FILeR VRVS LA [Translation: you omit an odor/smell (L. oleo-ere) of it/her (It. la; Fr. la); to run away/sneak away (It. filare; Fr. filer); we speak (L. oro-are); the god Tini; his movement (L. itus-us); to run away/sneak away/ flirt (It. filare; Fr. filer); we speak (L. oro-are) of it of it/her (It. la; Fr. la)]

(TC327) LAR RAL Ce CEL RIMATAMA LeLARIS ALC CI [Translation: the household god/hearth (L. Lar, Laris, m.) the goddess Ral here (Fr. ici); those (It. quel) it/she cleaves to (L. rimor-ari); she loves (L. amo-are) there; the gods (L. Lar, Laris, m.) of someone/something (L. aliqui, aliquae) of it (It. chi)]

(TC338) LATINA PITI TI NAL (end of the back of the document). [Translation: of the Latins (L. Latinus-a-um); ...(can't read words)..... money (L. m. naulum-i)]

Summary of names and places mentioned:

Argos?: (TC7) ...ARCVS
Sulla: (TC19)
Tersna, king: (TC28) ...EReN TERSNA RVI SPANeRIM Le
Rasna, Etruscan: (TC38) ...RA
Cina or Cinat, town of Terro di Siena, near Cortona? (TC46)
Salini, a gens: (TC71)
Salinis, a gens: SALINI
Silici, a gens:
Felara, a gens: (TC80 )
Ral, goddess, mother of Helen of Troy, also spelled RALNA. (TC80 )
Pompoi, Pompeius, Roman gens; possibly the town Pompeii-orum: (TC90)
Latina: (TC90)...AVL
Velsini, people of Felsina, Bologna: (TC103) ...ARN
Louisna, possible name of person: (TC103)...FEL (3) LVISNA (TC108) VSCE
Osce, L. Osci-orum, an ancient people of Italy: (TC108) VSCE
Osc: (TC220)
[missing/damaged text].....NR ARMI VSC N F_ R _ _ RAL CLEN Ce
Dis, Pluto, Hades, god of the Underworld: (TC150) ...
Chiane, Chianciano, Chiana Valley, near Chiuso (TC190)...PES STAR KIANE (E from TC191)
Terminaus, the god of boundaries (L. Terminaus-i, m.): (TC231) TVRMNAS A_ _ N.....(damaged script)
town in Campania, possibly an Oscan town: (TC236) ...FELKE..... (missing text/tablet) and (TC241)
KE CVSV AVLE (missing text/table)
Velcha, town in Campania: (TC307) ...SV RIV SAL FELKESCVSV SA
Ani, person's name: (TC248) AN
Tin, Tini, Tinia, god, consort of Ralna, L. Jupiter, Gr. Zeus: (TC283)



(1) Change from NATVA to NATVR based upon new scanning technology applied to the Tavola Cortonensis by http://vcg.isti.cnr.it/projects/miscellanca/cortona/cortona_images, confirmed by the current image on this page from "The Etruscans," by Federica Borrelli and Maria Cristina Targia, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. This word also appears in the Tavolo Eugubine (See Indo-European Table1.html).
(2) Change from IRI: LVS to PILVS based on image of http://vcg.isti.cnr.it and current image on this page.
(3) Inserted FEL based on image of http://vcg.isti.cnr.it. This makes the following word, LVIS, probably a name, Luis.
(4) LESIE or ESIE is the preferred option since the final E is facing ESI and not the word RIC. The
(5) Note that the character "E" faces towards the previous line's character "F," pointing to the word "FET." The Etruscans used this method of characters facing the word to which they belong, in many scripts.
(6) ARCOS may relate to a series pertaining to "archon," ruler, magistrate, such as : ARCAS, ARCE, ARCES, ARCIA, ARCIS, ARCIV, ARCAMEN, ARKANI, ARCV.








Return me to Home

Launched 4.14.01

Updated 4.15.01; 5.06.01; 5.20.01; 5.28.01; 6.03.01; 6.10.01; 6.17.01; 6.24.01; 10.08.01; 10.11.01; 9.29.02; 10.15.02; 10.25.02; 9.01.03; 9.07.03; 9.14.03; 9.20.03; 9.28.03; 1.29.05; 5.29.05; 10.26.05; 11.21.05; 11.22.05; 3.27.06; 12.05.06; 4.29.08; 1.21.12

Copyright 1981-2012 Maravot. All rights reserved.
Copyright 1981-2012 Mel Copeland. All rights reserved.
Use of the information on this page for publication in any media is expressly forbidden without the prior written consent of the author.