Indo-European Table with Sanskrit, Avestan, Slavic, Baltic, Greek, Latin, Tocharian, Anatolian, Gaelic, Latin, Italian, French & Etruscan–based on the Etruscan_Phrases vocabulary

10.04.11 Etruscan Phrases – Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE)





Etruscan_Phrases

Indo-European Table 1, Part 4


 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)


Etruscan_Phrases

 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)







Table 1, section 1A.2: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.

Sanskrit

Avestan & Armenian*

Slavic & Baltic

Greek & Albanian

Latin

other

English

Etruscan

amati, f. appearance,
shape;
nAmarUpa
[n], name and form;
tan, tanoti, tanute, extend, stretch,
spread, [pra], cause,
produce, show, betray [vi] spread over, sacrifice, produce, effect, make, render

W-sh'nel;
E-zarkel
(Armenian)
kar (Avestan)
sâxtan, dorost
kardan,
âmâde
kardan, to make; kardan, anjâm dâdan, to do; dis, peykar,
barge, form [n]
(Persian)

forma, formowac,
shape (Polish)
kstalt [m.] shape,
form (Belarus)
vidas, shape, form; seget, to do (Baltic
Sedovian)
FAC, I make, do; FACĂ, he/she makes, does; FACI, you make, do;
FACUI, you made, did;
FĂCĂTOR, maker (Romanian)

kamno,
kataskeyazo,
kavisto, anagrazo
(Greek)
bëj,
kryej, prodhoj, to make; festë,
festim; krijoj,
formoj, fitoj, arrij,
to do (Albanian)

facio, facere, feci,
factum, faciebam, 1st pers. imper.; Ital. facevo)

gwneud (gwneuthur) to
do, make, manufacture,
render;
ffurfio, to form, construct; llunio, to form, shape, fashion,
model, mold, frame,
construct, fabricate (Welsh)
ni, va. irr. will or shall do, make (Scott)
ober [ran, rez, ra,
reomp, rit, reont, reer] (Breton)
fare, facevo (Italian)
faire (French)
i (to do, Lydian)
aia, ai; taks (Hittite)

to make [<OE
macian], form,
[<Lat. forma], do [<OE don],
sacrifice, help;
create, produce,
arrange

fac, Script Z21, Z35, Z412, Z439, Z551, Z614, Z629, Z727, Z779, Z834, Z842, Z1146, Z1337, Z1352, Z1386, Z1674, AN48
faca, Script Au90
facbo (FAC8V) Script CP-51

fai, Script Au71


fak, Script Z272;
FAKeR, Script
Z656, K-6

x x FACIL, easy to do (Romanian)
x facilis-e x easy to manage, easy to do,  convienient, favorable facil

at, atati, -te, to walk
about, wander, run;
bhram, bhramati, to
wander, stroll, go
through, perambulate

sargardân budan,
âvâre budan,
gastan, to wander;
qalat, error
(Persian)

fabrykowac, fason,
forma, kazac,
made, marka,
produkowac, robic, sporzadzac,
wyrob, zmusic
wytwarzac, to make (Polish)

periplanomai,
wander (Greek)
endem, bredh, eci i shkujdesur, shëtit, shëtis, dal nga
rruga, to wander
(Albanian)

vagor-ari, to wander;
vagio-ire, to whimper
facio, facere, feci,
factum
, to make, form, do, perform, cause, appoint, change

crwydro, to wander,
stray, roam, ramble,
digress; gwibio, to
flash, flit, rove, ramble, wander, hover (Welsh)
vagare, to wander, fare, |to make, do, perform (Italian)
errer, s'agarer,
rôder,
divaguer, to wander,
faire, to make, do,
perform (French)

to wander [<OE
wandrian], ramble, rove? whimper? to make, form, do?

fak, Script Z272
FAKeR, Script
Z656, K6; see
vac;
(probably the verb facio, facere)

amati, f. appearance,
shape;
nAmarUpa
[n], name and form;
tan, tanoti, tanute, extend, stretch,
spread, [pra], cause,
produce, show, betray [vi] spread over, sacrifice, produce, effect, make, render;
kal, kalayati (-te) &
kAlayati, to carry,
bear, do, make, cause, produce, utter observe, notice, try, examine, suppose, think, regard, shake, agitate, cast, fling,
seize, tie, fasten

W-sh'nel;
E-zarkel
(Armenian)
kar (Avestan)
sâxtan, dorost
kardan,
âmâde
kardan, to make; kardan, anjâm dâdan, to do; dis, peykar,
barge, form [n]
(Persian)

fabrykowac, fason, forma, kazac, made, marka,
produkowac, robic, sporzadzac,
wyrob, zmusic
wytwarzac,
(Polish)

kamno,
kataskeyazo,
kavisto, anagkazo,
make (Greek)
bëj,
krijoj, prodhoj, hartoj, bëhem, formoj, përipiloj, marr, përgatit, fitoj,
caktoj, arrij, detroj,
supozoj, to make;
një
punë, më punë, veproj, punoj, rregulloj; to do; festë, festim, do
[muz.], do [n]
(Albanian)

facio-facere, feci,
factum

gwneud (gwneuthur) to
do, make, manufacture,
render;
ffurfio, to form,
construct; llunio, to
form, shape, fashion,
model, mold, frame,
construct, fabricate (Welsh)
fare, to make, to do;
fai, 2nd pers. perf.
sing. pres. ind. (Italian)
faire, to make, do
(French)
aia, ai; taks (Hittite)

to make, to do

fai, Script Au71
See fac above)

x x x x faex, faecis, f.) x dregs, lees of wine?
fais, Script AC-6

vyAjay, -yati
to cheat, deceive;
chalay, -yati, pp.
{chalita} deceive,
cheat; enas, [n], sin,
crime, fault; vaiguNya
adj., bad quality, fault, defect.

fariftan, gomrâh
kardan, to
deceive; estebâh, ârang, mistake [n] (Persian)

oszukiwac, to
deceive; blad,
brak, defekt, skaza, uskok, usterka, wada, wina, fault; blad, mistook,
pomylic, pomylic
sie, pomylka, zle
zrozumiec, mistake
(Polish)
FALI, to show off, be proud;
FĂLEŞTI, you show off, are proud; FALE, pride  (Romanian)

apato, exapato,
deceive (Greek)
gënjej, mashtroj,
gaboj, deceive
gabim, keqkuptim,
moskuptim,
lajthitje, mistake
[n] (Albanian)

fallo, fallere, fefelli,
falsum; to decieve, lead astray;
superbus, adrogans,  fastidiousus, proud; adv. superbe, adroganter

hocedu, to cheat,
deceive, defraud,
delude; camgymrd, to mistake, err;siomi, to dissapoint, dismay,
deceive, falsify, foil;
camsynied, to mistake; methu, to fail, miss, falter, mistake (Welsh)
fallare, to err, make a mistake; grandioso, orgoglioso, superbo, arrogante,  proud (Italian)
falloir, to be necessary;
faute [f], fault; oargueilleux, fier, arrogant, proud
(French)

to deceive [<Lat. decipio -cipere cepi -ceptum],
lead astray, cause to be
mistaken
[<ON mistaka],
disappoint, fail in, be concealed

fal, Script Au95
fale, Script Z614,
Z629
falia, Script CP-33
(possibly Kalia or Ralia, a person's name - re "ia" suffix.

x

x

FAIMA, fame (Romanian)

x

fama-ae, f.

fama, f. fame; fame, f. hunger It.;
faim, f. hunger, fameux, adj. famous, Fr.

the talk, fame

fama, Script S-22

x x x x fanum-i templo, temple (Italian)
temple, m.,tempe, f., temple (French)
holy place, temple grounds
fan, Script XA-5, XF-5
fana, Script XA-9
fani
, Script CB-3, PB-3

sasya; aSTi
[f], grain of seed;
varaTa [m], a kind of grain; maNa, a certain measure of grain; zarAva [m.n.] a flat earthenware dish; also a measure for grain; aSTi [f], grain of seed

E-spore, grain
(Armenian)
taoxma
[taoxman], grain (Avestan)
dâne, jow, cine,
grain; xorâk, sur, bazm, meal;
toxm,
dâne,
barze, seed; hâg, toxm, spore
(Persian)

wlonkno, zboze,
ziarno, grain
(Polish)
zrno, grain; sejati, seed (Serbo
Croatian)
zierna (Belarus)
klennan, grainery;
maizis, barley;
ari, javas, cereal
(Baltic-Sudovian)
FĂINĂ, FĂRINĂ, grain, meal (Romanian)

spora, seed; sitira,
grain (Greek)
farë, fillim,
bërthemë, seed;
kokërr, drithë,
grimcë, korrizë,
karakter, strukture,
grain;
miell, misri,
meal (Albanian)

far, farris; Ceres-eris, the Roman goddess of agriculture; transf., bread, grain
filum-i, thread; transf., form, shape, texture; granum-i, grain, seed

gronyn (grawn-nau)
[m], grain, atom,
granule, grape; blawd (blodiau, blodion) [m],
flour, meal;
can [m],
flour; paill [m], flour, pollen (Welsh)
càilean [m.] a husk of grain; meil, va. grind, pulverise; spilgean [m]
(Scott)
grano, chicco [m],
grain;
farina [f], flour (Italian)
céréales, f. pl; grain;
farine [f], flour
(French)
táno (Tocharian)

grain [<Lat.
granum], meal
[<OE mael], spore [<Gk. spora]; cereal, flour [<ME
floury, adj.]

far, Scripts Z180, Z197, Z357, Z1027, Z1040, Z1097, Z1430, TC327, Au44

x

x

x

x

farcio, farcire, farsi, fartum

reimpire, It.
replir, Fr.

to fill

farsi, Script CP-31
farsit
, Script S-18

daivatas, adv. by fate or chance;
daivaparAyaNa
adj., putting fate above all [m], fatalist; daivya,
[n], divine power, fate, destiny

sarnevest [n],
fate (Persian)

los, przeznaczenie,
fate (Polish)
FAŞĂ /FÂŞIE, band, bandage (Romanian)

moira, pepromeno,
fate, destiny
(Greek)
fat, e ardhme, orë [fig], risk, vdekje, fate [n] (Albanian)

fas, fasces, lictor's axe

damwain [f], accident,
chance, fate, luck;
ffawd (ffodion) [f],
fortune, fate, luck;
tynged (tynghedau) [f], destiny fate, doom, lot (Welsh)
fato, sorte [m], fate; fascia, banda, band (Italian)
destin, sort [m], fate; bandeau, band,  bandage
(French)

divine command or
law,
fate [<Lat.
fatum], destiny [< Lat. destino-are];
risk (<Ital. risco]

fas, Script TC190, AC-2, XP-1
fasia, Script CJ-1
(see also 8ASIE, Z72, vase[s])

x x x x fateor, fateri; fatum-i, an utterance rivalare, to reveal, perfetto, utter (Italian)
révéler, dévoler, to reveal; proférer, pronouncer, to utter (French)
confess, reveal, utter
fata, Script CJ-4

vAhana, adj., carrying, bringing [m], beast of burden, vehicle,
wagon, ship, oar or
sail;
plu, plavate, pp. pluta, to float, bathe, sail, vibrate, hover, soar, fly, blow (wind)

badban, farvand, sail [n]; kastirâni
kardan, to sail
savâri, ride [n];
savâr sodan, to
ride (Persian)

plynac, zagiel,
zeglowac, sail
(Polish)

pleo, plous, pani
ploiou
, sail;
kaballikevo,
peripatos me
aftokinito, ride
(Greek)
lundron me vela,
lundroj, lëvizem,
ngadalë, drejtoj
anijen,
shket, to
sail;
vel, velë [n], sail (Albanian)

veho, vehere, vexi,
vectum;
ve, perhaps

hwylio, to sail,
prepare, order, embark; mordwyo, to go by sea, voyage, sail,
navigate; morio, to
voyage, sail, cruise,
navigate (Welsh)
far
vela, veleggiare, to sail (Italian)
faire
voile, voguer, to sail (French)

to carry, convey,
sail, [<OE segl]
ride, drive,
scud (sail swiftly down wind)

