Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Vocabulary with Indo-European cognates
10.06.11 Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):







Etruscan_Phrases

Indo-European Table 1, Part 5


 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)


Etruscan_Phrases

 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)







Table 1, Section 1B: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.

Sanskrit

Avestan & Armenian*

Slavic & Baltic

Greek & Albanian

Latin

other

English

Etruscan

x

ânjâ, darân jâ,
adj., adv. there
(Persian)

tam, w tym
miejscu (Polish)
LA, there (Romanian)

ekei (Greek)
atje, aty, këtu, në
këtë vend, there,
adv. (Albanian)

ibi, illi, istic

acw, adv (Welsh)
la, adv., (Italian)
la, adv., (French)

there

la, Z470, Z551, TC179, TC290, TC318, K58, M74, AT-8, Q21, Q521, R381
_la, Script CH-2, (name of warrior)

x

isânrâ, be isân,
be ânhâ, them
[n] (Persian)

ich, im, je, them
(Polish)

aftous, aftes, afta
(Greek)
ata, ato, atyre,
them, pron.
(Albanian)
LE, them (Romanian)

ille, illa, ilud, they

eu, 'u, 'w; hwynt, nhw they, them (Welsh)
egli, colui, he; ella, essa, colei, she; lo, la, esso, essa, cio, al,
pron., it ;
essi, esse, loro, li, quelli, quelle,
coloro, them (Italian)
le, it, he, she, def.
art., pron.; eux,
elles, les, leur, them (French)

them? pronoun?

le (LE), Script Z572, Z638, Z1334, Z1853, K67, Q303, AO-2, K37, K67

x

ânjâ, darân jâ,
adj., adv. there
(Persian)

tam, w tym
miejscu (Polish)

ekei (Greek)
atje, aty, këtu, në
këtë vend, there,
adv. (Albanian)

ibi, illi, istic

acw, adv (Welsh)
la, adv., (Italian)
la, adv., (French)

there

Le, Script TC28, TC103, TC260, TC271,TC327, R434, R653, K50, K88, K99, K135, Au83, NC-5, MS-1, Pl-21, PL-29, AF-7, AJ-12, AN49, T-8, VP-11, BT33, AT-4, AT-11, PO-6, PB-8, AL-12, ZB-3, Z22, Z36, Z59

x

isânrâ, be isân,
be ânhâ, them
[n] (Persian)

ich, im, je, them
(Polish)

aftous, aftes, afta
(Greek)

ata, ato, atyre,
them, pron.
(Albanian)

ille, illa, ilud, they; les, legis, f., contract, covenant, agreement, law

essi, esse, loro, li,
quelli, quelle, coloro:
legge, f., law
(Italian)
les, (pl. of le) elles, les,
eus, them;
loi, f., law, rule; (French)

them? pronoun?

probable:
law

les, Script
R521, G21, K36,
PL-1,

x

isânrâ, be isân,
be ânhâ, them
[n] (Persian)

xich, im, je, them
(Polish)

aftous, aftes, afta
(Greek)

ata, ato, atyre,
them, pron.
(Albanian)

ille, illa, ilud, they

eu, 'u, 'w; hwynt, nhw
they, them (Welsh)
essi, esse, loro, li,
quelli, quelle, coloro
(Italian)
l
es, (pl. of le) elles, les,
eus, them (French)

them? pronoun?

li, Script TC-1

x

u, vey, ân, he, she;
ân, ân ciz, it;
ânân, isân, ânhâ,
they; isânrâ, be
isân, be ânhâ,
them, (Persian)

ono, to (Polish)
LUI, to him, LU to him ( modern & old Romanian)

ai, ajo, atë, ky, kjo (Albanian)

hic, haec, hoc; is, ea, id, ille, illa, illud

esso, essa, cio, al,
pron., it;
lo, def. art., the (Italian)

it? to him, it?