FE, Script Z5, Z929, Au64, AL-3, AC14?
Fe, Script BT-4?, BT-5, BT-6

vihAyas, adj.,
powerful, vigorous;
tvakSIyaMs, very
vigorous; pAjasvant
adj., shining or
vigorous; tantumant, adj., forming a thread,
uninterrupted, lasting

porzur,
zurmand,
nirumand, adj.
vigourous
dirpây, pâydâr,
lasting, adj.
(Persian)

trwaly, lasting
enrgiczny, pelen
wigoru, vigorous
(Polish)

dynatos, sthenaros,
vigorous; diarkis,
lasting (Greek)
i
fortë, i fuqishëm,
energjik, i
vrullshëm,
vigorous, adj.
(Albanian)

vivax-acis

brwysg, adj. drunk,
vigorous; gwisgi, heini, adj. brisk, lively, agile,
ripe;
nwyfus, spirited, lively (Welsh)
vigoroso, vigorous
(Italian)
vigoureux, vigorous
(French)

long lived,
enduring, lasting,
brisk, lively,
with
energy [<Gk. energeia, vigour],
vigorous [<Lat.
vigor-oris, force, energy], nervy [<OE, nervy]

feifes, Script Z1423

potha [m], blow, strike with; han, hanti, hate,
jighnate, -ti, to smite, beat, strike down, hew
off, hit pierce hurt; kal, kalayati (-te) &
kAlayati, to carry,
bear, do, make, cause, produce, utter, observe, notice, try,
examine, suppose,
think, regard, shake,
agitate, cast, fling,
seize, tie, fasten;
ayasmaya, made of
iron; ayomaya [f], iron

âhan, octu, iron,
otu kasidan, to
make iron; ziba,
bâzâr,
nemâyesgâhe
kâlâ, fair
(Persian)

bic, strajk, struck, uderzac, walic, zapalic, strike; niesc,
podtrzymywac,
przeniesienie,
przeprowadzic,
wozic, zasieg,
carry;
bestia,
bydle, zwierze,
beast; kajdany,
zelazko, zelazny,
zelazo, iron;
grzecznie, jarmark, jasny, piekny, prawy, sluszny, targ, targi, uczciwie, uczciwy, fair (Polish)

ferno, koubalo,
theto, bring; thirio, ktinos, beast; sidiros, sidero, siderono, iron; metafero, carry;
fero, bear; emporio,
trade (Greek)
bie, sjell, bind,
marr, shtyj, to
bring;
ekspozitë,|
panair, shitje
bamirësie, fair [n];
hekur, pranga, iron
[n]; hekuros, to fit with iron;
(Albanian)

ferio-ire, to strike,
knock, hit, esp. to
strike dead, slay, kill;
fero, ferre, with perf. tuli, supine latum, to bear, bring, carry; ferreus-a-um, made of iron or like iron, hard, unfeeling, cruel; ferrum i, iron

Fiora river, near Canino

anifail (anifeiliad) [m], animal, beast; bwysfil od-edd [m], beast, ogre;
milyn (milod) [m],
beast;
bwrw (bwri), to cast, shed, fling, pitch, launch, strike,
suppose, pour;
haearn
(heyrn-au) [m], iron; ffair (ffeiriau) [f], fair, exchange (Welsh)
fiera, a wild beast;
bestia [f], beast; fair,
trade, exhibition;
ferriera [f], ironworks,
iron mine;
Fiora river; town, Fiora (Italian)
ferrer, to fit with iron,
foire [f] fair, spree;
féru, adj. smitten; bête [f], beast (French)

to strike [<OE strican]? place,
Fiora river? also
mentioned in the same section of this script appears to be the neighboring town of Canin (Canino);
iron; beast [<Lat bestia]; iron [<OE
isern]; fair [<Lat. feriae, holidays]

feira, Script Z1177,
Z1292

bRhanta
adj., great; vimahant
adj., very great.

bozorg, setabr,
meh, adj. great,
meh (n; deliri,
delâvari, arvandi,
valor [n])
(Persian)

duzy, wielki,
wspanialy, great
(Polish)
FALNIC, great, worthy (Romanian)

megalos, tranos,
spydaios, great
(Greek)
imadh, i famshëm, kryesor, fisnik, i
shkëlqyer, great,
adj.; guxim, trimëri, trim,
vlerë, valor
[n] (Albanian)

valo-are, to be strong, vigorous, in good health, well; to have force, avail, prevail, be able, to be worth

mawr-ion, adj. large, big, great, high (Welsh)
valere (Italian)
valoir (French)
wali, great (Hittite)

translated as adj. "great," possibly
relating to Latin, Italian and French verbs – to be worth, deserve, be equal, as good as;
more [<OE mara]

fel, Z530, Z748, Z1378, TC90, TC103, TC241, TC307, K9, K30, K47, K69, K79, K86, K91, K100, K107, K146, K162, K179, AB-5, AD-4, AG-1, AG-4, AN-12, BS-1, FE-1, FT-2 , Au23, AC15, HA-3

vasman [n], cover;
puT, puTati, to fold or cover; atka [m],
garment, veil; lightning.
tirarkarin [m], {riNI} [f], veil, curtain; avaguNThana [n],
veiling, a veil. {-vant} veiled; tiray, -yati, to
veil, cover, hide,
restrain, oppress,
pervade, fill

puses[n],
puisândan,
pusidan, to
cover; penhân
kardan, nahoftan,
conceal; parde,
ruband,
câdor, veil [n] (Persian)

celowac, koperta,
okladka, okryc,
okrycie, oslonic,
pokrowiec,
pokryc, pokrycie,
polisa, powlec,
przykryc,
ubezpieczenie,
cover; ukrywac,
zataic, conceal ;
maskowanie,
przebrac sie,
przebranie,
zamaskowac,
disguise (Polish)

apokrypto, to
conceal; peplo,
kalyptra,
parapetasma, veil (Greek)
i hedh
vellon,
mbuloj me
vel,
fsheh,
makskoj, to veil; vel, velo, veil [n] (Albanian)

velo-are

gorchuddio, to cover, veil; cuddio, to hide, conceal, cloak, mask
(Welsh)
velare, to veil; coprire, celare, to cover (Italian)
voiler, to veil; couvir, to cover; cacher, to conceal (French)

to cover [<Lat.
cooperio-operire
operui-opertum
,
to cover up]
veil [< Lat. velum],
conceal, disguise;
mask [<Ital.
maschera]

Note: This appears to be a common Latin name, Velera; or it may be the town Falerii.

FELaR, Script

BS-1, VP-1
felara (FELARA) , Script TC80, TC220;
FELaRA, Script
Z1192;
FELaRE, Script
Z1236, CG-2
FELaRI, Script K157


x x x x x x Vulcan? Felchaina, or Fel Chaina (FELKAINA), Script AB-5 (See also CHAINA)
x x x x veles-itis or velites x skirmishers, light-armed infantry feles, Script

Al-4

x

x

x

x

x

x

place, Velcha, a
town of
Campania? see
velcia

felkes, Script
TC307

pitta [n], the bile" kaṭuka, sharp, pungent, bitter

zahre, zardâb, gall [n] (Persian)

zolc, bile (Polish)
FIERE, FERE, gall bladder, bile, bitter (Romanian)

choli, kakokefia,
bile, pikra,
bitterness (Greek)
hudhurim,
zemërim, bitterness
[n] (Albanian)

fel, fellis, the gall
bladder, gall, bite,
poison, venom,
bitterness;
feles-is [f] a thief, hence a cat

bustl-au [m], geri [m] bile, gall; chwerwder
[m], bitterness, rancor, acrimony (Welsh)
fiele [m], bile (Italian)
bile [m], bile (French)

bile [<Lat. bilis], bitterness [<OE biter]?

fels, Script Z1809
feli, Script Au76

x x x x x x Felsi, name?
FELSI, Script MF-2

x

x

x

x

x

x

Etruscan god overseeing augurs

Veltone (Feltvne) Script D-1

meSa [m], ram, sheep; in Veda also a fleece or anything woollen; uraNa & urabhra [m], ram (wool-bearer); pradara [m], splitting, rending; crack, crevice; bhaGguray, -yati to break, destroy; crisp,
curl

pasm, jâmeye
pasmi, wool [n];
sekastan,
sekândan, to break pust, carm, xaz,
skin (Persian)

runo, stryzy,
fleece;
welna, wool; granulowana
kokaina, kapitalny,
lupac, pekac,
pekniecie, rysa,
swietny, szczelina,
trzask, trzaskac,
break (Polish)
FLOCI, fleece (Romanian)

charamada, krotos, ragizo, kroto, crack; spazo, break; malli, erio, wool (Greek)
e lëkurë, skutë,
gëzof, vend i
fshehte, hide [n];
lesh, wool, [n]; lesh i bagëtisë, fleece; kris, kërcas, plas,
plasarit, to crack
(Albanian)

velus-eris, fleece, skin, hide; feles-is [f] a thief, hence a cat; frango, frangere, fregi, fractum, to break, shatter

cnaif (cneifion,
cneifiau) [m], shearing, fleece; cnu-au, cnuf-iau
[f], fleece; edau
(edafedd) [f], thread, cotton, yarn, wool chwiwgi [m], sneak, thief, rogue; lleidr [m], robber, thief;
cracio, to
crack; torri, to break, cut, hack, crop, dig, incise, write (Welsh)
vello, fleece, fender, to, crack (Italian)
féler, to crack; veilén, vellum; toison [f], fleece; basane [f], sheepskin, basil;
voleur [m] thief
(French)
hulana, wool (Hittite)

fleece [<OE
fleos]?, to crack,
break?
wool [<OE wull]; to crack [<OE cracian]

felus, felos (FELVS) Script TC108,
AN-4, AN-15,
AN37

eta, arrived, come;
eSya, to come, future; gamadhyai, (dat. inf.) to go or come; savidhI
kR, to bring near;
{bhU} come near; il, {ilati}, come,
{ila3yati} be quiet, not budge; at, atati, -te to walk about, wander, run, {sam} go or come to