lo (LV), Script N311, Q152, Q202, Q224, R554, K113, PB-2

x x LAPEDA, LEPĂDA, to let something fall, let down
x labo-are, to totter, begin to fall
labor, labi, lapsus, to decline,  fall down
x totter, begin to fall; decline, fall down?
lape, AK-5
x x LACĂT, lock, padlock (Romanian)
x lacesso-ire-ivi-and -l,-item;
persulus, bolt

provocare, incitare,  provoke; saliscendi, seratura, a scatto, latch  (Italian)
provoquer, irriter, provoke; loquet, latch (French)
to provoke, exasperate, ecite, induce?
lock, latch?
lachet, Script XB-17
(see cle)

ruj, rujati, break,
crushdown, destroy,
break open, tear out,
lacerate, dislimb;
vyay, -yati, -te,
waste, squander,
expend

daridegi, ris,
laceration [n] bar bâd dâdan, hadar kardan, to
squander (Persian)

marnowac,
trwonic, squander;
okaleczyc, maim;
drzec, lza, pedzic, rozdarcie,
rozrywac, rwac,
szarpac,
tore, tear
(Polish)

kommatiazo,
xeschizo,
katasparasso,
lacerate (Greek)
harxhoj, shpenzoj
pa hesap,
shkapërderdh, to
squander; gërvisht, cierr, shqyej, cingris nervat, to lacerate; gjmtoj,
sakatoj, to maim,
(Albanian)

lacero-are

dragio, to drag, tear, mangle; llarpio, to rend, tear, mangle,
maul, lacerate;
rhwygo, to rend, tear, harrow, lacerate; afradu, to
squander; gwastraffu,
to waste, squander
(Welsh)
scialaquare, squander
(Italian);
gaspiller, squander
lacérer, lacerate
(French)
isnija, to link, tear
(Hittite)

tear [<OE teran]
to pieces, maim,
squander, slander,
lacerate

LACeR, Script M67

x x x x Laco [Lacon]-onis x Spartan? lakonai (LAKVNAI), Script PB-5
x x LAUD, to wheedle
x lacto-are x allure, to wheedle?
Lacth, Script Z516
lakthar, Script M-2

zithilay, -yati, to
loosen, relax;
zathAy,
to loosen or untie;
dA, dyati, to bind, tie, fetter, {vi}, to loosen; cRt, cRtati, to fasten, connect, attach {ava}, let loose;
bandh,
badhnAti, badhnIte
,
to bind, attach, tie

gereftâri, band,
pâgir, bind [n],
bastan, gereftâr
sodan, to bind
sost kardan, ârâm sodan, to relax; pahn kardan, gosâd kardan, pahn sodan, to widen (Persian)

rozszerzac, widen
odpoczac,
odprezyc, oslabic, zmniejszyc,
napiecie, relax;
bound, oprawic,
wiazac,
zobowiazac, bind
(Polish)

dievryno, plataino,
widen; deno,
isopsifo, desmos,
grabata, isopsifia
widen (Greek)
liroj,
lehtësoj,
zbutem,
dobësohem,
zvogëloj, to relax;
idh, lidhem,
ankohem, to bind
(Albanian)

laxo-are; to widen, loosen; ligamen-inis,
string, tie, bandage;
ligo -are, to bind

llacio, to slacken,
loosen, relax;
llaesu, to slacken, loosen, relax,
relent, droop;
caethiwo, to bind,
confine, restrict,
enslave, detain;
rhwymo, to bind, tie, lash, bandage (Welsh)
rilassare, relax;
legare, to tie, bind
(Italian);
relâcher, relax; lier, to bind (French)
hars, to loosen
dalugaes, long (Hittite)

to widen, loosen [<ON lauss],
relax? to tie,
bind
[<OE bindan]?

LaKA, Script Z432, Z1153, Z1161

x x x elaia, olive;
eleos, elei, mercy
Laius-i, father of Oedipus
olea-ae, olive;
x Laes, name? Laes, Script XE-13 (possibly ELAES)

potha [m], blow,
strike with; han,
hanti, hate, jighnate, -ti, to smite, beat, strike down, hew off, hit pierce hurt

e'tesâb [n], zadan, barxord kardan, sâyidan, to strike (Persian)

bic, strajk, struck,
uderzac, walic,
zapalic, strike
(Polish)

chtypo, apergo,
chtypima, apergia, strike; blapto, pligono, zimia, hurt
(Greek)
godas, godit, qëlloj, gjuaj, bie, bej grevë, ul, to strike (Albanian)

laedo, laedere, laesti, laesum

clapio, to lump, strike, gossip; curo, to beat,
strike, knock, rap,
bang, batter, clap,
throb; taro, to strike, smite, hit, knock, tap, clap, clash, stick, suit
(Welsh)
battere, to batter
(Italian);
frapper, to strike
(French)

to strike [<OE
strican, to stroke],
knock,
batter
[<Lat. battuo-ere,
clap, [<OE
clappen] hurt,
bargain? box
[ME, box, to hit
with the hand]

laeti, Script Z516
laetim, Script ZA-4

parideva [m], lamentation, wailing; kAku [f], wail, lamentation, emphatic speech.