âmadan, rasidan,
to come; niyâ,
ancestor (Persian)

came, przybyc,
przyjsc, come;
przodek, ancestor
(Polish)
VENI, to arrive, come; VINĂ, to come; VINE, he/she comes (Romanian) 

erchomai, come;
ftano, ekteino,
ekteinomai, ektasi,
reach; progonos,
ancestor (Greek)
filloj, vij, arrij,
bëhet, hyj, gjendet,
rezulton, to come
arrij, vij, lind, to
arrive; stërgjysh,
ancestor
(Alkbanian)

venio, venita, veni,
ventum
, to come, to
happen, arrive, grow, arise

dod (dyfod, dwad), to come, become (Welsh)
venire, to come
(Italian)
venir, to come, arrive, reach, happen, grow,
proceed, be descended
(French)
ta (Hittite)

to come [<OE cuman], to be
descended?
arrive [<{OFr. ariver]See
veno (8env)

fena, Script XB-3
fene, Script AK-4; PB-7

feni
, Script M81

x x x x venia-ae, grace, favou favore, propensione, favor; graxia, garbo, grace  (Italian)
faveur, grâce, favor, grace (French)
Fenias, Venias, name (Re: L. venia-ae, grace, favour) fenias, Script Au27

kal, kalayati (-te) &
kAlayati; to carry,
bear; do, make, cause, produce, utter; observe, notice; try,
examine; suppose,
think, regard as; shake, agitate, cast, fling; seize, tie, fasten; observe, notice; try

bordan, hamrâh
dâstan, bedus
gereftan, carry
(Persian)

bore, cierpiec,
niedzwiedz,
podpierac,
podtrzymywac,
rodzic, znosic, bear (Polish)

arkouda, fero,
basto, styrizo,
ypofero,
genno,
bear (Greek)
lind, jap, prodhoj,
mbart, kam, mbaj, duroj, shfaq, tregoj,
ruaj, sjell, siguroj, to bear;
mbart, mbaj, kam, transportoj, to carry (Albanian)

fero, ferre, with perf.
tuli, supine latum,
, to bear, bring, carry;
porto-are, to carry

cywiain, to convey,
carry; garner;
cario, to
carry, bear; cludo, to
carry, convey, port,
bear; arwain, to lead, conduct, guide, carry
(Welsh)
portare, (Italian)
porter, (French)

ents, en'k, to bear
(Tocharian)
ber (Phryigian)

to bear {<OE
beran], carry;
[<Norm. Fr.
carier]?

fer, Script Aph-22
fere
, Script TC56
fersom, fersum
(fersvm)
, or fer som
Script Z1781

tandrAy, -yate
to grow or be weary; klam, klAmyati, be
weary or languid
{klAmayati}, to tire, exhaust, tired or exhausted;
jasuri
adj., exhausted, tired.

xaste, mânde,
bizâr, adj., mânde,
bizâr [n], weary
(Persian)

nuzacy, znuzony,
weary;
przemeczenie,
przemeczyc,
spowodowac
wielkie zmeczenie,
wyczerpac,
wyczerpujaca
praca, zmeczenie,
fatigue (Polish)

kourasmenos,
kourazo,
stenochoro, weary;
kourasmenos,
exantlimenos, tired; kourasi, kourazo, fatigue (Greek)
i lodhur, i
këputur,
i
lëshuar, i
mërzitshem,
weary, adj.
(Albanian)

fessus-a-um, weary,
tired, exhausted;
fesa aetas, old age;
vescor-ari, to eat, feed on, to use, enjoy

lluddedu, to tire,
fatigue, weary, exhaust, fatigue, jade; hen, adj.
old, ancient, aged, of old, antique (Welsh)
affaticare, annoiare,
stancarsi, to be weary (Italian)
las, ennuyé, fatigué,
adj. (French)

weary [<OE
werian], exhausted
[<Lat. exhaurio
haurire -hausi
haustum
, to draw out, take away]; Note: FE-1 is used in context to feed.

fese, Script TC-1
fesi, AL-1, EN-1

x

x

x

x

Fescennia-ae

x

a Faliscian town,
Fescennia? An
Etrurian town
famous for verse dialogues

Fesni, Script Z929
See also
Phesnes,
Q376, Q388

Anandotsava
[m], feast of joy; maha [m], feast, festival; devavIti [f], a feast or meal for the gods; psaras [n], food, feast,
enjoyment; to holiday parvan

mehmâni, jasn,
xosgozarâni, feast [n]; jasn, sur, festival; ruze bikâri, holiday
(Persian)

biesiada, festyn,
fetowac,
podejmowac,
swieto, ucztowac,
feast (Polish)

trapezi, fagopoti,
glenti, apolambano,
chotainno, feast;
argia, holiday
(Greek)
ditë ppushimi,
festë, ditë feste,
verim, holiday [n] (Albanian)

festus-a-um, of a
holiday, festive; of
people, keeping a
holiday; n. as subst., a feast

dydd gwyl, festival,
holiday; gwyl [m],
holiday, festival, feast, recess, fet (Welsh)
festa [f] festino [m],
fest, holiday (Italian)
fête [f], fest, holiday
vetir, to clothe, to
dress (French)

feast [<Lat,
festum], holiday
[<OE
halig daeg]

fet, Script Z1430, TC80, OM-1

tana, offspring, child; tanas [n], posterity, offspring; jA [m.f.], offspring; tyajas [m], offspring, descendant; apatya, offspringapatya

farzand, zahâk,
offspring; nezâd,
mosâbeque [n],
race;
bacehâ,
farzandân,
kudakân, children
(Persian)

potomek,
potomstwo,
offspring (Polish)
FĂT, FATĂ, fetus, m. f.; FĂTARE, result of giving birth (Romanian)

gonos, apogonos,
offspring; paidia,
children,
genia, race (Greek)
filiz, pasardhës,
përfundim,
rezultat, pasojë,
pjellë, thark,
offspring [n]
(Albanian)

fetura-ae [f], fetus-us [m], the bringing forth of young, hatching;
filia-ae [f], daughter;
filius-i [m], son; genus -eris, birth, descent, origin, race;

bragad [f], army, battle, offspring; epil [m], offspring, brood, progeny; esillydd-ion
[m], offspring,
descendant; hil-iau [f], race, lineage, posterity, brood, progeny, offspring descent (Welsh)
progenie [f], figlia [f], daughter, figlio [m], son (Italian)
progéniture [f], enfants [m] offspring; fille [f],
daughter;
fis [m], son French)
cin, a kind? (Phrygian)

the bringing forth of young,
breeding; meton., brood [<OE brod],
offspring [<OE
ofspring]

fetra, Script Z489
feture, Script HA-3;
fetos, fetus (FETVS),
Script HT-4

x x x x vexillum-i x a standard, flag; a company, troop) FEXIES, Script PJ-3

vasna [n], price, value; nirmA [f], measure, value, equivalent; miti
[f], measure., weight, value; kR & skR, to cause, do, serve a god,
make, render, prepare, arrange, consecrate,
dedicate, marry, refine, adorn, etc.

arzes, bahâ, arj,
value [n] (Persian)

cenic, wartosc,
wielkosc, wycenic,
znaczenie, value
(Polish)
FII!, become; A FI to become; FIE, so be! (Romanain)

axia, timi, ektimo, value; ginomai,
armozo, become,
gegonos, fact
(Greek)
cmoj,
vlerësoj, to value; dobi, vlerë, cmim, vleftë, value [n] (Albanian)

fio, fieri, factus sum,
used as pass. of facio

gwerth-au-oedd [f],
value, worth, price,
sale (Welsh)
valutare, to value
(Italian)
évaluer, to value
(French)

to be made, come into existence, to become, be
appointed,
valued [<OFr. valoir] at, be done, to happen; to be worth [<OE weorth]

fi, Script AP-1,
fia, Script Z1780

yakan & ya3kRt [n], liver

jegar, liver
(Persian)

watroba, liver
(Polish)
FICAT, liver (Romanian)

sykoti, ypar, liver
(Greek)
mëlci [anat.] [n]
(Albanian)

iecur

afu [m.f.]; au (euon)
[m], iau (ieuau) [m]
(Welsh)
fegatto [m] (Italian)
foie [m] French)

liver [<OE lifer]

fiaul (fiafl),
Script
DL,
Divination_Lesson;
See Note 1) & 2)

kRt, kRNatti, to twist the thread, spin; krtayati, to weave; tan,
tanoti, tanute
, to
extend, stretch, spread, last, continue, protract, lengthen, spin out, weave, prepare, arrange, string, stretch a bow,
expand, diffuse, etc.

restan, ristan,
tanidan, to spin;
nax, rismân, reste, thread (Persian)

wrzeciono, spindle
korkociag, krecic, przasc, ruch wirowy,
span, wirowac, spin (Polish)
FIR, spin, thread (Romanian)

yfaino, weave
roi, rous, reo, flow
(Greek)
bosht, aks, gisht,
shtyllë shkalle,
spindle [n]
vërtit, më vjen
rrotull,
vërtis,
dredh, rrotulloj,
tjerr, thur, to spin
(Albanian)

fusus-i [m] a spindle;
verso (vorso) -are, to
turn about, bend, twist;
filum-i, thread

nyddu, to spin, twist; troelli, to spin, twist,
wind, meander; eilio, to weave, plait, sing,
second, alternate;
gwau, to weave, knit; ystofi, to warp, weave, plan; edau (edafedd)
[f], thread, cotton,
yarn, wool (Welsh)
filare, to spin, run, run away, sail, flirt,
shadow
(Italian)
filer (French)

to spin [<OE
spinnan
], draw
out, pay out
[cable],
shadow, flow,
sneak away,
smoke [lampe],
run off t

filar (FILAO), Script
AE-1
FILaR, Script
TC318

aatmajaa, kishori
tanayaa
duhitaa [f],
sutaa

dustr (Armenian)
dukhdha
[duxdhar]
,
Avestan;'
doxtär
(Persian)

pastorka, step
daughter (Serbo
Croatian)
corka, (Polish)
dacka [f.] (pl.):
docki (Belarus)
dukte (Baltic
Sudovian)
dukter (Lithuanian)
FIICA, daughter (Romanian)

kori, thygatera;
daughter;
fyli, race
(Greek)
bijë, vajzë,
daughter [n]
(Albanian)

fila-ae

merch-ed [f], (Welsh)
nighean (Scott)
merc'h,-ed (Breton)
figlia [f] (Italian)
fille [f] (French)
ckácar, tkácer (Tocharian)
cbatru (Lycian)

daughter [<OE
dohtor]

filae, Script MG-6
file
, Script Z629, AT-11

mahodaya, adj., very fortunate or lucky; zubhalagna [n], a lucky moment; bhujman,
adj., fruitful;
phalabhRt, phalegrahi,
fruit-bearing, fruitful; iSa, vigorous, strong,
fat, juicy, fruitful;
nand, nandati,
{samabhi}, rejoice,
congratulate, be
satisfied with, pleased with, gladden, make
happy, bless, accept,
approve

xosbaxt, adj.
lucky; barumand,
fruitful, adj.,
xorsand, delsâd,
sepâsgozâr, glad
sâdbâs goftan to
congratulate
(Persian)

owocujacy, zyzny, fruitful; pomyslny,
szczesliwy, lucky;
gratulowac,
winszowac,
congratulate
(Polish)
FERICIT, happy (Romanian)

karpoforos, fruitful tycheros, lucky
eftychismenos,
happy (Greek)
uroj, përgëzoj, to
congratulate; me
fat, fatlum, fatmirë, i lumtur, lucky adj.;
frytdhënës, pjellor, i frytshëm, i
frutshëm,
produktiv, fruitful,
adj. (Albanian)

felix-icis, fruitful;
feliciter, fruitfully,
auspiciously,
successfuly;
gratulor
ari
, to wish a person
to, congratulate

ffrwythlon, adj.
fruitful, fertile, prolific,
fecund, luxuriant
dedwydd, adj. happy,
blessed; gwynfydedig,
adj. blessed, happy,
beatific;
hapus, adj.
happy (Welsh)
felice, adj. happy, glad,
lucky, felicitous;
fruttifero, fruitful
(Italian)
feliciter, to congratulate
to complement; fécund,
fructueux, productif,
adj. fruitful (French)

fruitful [<Lat.
fruor, frui, fructus
and fruitus
, to
enjoy],
fertile
[<Lat fertilis-e];
transf. lucky,
successful, to
congratulate;
happy

FILiK, Script
TC127, Au95, VP-12
VILiK (8ILiK),
Script Z489, Au95;
see
VILiK

aatmaja, kishora
tanuuja,
suta, sunus

puthra [-] son,
child (Avestan)
farzand, pesar,
zâd, son (Persian)

sin (Serbo
Croatian)
syn (Polish)
syn (Belarus)
sunus, son;
vaikas, boy
helper (Baltic
Sudovian)
sunus (Lithuanian)
FIU, son, FIULUI, son's (Romanian)

gios, son; fyli, race (Greek)
bir, dialé
(Albanian)

filius

ab (i.e., son of); mab (Welsh)
maab (Breton)
figlio [m] (Italian)
fils [m] (French)
se,
soyä
(Tocharian)
kzzãta (Lycian)

son [<OE sunnu]

filos, filus (FILVS),
Script AN-1;
filoi, filui (FILVI),
Script L44

anubandh, to bind by an obligation

x x x finio-ire x to bind, limit, enclose, apppoint, finish by speaking, or to die finfin, Script XB-15, XJ-23
finar, Script OM-9

drākṣārasa, grape-juice, wine

x x x vinum-i x wine finum (FINVM) Script Z47, Z66, Z159
x x x x x x Vipinas, god Virbius, Hippolytus?, of Vipinas?; Vipinnas brother, Francois tomb? Fipena, Script AT-1
Fipinas, Script DD-2, DD-4

jiivita

ahûm, gaêm,
gaya,
jyátum, life (Avestan)
jân,
zendegi, life; hasti, zist,
existence (Persian)

zivot (Serbo
Croatian)
trwalosc,
zycie, zywotnosc, life (Polish)
zyccio (Belarus)
VIAŢĂ, life (Romanian)

zoi, bios (Greek)
jetesë, living;
ekzistoj, jetoj, rroj, to live (Albanian)

vita-ae

byw, adj. alive, living, quick (Welsh)
beò [m], adj. alive
(Scott)
buhez (Breton)
vita [f] (Italian)
vie [f] (French)

s'ol, s'aul (Tocharian)
huis, to live (Hittite)

life [<OE lif],
existence [<Lat.
existere]

fita, Script Z776, FITE (or  FIKE) Script XV-6; XJ-14
fiti, Script Z446,
Z455, Z784;
fithi, Script M32

x

x

x

x

fidus-a-um, trusty, true, faithful, sure; superl. adv. fidissime

fidato (Italian)
vrai (French)

trusty, true

fitos, Script HA-4
x x x x flecto, flectere, flexi, flexum x to change, alter, bend
flics, Script AL-17
x x x x x x Flufluns, Etruscan name of Dionysus Flofluns (FLVFLVNS) Script SF-2
FOFLVNS (8V8LVNS), Script CD-3
x x FATO!, there you go girl! (Romanian)
x fetus-a-um x fetus, pregnant, fruitful foato (FOATO) XV-8
x x x x foen / faenus (fenus(-oris) x interest on money, debt, indebtedness foinesois, Script XJ-16

karNATa [m.f.],
kukura [m], of a
people; saMgha [m], band, company, crowd; janasa
Mmarda
[m], throng of people, crowd janArNava,
crowd, literally a sea of men, a caravan;
gaNa [m], troop, crowd, host, tribe, suit, retinue, flock, number, series, line; a
troop deity



hame
gâni, adj., [n], public; soluqi, crowd [n], fesar dâdan, to crowd;
mardom, xisân,
bastegân, people
(Persian)



pchac sie, tloczyc sie, tlum, crowd (Polish)



plithos,
synostismos,
synostizo, crowd
(Greek)
grumbull, njerëzish,
turmë,
grup,
popull, crowd [n] (Albanian)



vulgus (volgus) -i

crwth (crythau) [m],
crowd, fiddle, purring, hump; torf (eydd, oedd) [f], crowd, multitude,
brigade, gang, horde, mob, concourse
(Welsh)
folla [f] (Italian)
foule [f] French)
istamin, family,
(Lydian)
quezMmi, KezM,
people (Lycian)

the people [<Lat.
populus-i], public, mass, crowd [<OE
crüdan], group
[<Ital. gruppo, of Gmc. origin]



fol, ful (fvl)
,
Script L25
agniparvata, fire mountain

kuhe âtasfesân,
volcano (Persian)

x

ifaisteio, volcano
(Greek)

Volcanus [Vulc]-i llosgfyndd (oedd) [m], volcano (Welsh) Vulcan, god of
fire?

folc, fulc (FVLC)
Script Z1265

yasti; stick, club x x x fossa-ae;  fustis-is fusto (Italian)
fut (French)
foen / faenus (fenus(-oris)stock, trunk, shaft foen / faenus (fenus(-oris)fost (8VST), Script  N63, Q294, R23, R80, R133, XA-29

ulapa [m], shrub, bush; kuJja [m], bush, bower; viTapa [m], branch, twig, bush

bute, anbuh, bush (Persian)

krzak, tuleja,
tulejka, bush
(Polish)
FRATA, a village in Romania

thamnos, bush
(Greek)
kacubë, shkurre,
ferrëkuqe, shkorret, pyll, drizash, bush [n] (Albanian)

frutex-icis [m]

llwyn-i [m], grove,
bush; perth-i [f], bush, hedge (Welsh)
fratta [f] (Italian)
fourré,
buisson, arbust [m] brousse [f] (French)

bush [<ME bush], brush [<OFr. brosse]?

frata (8rata), Script
R212
frati (BRATI) XE-1

bhratar, bhraatR^i
bhraataH

W-yeghpatr;
E-
aghper
(Armenian)
barâdar (Persian)

brat (Serbo
Croatian)
brat (Polish)
brat (Belarus)
brate, brother;
bratrikai, brothers
(Baltic-Sudovian)
brolis (Lithuanian)
FRATE, brother FRAŢI, brothers (Romanian)

phrater (Greek)
vëlla (Albanian)

frater-tris, fratres,
fraternitas-atis,
fraternus-a-um

brawd (brodyr) [m],
(Welsh)
bràthair, pl. bràithrean,
bràthaireil
(Irish)
breur, breudeur
(Breton)
fratello [m] (Italian)
frère [m] (French)
bra' (Illyrian)
pracar (Tocharian)
brafrer, member of
a commune,
(Lydian)

brother [<OE brothor]

frater, brater (8RATER), Script R-1, R100, R156, MS14
FRATeR
(8RATeR),
Script R159. R167, G-5
fratro (8RATRV),
Script Q243, Q294,
R80, R180, R565, G16
fratrom (8RATRVM),
Script Q320

fratros (8RATRVS)
,
Script Q424, Q468,
Q522, Q551, R229;
See Note 3)

ābhīkṣṇa, frequent
x x x frequens-entis x frequent? frekun (FREKYN), Script XB-27

x

x

x

x

x

x

suffix – value to be determined

ga, Script N590,
N711, Q784
gam, Script N676
ge, Script N31;
gia, Script Q763,
R426, R474

gotra, family, race

cithra [-] (Avestan)
dudmân, zand,
tribe; nezâd,
mosâbeqe, race;
xândân, daste, clan towlid, dude, generation
(Persian)

pleme, rasa, tribe
(Serbo-Croatian)
bieg, brac udzial wwyscigu, pedzic,
rasa, scigac sie,
wyscig, wyscigi
konne (Polish)
rasa [f] (Belarus)
vaisis, clan, the
community;
kiltis, tribe (Baltic
Sudovian)

fyli, genia; kin,
sygkeis, sygkenia,
genos, agonas,
trech, droumov
(Greek)
fis, klan, race [n]
(Albanian)

gens, gentis
genus -eris
, race; tribus-us [f], clan;
filulm-i, thread, a
woolen fillet; transf.
form, shape; of speech or writing: texture, thread

cenedi (cenhedloedd)
[f]; hil-iau [f], race,
lineage, offspring; (Welsh)
àlach, brood, tribe,
generation;
cinneach [m] nation, cinneadh,
clan, tribe, kin;
cinn, va. grow, incease, spring from; dream,
family, people, tribe, race;
gin, va. beget; gineal [m], offspring,
race, breed;
linn,
generation, age, race, family (Scott)
razza [f]; tribu [f], clan (Italian)
race [f]; clan [m], clan (French)
istamin, family,
(Lydian)
quezMmi, KezM,
people (Lycian)
cin, a kind (Phrygian)
hasmi, kin, kinship
(Hittite)

race [<Fr. race],
tribe, kin,
clan
[<Sc. Gael., clan]

gerve,(bER8E), Script N268, N304, N324
gerviie (bER8IIE,
Script N304, N324
gers (bERS), Script R160, R349

prahati [f], stroke,
throw;
prAsa [m],
cast, throw; spear;
vap, vapati, -te, to
strew, scatter, esp.
seed, throw or cast
dice,
as, asyati, to
throw, cast, shoot at, throw away, hurl

andâxtan,
afkandan, part
kardan, to throw
(Persian)

rzucac, rzut,
threw, throw
(Polish)

richno, riximo, boli, throw; pyrobolo,
kynigi, blastos,
shoot; richno, peto, toss (Greek)
hedh, flak,
gjuaj,
vërvit, vërvis, jap, plandos, ul, ngec, to throw
(Albanian)

iacio-iacere, to throw;
Getaie-arum, Thracians

ergydio, to strike, rap,
throw, cast (Welsh)
gettare (Italian)
jeter (French)

to throw,[<OE
thrawan] cast,
fling, toss, shoot?
the
Getae-arum, a people of Thrace living near the
Danube, the
Thracians?

geta (bETA) Script
Q767, Q795, Q805
getom, (bETVM), N74

ghaTotkaca [m], of a myth; giant

setabar, tahmtan, qul, adj., qul [n], giant (Persian)

gigantyczny,
olbrzym,
olbrzymi, giant
(Polish)

gigas (Greek)
gjigant
, vigan, giant [n] (Albanian)

Gigas-ganas [m], a
giant

cawr (cewri) [m], giant gigante [m], adj. giant
(Italian)
géant [m], giant
(French)

name, Gice, a
giant [<Gk. gigas]?
Used in the
context, "Gice he loved of yours."

gice (bICE), Script Q95

acalā, earth

x

GLIE, earth, land (Romanian)

Gaea or Ge (Greek)

Terra or Tellus

terra (Italian)
terre, f. (French)

name, Gaea or Ge, the earth and the goddess of the earth. Ge, together with Tartarus and
Eros were born
from Chaos.