sugvâri, nâlâni,
lamentation
(Persian)

lament,
lamentowac,
oplakiwak, lament
(Polish)

thrino, klaio goera, lament (Greek)
qaj, dëshpërohem,
vajtoj, to lament
(Albanian)

Laius-i, father of
Oedipus; lamentor-ari,
to weep, wail, lament

alaethu, cwyno, to
complain, lament,
bewail, to lament
(Welsh)
lai, [ m. pl],
lamentations
(Italian)
lamentation [f]
(French)

Laius, name?
lament?
Lais, Script Z1334 (see laes)

anumad, to rejoice over, gladden, to praise

x

x

x

laudo-are, to praise, extol, commend, to name, mention,
cite, quote;
laus,
laudis
[f],
praise, fame, glory

lode [f], praise (Italian)
louange [f], praise
(French)
wasa, to esteem
(Hittite)

praise

lauo (LAFV), Script Z432, Z1153, Z1161; AN42;
laues (LAFES), Script TC120, VF-4; See Note (2)

parideva [m], lamentation, wailing; kAku [f], wail, lamentation, emphatic speech.

sugvâri, nâlâni,
lamentation
(Persian)

lament,
lamentowac,
oplakiwak, lament
(Polish)

thrino, klaio goera,
lament (Greek)
qaj, dëshpërohem,
vajtoj, to lament
(Albanian)

Laius-i, father of
Oedipus; lamentor
ari,
to weep, wail,
lament

alaethu, cwyno, to
complain, lament,
bewail, to lament
(Welsh)
lai, [ m. pl],
lamentations
(Italian)
lamentation [f]
(French)

name? Lais, Laius?
lament?

lais Script Z1334

meSa [m], ram, sheep; in Veda also a fleece or anything woollen; uraNa & urabhra [m], ram (wool-bearer)

pasm, jâmeye
pasmi, wool [n]
(Persian)

welna, wool
(Polish)
 LÂNĂ, wool (Romanian)

malli, erio, wool
(Greek)
lesh, rrobë e leshtë, wool (Albanian)

lana-ae [f], wool,
laena-a [f] a cloak,
lanatus-a
um
, wool-bearing

gwlan, gwlanoedd [m], wool; edau, edafedd [f], thread, cotton,
yarn, wool (Welsh)
lana [f] (Italian)
laine [f] wool,
lainaux, wooly
(French)
ulana (Hittite)

wool, [<OE wull]
wool bearing

lane, Script Z455: K152
LANTeS, Script
Z1562

kunta, m. spear, lance; kSip, kSipati, -te, to throw, cast;
prahati [f], stroke,
throw;
prAsa [m],
cast, throw; spear;
vap, vapati, -te, to
strew, scatter, esp.
seed, throw or cast
dice, as, asyati, to
throw, cast, shoot at,
throw away, hurl

andâxtan,
afkandan,
part
kardan, to throw
(Persian)

rzucac, rzut,
threw, throw
(Polish)
mest (Baltic
Sudovian)
LANSA, to throw (Romanian)
richno, riximo, boli, to throw (Greek)
hedh, flak, vervis,
jap, to throw
(Albanian)

lancea-ae [f], a light spear or lance
iacio, iacere, ieci,
iactum
, to throw,
cast

lluchio, to throw, fling, pelt, drift; taflu, to throw, fling, cast, hurl,
heave, pelt (Welsh)
lann [f] blade, sword, scale as of a fish, lancet; also a house (Scott)
lanciare, to throw,
fling, pitch;
slanciare,
vt. to throw, thin out, rush;
gettare, to throw
(Italian)
se
lancer, to rush, to dash, to dart; jeter, to
throw (French)
to throw, [<OE
thrawan], fling,
pitch, hurl,
launch
[<Lat. lanceare; to
launch;
lancea-ae
[f], a light spear or lance]