Giie, Script R13

dhAya [m], layer;
pralayana [n], layer,
bed; stara [m],
stratum, layer; caya
[m], layer, heap, pile, wall; troop, multitude, collection; cita, adj.,
covered, strewn with (instr. or ---); f. {A} layer, pile of wood, esp. funeral pile; [n], building

hâl, vaz', astân,
situation [n]
lâye, cine [n],
layer (Persian)

polozony,
sytuowany,
umieszcony,
situated (Polish)
ZACE, to lie (Romanian)

faque, shtresë,
shtrat, shënues
[usht.], layer;
vendos, ngre, to be situated (Albanian)

iacio, iacere, iacui, to lie, be situated, to lie low, be flat, to lie sick or overthrown or killed; of hair or
clothes, to hang
loosely; fig. to be
neglected, despised,
overthrown, dejected
Cocgis Tities, name of a person? One of the three original tribes of Rome

haen-au [f], layer,
stratum, seam (Welsh)
giaciglio [m], bed, cot;
giacimento [m], layer, bed; giacere, to lie, be situated, to find oneself
situare, to situate
(Italian)
gisement [m], bed,
layer; vein [mineral],
bearing [naut.];
situer, to situate (French)

to lie, be situated,
to lie low, be flat,or lie sick or
overthrown,
layer
[<ME leier, one
who lays stones]?
chine [<OFr.
eschine, ridge or
crest],
stratum; posssibly a name Cucgis Tities; the Tities-ium were one of the three original tribes at Rome

gis, Script N453;
usage: "coc (cvc) gis
Titis te teies este..."

x

kahrobâ, amber
(Persian)

bursztyn, amber
(Polish)

qelibar, amber [n] (Albanian)

glaesum-[glesum]-i

gwefr [f] (Welsh)
ambra [f] (Italian)
ambre [m] (French)

amber [<Ar.
'anbar]?

glas, Script Q543

asi, [m] sword, knife; tarivAra, sword, dhArA [f], sword blade; zastrabhRt,
adj., bearing a sword [m], warrior

samsir, tiq, sword,
neyze, spear
(Persian)

miecz, szabla,
sword (Polish)

jatagan, shpatë,
pallë [n], sword
(Albanian)

gladius-i

cleddf-au (cledd,
cleddau
) [m], sword, brace; glaif (gleifiau) [m], glaive, lance,
sword (Welsh)
spada [f] (Italian)
épée [f] (French)

sword [<OE
sweord]

glatau, glatab (bLATA8),
Script Q821

atiṣṭhā, to be at the head of, govern
x GUVERN, to govern (Romanian)
x guberno-are x govern, governor,  to steer a ship, in ge. to steer, direct, govern
goverm (bVFERM), Script ?

van (vA), vanoti,
vanute, vanati (vanati), -te {vanita], like, love, wish, desire, aim at, get, obtain, acquire, win, conquer, dispose of, possess, enjoy; vid, vindati, -te, meet with, get, obtain, visit, befall, have, possess, find out for, procure,
look for, take to wife, be found, be there, exist, be present;
anvāviś, to enter, possess, occupy, follow, act according to ,

dâstan, vâdâr
kardan, nâgozir
budan, to have
negâh dâstan,
jelowgiri kardan, to keep (Persian)

imati, morati,
trebati (Serbo
Croatian)
had, miec, posiadac, have (Polish)
music, v. imp.,
must, have;
miec, v. imp. (Belarus)

echo (Greek)
kam, mbaj, bej,
kap, pohoj, lind
(Albanian)

habeo-ere

cael (caffael), to have, receive, get, find, acquire, obtain, procure; meddu, to possess, own, have, enjoy, occup (Welsh)
eus, 'peus, o deus
(Breton)
avere, vt. (Italian)
avoir (French)
hark, to have (Hittite)

to have [<OE
habban], keep
[<OE cepan],
impart;
lend [<OE
lœnen])

ha, Script Z122, Z214, Z1310, Z1326, Q232, K135, OM-7
he, Script Z421, Z522, Z681, Z1352, Z1623, Z1641, K113, K129 Au-5, F-8
hia, Script Z606, Z614, Z622
ho, hu (hv) Script
Z64, Z591, Z805,
K86, M32, AM-1
hus, hos (hvs),
Script Z64

vas, vasati, -te, to stay in a place, dwell, lodge,
confine in, stop,
detain, keep, support, occupy, inhabit, dwell
over night, make a halt;
aprayāṇaka, halt (on a journey) aprayāṇaka

gozâstan,
gosârdan, nahâdan,
to put; ist kardan,
to halt (Persian)

HALT (Romanian)

ndalim, ndalesë,
qëndrim, halt; [n]; vendos,
fut, vë, lë, fus, caktoj, shtie,
ngul, shkaktoj,
paraqes, to put
(Albanian)

pono, ponere, posui
[posivi] positum
, to
lay,
put, place, set] claudico-are, to limp, to halt, stop

sefyll, to stand, stop, halt, pose (Welsh)
alt, interj.
alt, halt!
(Italian)
hameau, [m], hamlet; station [f], station; étape [f], stage, halting
place (French)

halt [<Ger. halt, to stop], station?

halt, Script Z583, Z1282?

baDiza [m], hook, esp. fish-hook; biliza, fishing hook or bait; aGka [m], hook, bend,
flank of the body,
mark, sign;
aGkuza
[m], hook, esp. for
driving an elephant

cangak [n], hook (Persian)

haczyk, hak,
nalozycna hak,
zahaczyc, hook (Polish)

cengel, kanxhë,
grep, gremc, kurth, grackë, drapër, togëz, dredhë, kapje, hook [n],
grep peshkimi,
fishhook
(Albanian)

hamus-i, a hook, esp. a fish-hook, a talon, a thorn

bach-au [m.f.], hook, clasp, hinge, nook, corner, bend; bach pysgota, fishhook
(Welsh)
amo [m] (Italian)
hameçon [m] (French)

hook [<OE hoc]?
talon? – prefix to a name?
i.e., Hampheris = Amphiaraüs? an Argive seer and warrior, the great diviner of his day

ham, Script Z543,
hampheris (HAMΦERIS), Z1586, Z1571; see pheris – L. ferrum-i, made of iron; thus an iron hook?

x x x x x x Amphiaraüs, Argive warrior and seer Hamphiar (HAMΦIAR), DC-3, DC-5

x

x

x

x

Henna-[Enna]-ae city in Sicily with temple of Ceres

x

Henna? city in
Sicily where
Hades abducted
Persephone; cult
center of Demeter and her daughter

HANeRIN, Script
Z1345, Z1372; "in" suffix suggests a verb, third person pl.

jighAMsA, f. wish to kill or destroy; unmUl, -lati-layati, unroot, destroy, dethrone; eradicate, destroy; pothayati (-te), crush,
destroy; niHzeSay,
yati, destroy totally;
Rd, Rdati, Rrdati,
dissolve, vex, afflict, hurt, destroy, torment; up, lumpati (-te),
break, harm, injure,
attack, plunder,
destroy

jan [-] to strike;
janat, ni janât, to destroy (Avestan)
virâni, tabâhi,
destruction [n];
virân kardan,
setordan,
xarâsidan, to raze; tohi, xâli, adj., empty; tohi sodan, to empty; harz, virâne, waste [n]
(Persian)

niszczyc, destroy
(Polish)
razburvac, v. imp.,
razburyc, zniscyc, v. perf. (Belarus)
pagadint (Baltic
Sudovian)

katastrefo, exaleifo,
sbino, extinguish;
adeianos, kenos,
spatalo, spatali,
fthora, achristos,
waste; exasthenizo,
ariano, weaken;
katedafizo,
gkremizo, diagrafo,
sbino, axaleifo,
gderno, raze;
bolokopo, sbarna,
harrow (Greek)
rrënoj,
fik,
shkatërroj, rrëezoj
(Albanian)

perdere, delere,
extinguere, to destroy
haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum, to draw up, out, in; drink up, shed
blood, empty, weaken, waste

anrheithio, to prey,
spoil, raid, plunder,
despoil, destroy;
difa, to consume,
destroy, devour;
distrywio, to destroy, demolish, extirpate (Welsh)
distruggere, to destroy (Italian)
détruire, to destroy
(French)
fakarse, to destroy
(Lydian)
gretu, let him destroy; zini, a destroyer
(Lycian)
harra'i to destroy;
zinna, to eliminate;
hara, to destroy, pound (Hittite)

to destroy [<Lat. destruo -struere struxi -structum];
raze [<Lat. rado
radere -rasi
rasum
, to scrape, shave, erase, hurt]

hare, Script Z953,
Z1006, Z1057
HARaR, Script Z308, Z378, Z1825, Script
Z308,
Z378, Z18haus (HAVS)
Script Z1300
See also fac, faca,
fak, FAKeR?

x x x x haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum x Mars sacrificing a child to Larentia? HAVSA, CF-7

x

x

x

x

acinus-i, bunch of grapes

uva, bunch of grapes; acino, grape (Italian)
raisin (pl. French)

grapes

HeKNIS
Script MS18;
See AKNI, Script Z

x x x x hexeris-is x a galley with six banks of oars HEKSR, Z158

x

x

x

x

Henna-[Enna]-ae [f]; Henna-ae, city in Sicily?

x

Henna?

Henna, Script K27
Henni
, Script M78

x x x x Heraea-orum x festival of Hera
Heram, Script Au63
x x x x Hercules-is and -i; Hercules, Hercule or Hercle (old Latin)
Hercule (French)
Hercules, Heracles
Hercle. Script DM-2, AH-6, MR-1, LM-2, CAA-1, CL-1, CS-2, CZ-3
Herkle, Script MH-2

x

x

x

x

Hermes or Herma-ae [m], the god Hermes, Roman Mercury

x

Hermne, a god

Hermne, Script HT-2; See TVRMS Note (4); "ne" suffix suggests name; i.e., Rasne, Rasna

x

x

x

x

harpes-es, f., scimitar

x

scimitar

HeRPAIE, S-1

x x x x x x Bacchus, Euhan, god of wine Heun (HEFN), Script M45
x x x x x x Hilare, person's name?Hilare, person's name? hilare, ZA-2
x x x x x x Name of queen, dynasty? Appears in Perugia Cippus, a chronicle of Etruscan regents
HINeR, Script Z105
HINeRA, Script K71, Z1628
HINeRV, Script Z1083, Z1405, Z1639
x x x x huc
x hither is, to this place
hocVhoc (HVC), Script AM-1
vx x HUŞ, go out! - to chase away the poultry or other birds (Romanian)
x heus!, hallo!
hostia-ae an animal stain in sacrifice
x hallo! Ho, there! Hark!
the host?
hos (HVS), Script Z64
hosr (HVSR) or HVSTH), Script CF-2

x

x

x

x

hodie, today, at present, still, even now; at once

oggi, adv. (Italian)
ajourdhui (French)

today

hot (HVT) Script K81
hoti (HVTI)
, FE-1

asyati (he throws);
spAra3yati, to loosen,
separate, save, win;
prahati [f], stroke,
throw; prAsa [m],
cast, throw; spear;
vap, vapati, -te, to
strew, scatter, esp.
seed, throw or cast
dice,
as, asyati, to
throw, cast, shoot at,
throw away, hurl

andâxtan,
afkandan, part
kardan, to throw
(Persian)

rzucac, rzut,
threw, throw
(Polish)
kidac, v. imp.,
kinuc, v. perf.
(Belarus)

richno, riximo, boli,
throw; katharizo,
exolothrevo, purge
(Greek)
hapërdaj,
shpërndaj; hallakas
(Albanian)

iacio, iacere, ieci,
iactum
, to throw;
purgo-are, to purge,
clear away, wash off;
aspernor-ari, to
despise, reject, spurn

ergydio, to strike, rap,
throw, cast (Welsh)
tilg, va. to throw out,
vomit (Scott)
gettare, to throw;
spurio, adj. spurious
(Italian)
jeter, to throw;
(French)
paai-, pssa- to throw
(Lycian)
pessija, to throw
(Hittite)

to throw [<OE
thrawan], scatter [<ME scatteren],
spurn [<OE
spurnam]

iakoi, iakui (iakvi),
Script L65

krAnti [f], passage

gozar, gozâr,
gozargâh, passage
(Persian)

arcady, arcade;
przejazd,
przejscie, przelot,
ustep, passage
(Polish)

stoa, kamara,
leoforos, arcade
(Greek)
pasazh, arcade [n]
(Albanian)

ianus-i [m], covered
passage, arcade;
personif.
Janus;
Januarius-a-um of
Janus or January

mynedfa (oedd,-eydd)
[f], passage; tramwyfa
(-eydd) [f], passage,
thoroughfare, gangway
(Welsh)
portico, porticato [f]
(Italian)
arcade [f], arcade
(French)

a covered passage
[<pando, pandere,
pandi, pansum
, to
stretch out];
corridor [<OItal.
corridore]; the god
Janus, an old
Italian diety
with two faces,
arcade

Ian, Script J20,
Aph-1

Ianos, Ianus (Ianvs)
Script Au22; See Note (7); see also CaMaRvVM

ru, rauti, ruvati, ravati,
te, to roar, howl,
shriek, croak, thunder,
cause to cry, yelp,
shout, creak, rattle,
tinkle, make resound

x

x

angullin, leh, to
yelp (Albanian)

Iapyx-pygis [m]

guiare, to yelp (Italian)
japper, to yelp, yap
(French)

Iapyx, the north
west wind?