lanso (LANSV),
Script K108

See slanso (SLANSV)

sattva, being,
existence, reality,
nature, character,
energy, goodness,
spirit, phantom,
spectre, imp, goblin;
preta, deceased, dead, adv. {-vat}Å; [m] a ghost; yakSa [n], a supernatural being or apparition, ghost, spirit; [m], a class of
geni; abhijana [m],
origin, race, family.
ancestors

pari, jen, fairy
(Persian)

czarodziejski,
magiczny, pedal,
pederasta, fairy;
fantazja, kaprys,
wyobraznia, fantasy (Polish)
lauma, fairy
(Baltic-Sudovian)
LER, lars, penates, gods (Romanian)

frogonos, ancestor;
neraidan, fairy;
phantasia,
appearance (Greek)
fantazmë, lugat,
spectre (Albanian)

lar, laris [m], lares, pl. Roman tutelary dieties, esp. household deities; meton., hearth, dwelling, home

tylwyth-au [m],
household, family,
tribe, clan, genus;
tylwyth teg, fairies; teg (tec), adj. fair, beautiful, lovely, fine, comely (Welsh)
làr [m] làir, pl, the
ground floor;
làrach, site of a building, abode, habitation
(Scott)
fantasia [f], fantasy,
imagination, whim, fancy, mind;
fata [f],
fairy (Italian)
fantaisie [f] fancy,
whim, caprice,
imagination,
fantasia
[mus.];
fée, [f], fairy (French)

household gods,
worshipped
ancestors, spectre,
fairy [<Lat. fata,
fates]; fantasy
[<Gk. phantasia];
relates to
lair,
English, a den or
hidden dwelling
[<OE
leger]

lar, Script TC61,
TC71, TC80,
TC108, TC120,
TC201, TC231,
TC260, TC327, AF-1, K59, AM-8, GA-2, BR-3
lare, Script TC231, K-1
lari, Script N670, PL-9, AB-3, BB-4
laris, Script TC19, TC71, TC127, TC137, TC213, TC248, TC290, TC327,
(see LER)

x x LARISA, name (Romanian)
x x x Larissa, place or personal name; i.e., Larissa, Thessaly
Larisa, Script OU-2
x x x x x x Larthi, name;
Larthia, name (See "ia" genetive suffix pattern for personal names)
Larthi, Script PL-1
Larthia, PM-2

x

ravân, div, ghost; nasim, breeze; ruband, parde, padâm, mask; (Persian)

bryza, latwizna,
wietrzyk, breeze
(Polish)
lauma, fairy
(Baltic-Sudovian)

frogonos, ancestor;
neraidan, fairy;
phantasia,
appearance; aura, breeze (Greek)
fantazmë, lugat,
spectre (Albanian)

arua [larua]-ae [f] a ghost, spectre, a mask

bwci [m], bugbear, bogey, ghost, hobgoblin; bwgan -od [m], bogey, ghost,
scarecrow, hobgoblin
drychiolaeth-au [f], apparition, phantom, ghost, goblin, phantasm;
ysbryd-ion
[m], ghost, spirit,
apparition (Welsh)
brezza [f], breeze
(Italian)
fantasma,
apparizione
[m];
aura [f] breeze spectre, fantome [m;
brise [f] breeze]
(French)

ghost [<OE gast],
spectre;
bogy,
[<orig., unknown]
hobgoblin
breeze [<OSp. briza, northeast wind?], aura [<Gr. aura]?