Iapes, Script N290
Iapos, Iapus (Iapvs)
Script N184

accha, adv. close by,
here; prep. to, towards

eydar, adv., here;
aknun, inak,
konun, adv., conj.,
now (Persian)

obecny!, here!
chwila obecna,
obecnie, skoro,
teraz, teraz gdy,
now (Polish)

edo, here; tora,
now (Greek)
këtu, në kët botë,
here, adv.;
menjëherë, tani,
këtë cast, tashti,
atëherë, tash, now,
adv. (Albanian)

hic [and heic]; hice and
interrog.
hicine

yma ('ma), adv. here,
hither; bellach, adv.
now, at length;
nawr,
adv. now; rwan, adv.
now; weithian
(weithion), adv. now, now at length (Welsh)
qui, ecco (Italian)
ici (French)

here [<OE her];
now [<OE nu]; at
this point, in this
place, in this
matter, hereupon

ic, Script Z719,
Z784, Z851, Z1800,
ik, Script Z540,
Z761, Z1192,
Z1310, Z1359,
Z1591, Z1647,
AH-3

potha [m], blow, strike
with; han, hanti, hate,
jighnate, -ti, to smite,
beat, strike down, hew
off, hit pierce hurt; kal,
kalayati (-te) &
kAlayati, to carry,
bear, do, make, cause,
produce, utter,
observe, notice, try,
examine, suppose,
think, regard, shake,
agitate, cast, fling,
seize, tie, fasten;
ayasmaya, made of
iron; ayomaya [f], iron

e'tesâb [n], zadan,
barxord kardan,
sâyidan, to strike
(Persian)

bic, straj, struck,
uderzac, walic,
zapalic, strike
(Polish)

kourkouti,
symmazema,
sfyrokopo,
batter; chtypo,
apergo, chtypima,
apergia, strike;
chtypo, chtypos,
knock (Greek)
godas, godit, qëlloj,
gjuaj, bie, shkatoj,
bëj grevë, ul,
rrënjos, thek, to
strike (Albanian)

icio or ico, ici, ictum, to strike; battuo- (batuo) -ere, to batter, beat, knock

bwrw (bwri), to
cast, shed, fling, pitch,
launch, strike,
suppose, pour; (Welsh)
battere, to strike
(Italian)
frapper, to strike
(French)

to strike [<OE
strican, to stroke], strike a bargain? box [ME, box, to hit [ON hitta] with the hand]

ic, Script L-15
iciien or icren, Script
L-11 and L-31; see
fiera

x

x

x

x

x

x

Icarius, Greek hero who spread wine cultivation

Ikra (IbOA), MS-1

x

x

x

x

Achaia or Achaia-ae

x

Achaia? a Greek
country

ikihi, Script T-11

x

man (Persian)

ja (Polish)

x

ego

fi, I, me; i (fi), I, me
(Welsh);

io
(Italian)
je (French)

pron., I [OE ic]

io, iu (iv), Script
Q433
iko, iku (ikv), Script
N11, N41, N139,
N216, N230, N244,
N491, N513, N543,
N573, N598, N647,
N689, N711, Q442,
Q481

asta, adj., thrown, cast
off; chRd, chRNatti,
pour out or upon,
eject, spue, vomit, cast
off, abandon;
as,
asyati
; throw, cast,
eject, abandon, banish
from; lay asunder

birun kardan, birun
andâxtan, birun, to
eject (Persian)

wypchnac,
wyrzucic, eject
(Polish)

ekballo, ekchyno
me ormi, eject
(Greek)
heq, nxjerr, gufon,
derdh, to eject
(Albanian)

eicio-icere-ieci-iectum

diarddel, to expel,
excommunicate,
disavow, disclaim,
disown, eject,
repudiate (Welsh)
espellere (Italian)
éjecter (French)

to throw out, cast
out,
eject, expel
[<Lat.
expello
pellere -puli
pulsum
]

iek, Script Q475

x

x

x

x

x

x

name, Jepo? the
Jepii?

iepie, Script L65
iepo, iepu (iepv),
Script L15, L59

hmas, adv., yesterday

gozaste, adj., ruze
pis, goazaste [n]
(Persian)

dzien wczorajszy,
wczoraj, yesterday
(Polish)

chthes, yesterday
(Greek)
dje, yesterday, adv.
(Albanian)

heri, adv.

doe, adv. (Welsh)
ieri, adv. (Italian)
heir, adv. (French)

yesterday [<OE giestran daeg]

ier, Script
R5, R100, R106
ieri, Script Q406

x

ânjâ, darân jâ, adj.,
adv. there
(Persian)

tam, w tym
miejscu, there
(Polish)

ekei, there; tote,
oipon, then
(Greek)
atje, aty, këtu, në
këtë vend, there,
adv. (Albanian)

ibi

acw, yn (na), yno;
wedyn, yn ('na), ynteu
(ynte), then (Welsh)
ivi, there (Italian)
la, y, voila, there
(French)

adv. there [<OE
thaer], at that
place,
then [OE
thenne],
thereupon, therein

ive, ibe (i8e), Script
Q107, Q117

anantatA, [f], anantya
[n], endlessness,
eternity

abdadiyat,
bikarâni, zamâne
bikarâne, eternity
(Persian)

wiecznosc,
eternity (Polish)

aionios, eternal
(Greek)
i përjetshëm, i
përhershëm, adj.
eternal (Albanian)

aevum-i; also aeus-i
[m]; aeternitas-atis [f],
eternity

byth (od-oedd) [m],
eternity (Welsh)
eternita [f] (Italian)
éternité [f] (French)
mehur, time (Hittite)

eternity, time,
lifetime? see eifi

if, Script J54
ife, Script Z170

ujjh, ujjhati,to forsake,
leave, give up, avoid,
escape; tyaj, tyajati,
leave, abandon, spare,
avoid, shun

parhixtan, parhis
kardan, to shun
(Persian)

stronic, unikac,
avoid ( Polish)

apofevgo, avoid
(Greek)
mënjanoj, largoj,
shmang, anuloj
[drejt.], to avoid
(Albanian)

evito-are

gochel (gochelyd), to
avoid, shun, avert,
beware, evade; golaith
(goleith), to avoid,
vade; ymogel, beware,
evade (Welsh)
evitare (Italian)
éviter French)

to avoid [<OFr.
esvuidier, to
empty out], evade
[<Lat.
evado
vadere -vasi
vasum
, to go out,
escape] shun?
See efiti

IFETSvM, Script
Z812

x

x

x

x

ius, iuris

legge, f. law; dirrito, m.It.
loi, f. law; droit, m. Fr.

right, law, court

ifsi, S22

x

u, vey, ân, he, she;
ân, ân ciz, it;
ânân, isân, ânhâ,
they; isânrâ, be
isân, be ânhâ,
them, (Persian)

on, he; ona, she;
ono, it; one,
oni
, they (Polish)

ai, he; ajo, she,
pron. (Albanian)

il, ille, is, eius, illius,
suus-a-um

e (o, fe, fo, ef, efe, efo,
efo), he;
he; hi, she; ei
('i, 'w), hi, it; hwynt,
they, them; nhw
(hwy), they, them; ill,
they (before a number)
(Welsh)
lu, lo, gli, him (Italian)
il, ils, he it, she; pl.
they, them;
le, lui,
celui,
him (French)

him, he, she, it,
they, them

il, Script J-1
See also
el

x

x

x

x

illa, ille, illia [older
form olle and ollus];
illac; illac facere
, to
belong to that party

x

by that way

ila, Script Au35,
Au49,
ilac, Script Au55

x

andar, dar, tu, in
ruye, bar, adv.,
prep. on (Persian)

cal, na, szczegoly,
w, w ciagu,
wewnatrz, w
srodku, za, in
(Polish)
ÎN, in, within (Romanian)

mesa, in; enantion,
enanti, against;
mechri, eos, until; pano, epi, eis, pros, kata, on; epano, upon; pros, peri, towards; entos, mesa, within
(Greek)
brenda, në, më
[mënyrë],
ndër, për [kohëzgjatje], in,
prep. (Albanian)

in

i, prep. to, in order to, for, into; mewn, in, within; o fewn, in; yn (ym, yng), in, at (Welsh)
in (Italian)
en, dans, in, within;
sur, à, on
(French)
anda, in, inside
(Hittite)

in [<OE in], into, towards,
against, until, at,
within, on, upon, of

in, Script Z51, Z110, Z152, Z206, Z211, Z245, Z263, Z289, Z572, Z1378, Z1423, Z1562, TC56, TC103, TC108, TC266, TC298, M32, M60, AP-1, Q396, R447, K95, Aph-12

plu, plavate, to float, swim, bathe, sail; vibrate, hover, fly, blow (wind), spring, jump, dance; dhAv, dhAvati, to run, stream, pour, ride, swim, glide, hasten; tR, tarati, -te, tirati, te, turati, -te, titarti, tarute, to cross over, overcome, subdue,
escaqpe, float, swim, rush on, be saved, survive

senâ kardan,
senâvar sodan, to swim (Persian)

miec zawroty,
plywanie, swam,
swim (Polish)
INOT, to swim (Romanian)

kolympo, swim;
pleo, plous, pani
ploiou
, sail; pleo, thalassoporo,
navigate (Greek)
fut në ujë,
notoj, to swim (Albanian)

inno-nare

nofio, to swim, float
(Welsh)
nuotare, to swim; inno [m], hymn (Italian)
nager, to swim
(French)

to swim [<OE
swimman] in or
on, flow over, sail over, navigate;
send forth – See
Sanskrit, inu, ino

inas, Script F-6
ine, Script BT-21

inni
, Script TC338
ino, inu (inv), Script
N63, Q311, Q326, Q452, Q551, Q784, Q795, Q829, Q837, Q854, Q863, Q871

dīkṣita, to initiate, perform

x x x inicio-icere-ieci-iectum cominciare, iniziare, to initiate (Italian)
initier, to initiate (French)
take possession of, throw into inik, L16

ativistara
adj., diffuseness,
prolixity; {-tas} at
large, in full detail;
visRSTi [f], letting go, emanation, creation, esp. in detail; vistara,
{-tas & -zas} adv.
fully, in detail; kr, to
make, do, cause or
produce anything

sarh, bayân, zand,
explanation [n]
(Persian)

wyjasnic,
wytlumaczyc,
explain (Polish)

exigo, epexigo,
explain (Greek)
shpall, parshtroj,
shqiptoj, to
enunciate
(Albanian)

enucieo-are, to take out the kernel; hence to explain in detail

datgan, mynegi, to
enunciate (Welsh)
enunciare (Italian)
énoncer (French)

to enunciate,
explain in detail?
spiel [<G. play, a
lengthy speech]

inok, inuk (invk),
Script Q286, Q297,
Q303, Q360, Q754,
Q763

yuj.h (to yoke)
yukte (being yoked)

yuq [n], yoke
(Persian)

jaram, spojiti,
vezati (Serbo
Croatian)
jarzmo, ujarzmiac, yoke (Polish)
jungtun, to
yoke (Baltic
Sudovian)
JUG, yoke, INJUG, to yoke (Romanian)

zevgarno,
zevgaroma (Greek)
lidh, lidhem, to
bind;
zojedhë,
yoke (Albanian)

ugo-are

caethiwo, to bind,
confine, restrict,
enslave; rhwymo, to
bind, tie, lash, bandage
ieuo, to yoke (Welsh)
naisg, va. bind, make fast (Scott)
giogio [m] yoke, crest, ridge (Italian)
joug [m], yoke,
bondage; attacher
(French)
iukan, a yoke (Hittite)

to bind together,
connect, couple,
yoke [<OE geoc]

iuc, ioc (IVC) Script AE-6
iuce, ioce (IVCE), Script N476, Q53, Q162, Q209, Q243, Q416, R258
iuces, ioces (IVCES) Script N711
iuci, ioci (IVCI) Script AE-6, N-1, N357, N476, R306, K39
iucie, iocie (IVCIE), Script N435, N513, N638, R270, R286, R394, R505, K150
iuco, ioco (IVCV) Script K36, Q217 iuka, ioka (ivka),
Script N505, N563
(see ioce below)

ashva haya;
yayu [m], horse; hayin [m], horseman; azvin,
adj., horsed, [m],
horseman

aspahe, horse,
aspa, mare
(Avestan)
asb, horse; savâri,
horsemanship
(Persian)

kobila, mare;
konj (Serbo
Croatian)
kon, horse; kawaler
orderu, kon
szachowy, rycerz,
knight; jazda,
jechac, podroz,
przejazdzka, rode,
ride (Polish)
kon [m.]; jezdzic,
v. imp., na kani,
ride (Belarus)
IAPA, female horse (Romanian)

alogo, horse;
ippotis, knight
(Greek)
kalë, kalorë, kaluç
(Albanian)

equa-ae [f] mare
equus-i [m], (older
forms
equos and ecus) eques-itis [m],
horseman,
eqeites,
knights

ceffyl -au [m], horse, gelding, mount; gorwydd [m], horse;
march (meirch) [m],
horse, stallion, steed, mount, charger; planc
[m], foal, horse;
marchog-ion [m],
knight, horseman, rider, equestrian (Welsh)
each [m.], pl. eich, làir, làrach (Scott)
colliou, horse keeper (Breton)
cavallo [m], cavaliere [m], knight (Italian)
cheval [m]; chevalier [m], knight (French)
mandos, Illyrian
yuk, yakwe
(Tocharian)
asu, aswa, horse
(Hittite)

horse [<OE hors]; horseman,
knight [<OE cniht]

ioce, iuce (IVCE),
Script N476, Q53, Q162, Q209, Q243, Q416, R258
ioces, iuces IVCES),
Script N711

ioci, iuci (IVCI)
,
Script AE-6,
N-1, N357,
N476, R306, K36

iocu, iocu (IVCV)
,
Script K36, Q217

iocie, ivcie (IVCIE)
,
Script N435, N513,
N638, R270, R286,
R394, R505

x x x x Io, Ion-us x Io, Ion-us? Athenian founder
iom (IVM)? Script GA-1

x

x

x

x

Iones-um [m], the
Ionians;
Ionia-ae [f],
their country in Asia
Minor

x

Ionians


Ionas, Iunas (Ivnas),
Script Au76
Ione, Iune (Ivne),
Script N607, Q253,
R219
Ionio, Ioniu (IVNIV) Script CJ-8
CJ-8

x x x
Zeus, Dias (Greek)


Juppiter, Jovis
[m]

x

Jupiter, Roman
supreme god;
Greek
Zeus,
Etruscan
Tinia

iopater, iupater
(ivpater)
, Script
Q224

daNDadhara, bearing the scepter or power; [m] king, general, judge; prADvivAka,
[m] judge

frâmraot [fra
mrû], declare
(Avestan)
dastur, sefâres,
order [n],
farmudan, to order dâvar, dâdvar, judge [n], dâdvari
kardan, to judge
(Persian)

klasa, kolejnosc,
lad, porzadek,
porzadkowac,
rodzaj, rozkaz,
rozkazac, rzad,
stopien, zakon,
amowic,
zamowienie,
zarzadzenie,
zarzadzic, zlecenie,
order;
ekspert,
koneser, sadzic o
czyms, sedzia,
uwazac, wydawac
wyrok, znawca,
judge (Polish)
palaipintun, to
command; bausilis,
commander (Baltic
Sudovian)
JUR, I swear (Romanian)

dikastis, kristis,
dikazo, krino,
judge; diaititis,
arbitrator (Greek)
gjykatës,
arbitër,
order; giykoi,
jambarbitër, to
order, judge
(Albanian)

iubeo, iubere, ussi,
iussum
, to order; ius, iuris, right, law,
jurisdiction;
iuro-are,
to swear, take an oath
arbiter-tri [m.], a
witness, judge,
arbitrator

barnu, to judge;
beirniadu, to
adjudicate, criticize,
judge; gorchymyn-ion
[m], command, order,
commandment, decree, mandate (Welsh)
breith [f.], judgment,
decision, opinon
breitheamh [m.] a judge breitheanas [m.] judgement, decison òrduich, va. order, ordain, decree command (Scott)
giudice [m] judge;
arbitro [m[, judge,
arbitrator (Italian)
juge [m] judge;
arbitre
[m] judge, arbitrator;
connoisseur, expert
(French)

to order, to judge,
judgement

ioper, iuper (IVPER), Script N230, N244
ios, ius (IVS)
, Script
N700, R278, R294

ior, iur (IVR)
(Scripts Q232
ios, ius (IVS) Script N700, R278, R294, XQ-5, XV-10
See also
arberture
(AR8ERTVRE)

x

x

x

x

Iuppiter, Iovis

x

Jove, Jupiter

ioies, iuies (IVIES) Script Q45

x

x

IAPA, female horse (Romanian)

akribos, exactly
monos, alone
(Greek)

ibis, genit. ibis and ibididis [f] the ibis; ibi, adv. there, at that place; 

x

there, at that place?

ip, Script S22
ipa Script Z1153, Z1183, Z1227, BT-14, L-24
ipe, Script PQ-1
, Script Z1153,
Z1183, Z1227
ipei, Script Z1168
ipi, Script TC71,
L20

x x x x ipse-a-um, self, ego, ipse, I myself; just exactly, by oneself x x ips, Script AJ-1

krudh [f], haras [n],
anger, wrath; atikopa [m], great anger, wrath;
roSa [m], anger, wrath, fury against; prakopa [m], violent anger,
rage, wrath; ruS,
roSati, ruSyati, -te,
ruSati, -te
, to be vexed or angry; {roSayati, te} to vex, annoy, irritate; krudh, kradhyati, to be angry with

xesm, anger [n],
xesmgin, xesmnâk,
âtasi, irate, adj.
(Persian)

gniew, gniewac,
rozgniewac, anger zirytowany,
irritated (Polish)

thymos, orgi,
exorgizo, anger
(Greek)
inat, zemëratë,
zemërim, anger [n] (Albanian)

ira-ae [f]

llidio, to be angry,
chafe, fume, inflame, anger; dig [m], anger, wrath, ire (Welsh)
colera [f]; incollerire, to
be angry
(Italian)
colere [f], irriter, to be angry; (French)

anger [<ON angr, grief], wrath, to be irate; harass, to disturb or irritate
persistently
[<OFr.
harer, to
set a dog on]

ir, Al-5
iri, Script Z10, Z54, Z61? Z245, Z606, Z1807,
AP-2

gu; yiyAsu, ad,. being about to go.

ayãn [ayare]
erenâvi [ar]
(Avestan)
raftan, sodan, to
go (Persian)

isc, jechac, went,
zniknac, go
(Polish)
eit (Baltic-
Sudovian)

eci, shkoje,
ik, to go
(Albanian)

ire

cerdded, to walk, pace, perambulate, go, travel (Welsh)
ire (Italian)
aller (French)
pai (Hittite)

to go [<OE gan]

ir, Script Al-5
ire, Script MS14

sulabhakopa, adj.
easily irascible;
krudhmi &
{krudhmi3n}adj.,
wrathful, irritable

xesm, anger [n],
xesmgin, xesmnâk,
âtasi, irate, adj.
(Persian)

zirytowany,
irritated (Polish)

gjaknxehtë,
irascible, adj.;
inatos, zëmëroj,
zhindos, xeh, to be angry (Albanian)

irascor-i

anniddig, adj., peevish, irritable (Welsh)
irascibile, adj. irascible
(Italian)
irascible, adj. irascible
(French)

to grow angry?

irecer, Script R128

x x x x Ireneus x name, Ireneus?
Iriienio, Script XJ17

zap, zapati, -te, to
execrate, revile, scold, blame; swear by, conjure, implore, entreat

upāṃśuvrata, a vow made secretly or privately;
trisatya, a triple oath


sowgand xordan,
dosnâm dâdan, to swear (Persian)

przeklinac,
przeklinanie,
przysiegac,
swore, swear; przysiega,
oath (Polish)

orkizomai,
blasfimo, swear;
orkos, oath; eychi, orkos, vow (Greek)
betohem, bëj be,
grindem, to swear; jap fjalë, zotohem, to vow (Albanian)

iruo-are

tyngu, to swear, vow, adjure, depose (Welsh)
giuare (Italian)
jurer (French)

to swear [<OE
swerian], to make an oath, swear after a prescribed
formula

iro, iru (irv), Script
R191, Z61?

x

u, vey, ân, he, she; ân, ân ciz, it; ânân, isân, ânhâ, they; isânrâ, be
isân, be ânhâ,
them, (Persian)

on, he; ona, she;
ono, to, it; one,
oni, they (Polish)

ai, he; ajo, she,
pron. (Albanian)

is, ea, id

e (o, fe, fo, ef, efe, efo, efo), he; he; hi, she; ei ('i, 'w), hi, it; hwynt, they, them; nhw (hwy), they, them; ill, they (before a number)
(Welsh)
lu, lo, gli, him (Italian)
il, ils, he it, she; pl.
they, them;
le, lui,
celui,
him (French)

he, she, it, this or that person or
thing

is, Script Z405, Z561, Z572, Z1562, TC-1, TC28, TC56, TC80, AP-1, N74, Q360, Q369, Q671, R487, R574, J29, L28, L11, TC210, XJ-18, XP-2, XT-6
L25 – see
isont

dha {dhanU3}[f],
sandbank, sandy
shore, island; dvIpa
[m.n.] island,
peninsula, sandbank, one of the islands or
continents of which
the earth is supposed to consist