laro, larth? (LARO) Script LS-1
laro, laru (LARV)
, Script TC108, K43, AN31;
LS-1, PL-19

x x x x larva (larua)-ae, f. x ghost, spectre, mask larfaia, laruaia (LARFAIA), Script PG-2
(Note "F" = "U" as in "aule" (AFLE), esuis (ESFIS), Euan, Bacchus (EFAN)

jas, jasate, to be
exhausted, languish;
glAsnu, adj.,
exhausted

xaste, mânde,
bizâr, adj., mânde, bizâr [n], weary
(Persian)

oproznic,
wyczerpac,
exhaust (Polish)
LAS, I let, LĂSA,  to let, LASĂ, you/he/she/they let (Romanian)

exantlo, to
exhausted
(Greek)
gajas
, to exhaust
(Albanian)

lasso-are, to
make weary, to
exhaust
lassitudeo-inis [f]
weariness, exhaustion;
licet, licere, licuit or licitum, it is allowed

lluddedu, to tire,
weary, exhaust,
fatigue, jade (Welsh)
laighe, v. lying,
reclining,
subsiding;
laigse [f] weakness, debility, feebleness
(Scott)
annoito, stanco,
tedioso, weary;
affaticare, annolare,
make weary; lasciare, to leave, weary
(Italian)
achever, débiliter, to exhaust; fatigue,
lassitude [f] ennui [m], las, fatigué adj., weary
lasser, to leave, weary (French)

to make weary,
exhaust
allow, let, leave

las, Script Au86
lasier, Script BS-7
(See also leis)

x x x x x x Lasa, Etruscan female divinity, title
lasa, Script CAC-2, DC-2, DM12, DM14, DS-3

anukathana, discourse, orderly narration

soxanrâni, oration
(Persian)

x

dimigoria, logos,
agorefsi, oration
(Greek)

laesio-onis [f]

araith, areithiau [f], speech, oration, address, discourse,
harangue;
arawd,
arodion
[f], speech, oration, harangue, praise, prayer (Welsh)
arringa [f], harangue,
orazione [f], oration (Italian)
harangue [f], harangue
oration (French)

an oratorical
attack,
harangue
[<Med. Lat.
harenga]

lasio (lasiv), Script
R359

Ar, Aryati, gUrdhay,
gUrdhayati; navana,
mahana [n], nuti,
pariSTuti, prastuti
[f], praise; stoma [m], praise, song of praise.

setâyes, parastes
[n], sotudan, to
praise (Persian)

chwalic, pochwala,
praise (Polish)
LAUD, to laud (Romanian)

epainos, epaino,
doxazo, praise
(Greek)
lavd, lëvdatë,
lavdërim
, praise
[n];
lavdëroj,
lëvdoj
, mburr, to
praise (Albanian)

laudo-are, to praise;
laus-laudis, fame,
glory

canmol, clodfori, moli (moliannu), to praise, commend, laud, extol (Welsh)
lodare
, elogiare
(Italian)
louer (French)
wasa, to esteem (Hittite)

to praise [<Lat. pretium-i, price]

late, Script AK-5
lath, Script M60

x x x x x x Leda, Queen of Sparta, wife of King Tyndarous Latfa (LATFA) Script CM-1, DA-1

x

Lâtin, adj., Lâtin,
Ruiye kohan [n],
Latin (Persian)

LATINĂ, f. (Romanian)

Latinos, Latinika,
latinikos
(Greek)

Latinus-a-um;
Latium-i

Lladin [f], (Welsh)
latino adj. (Italian)
latin, adj. (French)

Latium, Latin

Latina, Script TC90, TC213, TC338

x x x x Lato-us f. and Latona-ae, f. the mother of Apollo and Diana
x Latona, mother Apollo Lato, Leto (LaTV) Script Q713, R306, R560, R663
x x x x Lucilius-a-um name of a Roman gens.
x Laucilia, person's name
(Note "ia" genitive suffix)
Laucilia (LAVCILIA) Script CJ-4

Ar, Aryati, gUrdhay,
gUrdhayati; navana,
mahana [n], nuti,
pariSTuti, prastuti
[f], praise; stoma [m], praise, song of praise.

setâyes, parastes
[n], sotudan, to
praise (Persian)

chwalic, pochwala,
praise (Polish)

epainos, epaino,
doxazo, praise
(Greek)
lavd, lëvdatë,
lavdërim
, praise
[n];
lavdëroj,
lëvdoj
, mburr, to
praise (Albanian)

laodo-are, to praise;
laus-laudis, fame, glory;


canmol, clodfori, moli (moliannu), to praise,
commend, laud, extol (Welsh)

lodare
, elogiare
(Italian)
louer (French)

to praise;
(see wash)

laues (LAFES) Script TC120, VF-4
lavo (LAFV), Script AN42,
LAVS, Script
TC213, SC-1
lavan (LAVAN), Script DN-6
lautin (LAVTiN), Script K7
Lavo (LAYO) Script AJ-9

palpUlay, -layati, to
wash in lye, wash or
cleanse; kSal,
kSAlayati, to wash,
cleanse;
nij, pp.
{
nikta3} (q.v.), I.
{
ne3nekti, nenikte3},
to wash, cleanse,
purify;
plu, plavate,
to float, swim, bathe,
sail; spRz, spRzati,
to touch, touch water, wash or sprinkle with water

sostosu kardan,
âbtani kardan

myc, mycie, prac,
pranie,
przemywanie,
wash; kapac sie,
kapiel,
przemywac, bathe (Polish)
LĂUT, washing, bathing; LĂUA, LĂIA , to bathe (Romanian)

pleno, plenomai,
nibo, nibomai,
plysi, wash
ygraino, moisten;
louomai, kolympo,
louzo, banio,
kolympi
(Greek)
laj, lahem, bëj
banjë, lag,
përplasem,
lyej
muret, to wash
(Albanian)

lavo, lavare, lavere, lavi, lautum or lotu
or lavatum

golchi, to wash, bathe, flush, lather; ymolchi,
to wash oneself, bathe (Welsh)
lavare, bagnare
(Italian);
laver, baigner,
nettoyer, to wash,
clean, scour (French)

probably to wash

 [<OE wacsan], bathe [<OE bathian], moisten

laues (LAFES) Script TC120, VF-4
lavo, lauo (LAFV), Script AN42,
laos, laus (LAVS), Script
TC213, SC-1
lavan, lauan (LAVAN), Script DN-6
lavtin, lautin (LAVTiN), Script K7
Lavo (LAYO) Script AJ-9
x x x x x x x LE, Le (see LA)

lekhaani, writings;
likh, likhati (-te),
scratch, furrow,
draw a line, write, delineate, paint, cut in, chisel, form, smooth, polish

frâmraot [fra
mrû], declare
(Avestan)
dastur, sefâres,
order [n],
farmudan, to order dâvar, dâdvar, judge [n], dâdvari
kardan, to judge
(Persian)

izjaviti, objaviti
ordain (Serbo
Croatian)
wyswiecic,
zarzadzac, ordain, prawo, ustawa, law;
legat, spadek,
zapis, legacy;
pismo,
utwor,
writing (Polish)
zahad [m], ordain
(Belarus)

cheirotomo,
thespizo, proorizo,
to order;
graphein,
to write (Greek)
urdhëroj,
trashëgim, to
ordain; kërkoj, to
demand; shkrim,
writing (Albanian)

lego-are

archebu, to order;
gorchymn, to
command, order,
decree, prescribe,
enjoin; lluniaethu, to order, ordain, decree;
ysgrif-au [f], writing
(Welsh)
faoillsich, reveal, make manifest, declare;
lagh
[m.] law, order,
method;
laghail, adj. legal, lawful (Scott)
ordinare, decretare. vi.
to order;
legato [m] legacy (Italian)
ordonner, ordainer, décréter, to order, ordain;
legs [m] legacy,
bequest (French)
wätk to order,
(Tocharian)
hãkka, to demand;
uwêti, writes (Lycian)

to ordain, order
[<Lat. ordo]
leave as legacy,
writing [<OE
writan]; inscribe
(<Lat. inscribo
-scribere -scripsi
scriptum
], to write
in or on]

lecin, Script Z289, Z990, they ordain?

dul, dolayati, to raise, swing; gur, gurate, to lift up {apa}, reject, revile; tul, tolayati, lift up, weigh, examine, compare, equal, match, raise; acita & aJcita, bend, move, go, exalt, honour, lift up, raise

boland kardan,
barpâ kardan,
afrâstan, to raise
(Persian)

budowac,
hodowac,
podniesc,
podwyzka,
podwyzszyc,
wywolywac,
wznosic, zbierac,
raise (Polish)

anypsono, sykono,
anelkystiras,
anypsosi, lift;
sikono, psilono,
anatrefo, raise
(Greek)
gradoj, ngre,
lartësoj, ngaz
ëllej,
përmirësoj, elevate [n];
coj, ngre, rrit, shtoj, lartësoj, gradoj, ngjhall, ringjall, shkaktoj, to raise (Albanian)