âbxost, âdâk,
jazire, island
(Persian)

wyspa, isle
(Polish)

nisi, island (Greek)
ishull, island [n]
(Albanian)

insula-ae [f]

ynys-oedd [f], island, isle, river meadow (Welsh)
isola
[f] (Italian)
ile [f] (French)

isle [<Lat. insula ae], island [<OE
iegland]

isle, Script Z929,
Z1216

x

x

EI SUNT, they are (Romanian)

x

sunt

sono (Italian)
sont
(French)

they are

isont, isunt (ISVNT),
Script Q360, Q369,
R487, R574 – See
sont (SVNT);

x

x

ISTE, these (Romanian)

x

iste, ista, istud

di, pl. these, queste, questi (Italian)
cette, this, ces, these, adj. ceux-ci, celles-ci, pron. (French)

that of yours, that beside you; often a contemptuous
expression
referring to parties opposed to the speaker

iste, Script Z47, Z561, CL-1?, PA-11

x x x x et x and? it, Script CP44
See et

ite, refers to something that has been said or thought, or lays stress on what precedes; in the brāhmaṇas it is often equivalent to "as you know."
atho, likewise, next, therfore
refers to something that has been said or thought , or lays stress on what precedes ; in the brāhmaṇas it is often equivalent to " as you know "

banâbarin,
therefore (Persian)

x

epomenos, gi'afto to logo, therefore
(Greek)
prandaj, si pasojë, therefore, conj.
(Albanian)

itaque

felly, adv. therefore,
so, thus, accordingly
(Welsh)
quindi, di consequenza
per questo (Italian)
donc, par conséquent,
pour cette raison
(French)

and so, therefore, for that reason

itek, Script Q899

x x x x Itali-orum and -um, the Italians; Italia-ae, Italy.) x x Ithal, Script PC-4
Itala, Script Au59
Itale, Script Au48
x x x x x x name, place?
Itanim, Script Au62

camUgati [f],
movement of an army, march; pareti [f], departure; prakrAnta, setting out, departure;
vinirgama, going out, departure; gamana [n],
going, coming, moving, going to, entering, departure, march

jonbes, takân,
jonbojus,
movement [n];
azimat,
marg,
departure [n]
Persian)

isc, jechac, went,
zniknac, go
odejscie, odjazd,
odlot, departure;
przesuniecie, ruch, ruch spoleczny,
movement (Polish)
eit (Baltic-
Sudovian)

kinisi, diakinisi,
movement;
parekklisi,
anachorisi,
departure (Greek)
lëvizje, gjest,
veprim, zhvendim,
ecje,
trafik,
transferim,
transmetim, punë, temp, movement
[n] (Albanian)

ito-are, to go; itus-us
[m], movement, going, departure

symudiad-au [m],
movement, motion,
removal, maneuver;
ysgoigiad-au,|
movement, motion,
impulse; ymadawiad
[m], departure, exodus, decease (Welsh)
ire; partenza, departure
(Italian)
aller, to go; départ [m], departure (French)
pai (Hittite)

to go [<OE gan]; movement,
departure;
traffic [<OItal. trafficare, to trade]; march

itis, Script TC290,
TC318, N453? – see
gis
ito, itu (ITV), Script
N53, Q117, Q521, Q683, R499, R530, R619, AK-1
iton, itun (ITVN),
Script AK-1



Notes:

(1) In the Divine_Mirror.html a small child-like god with wings is raised to the god Tinia (Roman Jupiter; Greek Zeus). Above the child's head are the words, Epe or (epe vr), which, following the table would mean, "you watch the border." In the Divine_Mirror.html, all of the characters have names, except for a angelic female, a household goddess, fleeing the room, who is carrying the wand of prophesy and a purse, presumably carrying the wedding dowry paid for Helen.
(2) Based upon the suffix, "ia" used in the Divine_Mirror.html, for people, Tinia, (god Tini) Elenia (Helen of Troy) and Acaia, it is probable that the suffix relates to personal names, perhaps as a genetive ending.
(3) The "8" appears, as a consonant, to have the value of "b," and in the case of "frater" would be pronounced "brater."
(4) "Hermne," Hermene, appears to be the name for Hermes, the Greek herald and messenger of the gods. He was also an inventor and in the Hermetica, of Hermes Trismegistus, is identified with the Greek god Thoth, the inventor of writing. The Encyclopaedia Britannica says,


"...also called Hermetica, works of revelation on occult, theological, and philosophical subjects ascribed to the Egyptian god Thoth (Greek Hermes Trismegistos [Hermes the Thrice-Greatest]), who was believed to be the inventor of writing and the patron of all the arts dependent on writing. The collection, written in Greek and Latin, probably dates from the middle of the 1st to the end of the 3rd century AD. It was written in the form of Platonic dialogues and falls into two main classes: “popular” Hermetism, which deals with astrology and the other occult sciences; and “learned” Hermetism, which is concerned with theology and philosophy.

"From the Renaissance until the end of the 19th century, popular Hermetic literature received little scholarly attention. More recent study, however, has shown that its development preceded that of learned Hermetism and that it reflects ideas and beliefs that were widely held in the early Roman Empire and are therefore significant for the religious and intellectual history of the time.

"In the Hellenistic age there was a growing distrust of traditional Greek rationalism and a breaking down of the distinction between science and religion. Hermes-Thoth was but one of the gods and prophets (chiefly Oriental) to whom men turned for a divinely revealed wisdom.

"In this period the works ascribed to Hermes Trismegistos were primarily on astrology; to these were later added treatises on medicine, alchemy (Tabula Smaragdina [“Emerald Tablet”], a favourite source for medieval alchemists), and magic. The underlying concept of astrology—that the cosmos constituted a unity and that all parts of it were interdependent—was basic also to the other occult sciences. To make this principle effective in practice (and Hermetic “science” was intensely utilitarian), it was necessary to know the laws of sympathy and antipathy by which the parts of the universe were related. But because these assumed affinities did not, in fact, exist and hence could not be discovered by ordinary scientificmethods, recourse had to be made to divine revelation. The aim of Hermetism, like that of Gnosticism (a contemporary religious-philosophical movement), was the deification or rebirth of man through the knowledge (gnosis) of the one transcendent God, the world, and men.

"The theological writings are represented chiefly by the 17 treatises of the Corpus Hermeticum, by extensive fragments in the writings of Stobaeus, and by a Latin translation of the Asclepius, preserved among the works of Apuleius. Though the setting of these is Egyptian,the philosophy is Greek. The Hermetic writings, in fact, present a fusion of Eastern religious elements with Platonic, Stoic, and Neo-Pythagorean philosophies. It is unlikely, however, that there wasany well-defined Hermetic community, or “church.”

"Hermetism was extensively cultivated by the Arabs, and through them it reached and influenced the West. There are frequent allusions to Hermes Trismegistos in late medieval and in Renaissance literature."


It appears that the tile upon which Script HT was written identifies a sanctuary of Hermes which was dedicated to Astological and prophetic disciplines. If my interpretation of the tile is correct there should be a rather vast temple complex near the site where the tile was found. Divination was a principal theme of Etruscan religion. We know, through Roman and Greek writeers, that the Etruscans had a body of literature that dealt with this theme. With regard to what was handed down to us in this regard, Massimo Pallottino said, "A type of Etruscan literary activity, it is true, has been positively, though indirectly, attested by the notice it received in Greek and roman sources, consisting mainly of fragmentary references to the existence of books with religious content known in translation or in compendia among priestly or scholarly circles in Rome. We know that they were classified into three fundamental groups under the names of Libri Haruspicini, Libri Fulgurales, and Libri Rituales. The first dealt with divination by the examination of animal entrails and the second with divination from objects struck by lightning. As for the Libri Rituales, they seem to have dealt with a much vaster and more complex field: the rules of worship, the formalities governing the consecration of sanctuaries, the foundation of cities, the division of fields, civil and military ordinances, etc. Moreover they contained special texts on the division of time and on limits in the life of men and peoples (Libri Fatales), on life beyond the grave and rituals of salvation (Libri Acherontici) and, finally, on the interpretation of miracles (Ostentaria).


"Etruscan and Roman tradition tends to attribute to these works an extremely ancient and venerable origin, to the extent that a number of them were actually believed to go back to the teachings of the genius Tages (Libri Tagetici, corresponding, as far as we can tell, to the Libri Haruspicini and Acherontici..) or the teachings of the nymph Vegoia or Begoë, to whom were assigned the Libri Fulgurales and the passages on mensuration contained in the Libi Rituales. They were, in fact, believed to have been divinely inspired and to have originated in a kind of primordial 'revelation', identified with the very origins of the Etruscan civilization. And it is quite possible that the collection of sacred books known during the last centuries of the Etruscan nation, and translated (in part at least) into Latin, did contain elements of great antiquity. But the essentially normative aspect of the texts appears rather to reflect an evolved and, perhaps, final phase in the spiritual and religious development of Etruscan society. It may be that this final and, as it were, 'canonical' elaboration took place within narrow priestly circles, such as the Order of the Sixty Haruspices which still flourished at Tarquinia in Roman times., a world to which doubless belonged a certain Tarquitius Priscus (or Tuscus?) to whom Roman tradition attributed the composition, vulgarization and translation into Latin of a number of sacred books." (Massimo Pallottino, The Etruscans, Indian University Presss, 1975; Ulrico Hoepli, Milan, 1942, pp. 153, 154)

Hermes, as messenger of the gods, also had the function of delivering souls. Since the Etruscans, like the Egyptians, put so much effort into their tombs, keeping in mind the liturgical effort dedicated to fate and the afterlife, a major temple complex may have been dedicated to Hermes. When one departs this life, it is Hermes who carries the soul to the place of the afterlife. With regard to Tarquitius Priscus see Divination Lesson.html, where the person to whom the diviniation is being given is Tarquin. Thus, we can see that through a small effort in translating Etruscan inscriptions we can clear up some questions of ancient Latin and Greek scholars, as well as some modern scholars.

There appears to be a strong connection between the Hindu god Agni in the Rig Veda and Hermes. Hymns throughout the Rig Veda addresss the god of fire, Agni, as the messenger of man and the gods: (Translation of the Rig Veda by Ralph T. H. Griffith, Quality Paperback Book Club, NY, 1992 & Mortilal Barnarsidass Publishers PVT. LTD.):


Thee for our messenger we choose (Rig Veda, Book 1.36.3)

The Gods enkindle thee their ancient messenger, – Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman.
That mortal man, O Agni, gains through thee
all wealth, who hath poured offerings unto thee; (Book 1.36.5)
...On Agni who with fulgent flame is Ruler of all holy rites (Book 1.41.4)
Thou Priest with lip and voice that bring us children hast been invoked.
Here with the Gods be seated. (Book 1.76.4)
...Who, deathless, true to Law, mid men a
herald, bringeth the Gods as best of sacrificers? (Book 1.77.1)
He holds all knowledge in his grasp even
as a felly (i.e., frame) rounds the wheel. (Book II.V.3)
Whose foresight keeps the Law from violation..(Book II.9.1)
Envoy art thou, protector from the foeman,
strong God, thou leadest us to higher blessings
Refulgent, be an ever-heedful keeper, Agni,
for us and for our seed offspring. (Book II.9.1,2)


(5) An interesting correlation to Janus is the fact that the Rig Veda, Book 1.116.19, records that among the favored worshippers were the family of the Kusikas, probably a family of high priests or rsis (sages). Their ancestor was Jahnu [ from a note by Ralph T. H. Griffith, translation of the Rig Veda, Quality Paperback Book Club, NY, 1992]. The Rig Veda may be read at: http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/.
(6) Thanks to Constantin Cucu for his contribution on the Romanian entries to this table.



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