levo-are, to raise up; to smooth, polish

codi (cyfodi), to raise, lift, exalt, erect, heave,hoist, rear, cock, exact, levy, prick, rise,
mount (Welsh)
elevare, to elevate, lift, exalt (Italian)
lever, to rise, arise, stand up, clear up (French)
ninikzi, he lifts, raises wala, to lift (Hittite)

to raise, lift up,
ease; to arise,
stage [<Lat. stare, to stand]

leua (LEFA), Script ZB-2, Script ZB-2
leue (LEFE), Script Z981, Z1013, Z1027, TC120
leues (LEFES)
, Script Z148, Z176, MF-4 (LEF_S)

pArIndra [m] lion
kesarin, maned; [m]
lion; mahAsiMha [m], great lion

mâdesir (Persian)

lwica, lioness
(Polish)
LEI, lions (Romanian)

leaina (Greek)
luaneshë
(Albanian)

lea-ae and laena [f]

llewes-au [f] (Welsh)
leonessa [f] (Italian)
lionne [f] (French)

a lioness

lei, Script Q297,
K74, TC144
leia, Script XS-2 (nom. pl?)
leiem, Script PQ-9 (sing. acc.)

x x x x x x Larentia, the most beautiful prostitute in Rome, goddess of the Laurentalia? Leinth or Leinr (LEINO) Script CF-5, CZ-1

gorasa [m] cow-milk, milk; dA, dadAti, datte, dadati, -te (dAti, dadmi), to give, bestow, concede, remit, yield, grant, allow, etc.

gozâstan, vâgozâr
kardan, hestan, to let; sir [n],
dusidan, to milk
(Persian)

doic, mleko, milk, dopuscic, let, pozwolic,
sprawic, wynajac, let (Polish)
LAS, LĂS, I let (Romanian)

gaia, armago, let
out (Greek)
lejoj, lë, jap,
llogarus; to let out, let go; lëng, n. milk, njel, to milk (Albanian)

lac, lactis, milk,
milky sap, milk
-white;

licet, licere, lecuit or licitum, it is allowed; one can or may; licens-entis, free, unrestrained

gollwng, to drop,
loose, let go, absolve, broach, discharge, dismiss, release,
relieve, leak; blith-ion [m], milk;
llaeth, milk,
buttermilk; llefrith-od,
[m]. milk, sweet milk, new milk (Welsh)
leig, va. to let, let out, let go, permit, allow, milk, rain (Scott)
latte [m] milk (Italian)
laisser, to leave, to let, to allow, to permit, to quit, abandon; lait [m]
milk (French)
lila, expiation, lilai, to release (Hittite)

to let, let out, let
go, permit,
allow,
to
milk [<OE
milc]
, to rain;
to strike?

leis, Script TC 150
(See
laeti above, L. laedo, ladere, laesi, laesum, to strike, hurt, injure)

x x x x lectus-a-um x chosen, selected; choice, excellent lektum, lektom (LEKTVM) Script PG-4

aGga, adj. [f], limb,
member, body, part,
theme; zuti [f],
hearing, ear, sound,
sacred tidings, holy
writ, appellation, title

zamine, rise,
theme [n]; nâm,
laqab,
titr, title
(Persian)

temat, theme;
naglowek, prawo,
tytul, title (Polish)

thema, theme
(Greek)
motiv, temë, lëndë, theme; emër, titull, e drejtë, titra, title [n], titulloj, to title (Albanian)

lemma-atis

testun-au [m], text, theme, subject; thema
-u
[f], theme; teitl-au [m], title, appellation
(Welsh)
tema [m] (Italian)
thême, sujet, titre [m] (French)

theme [<Gk.
thema],title,{<Lat.
titulus-i [m]] an
epigram

lem, Script Z572, Z1378, AG-1

x x LEMNOS, woody (Romanian)
x Lemnos [us]-i; adj. Lemnius-a-um, Lemnian x Greek Island Lemnos
Lemnos (LEMNOS) Script XB-32

pArIndra [m] lion,
kesarin, maned [m]
lion

sir, lion; madesir, lioness (Persian)

lew, lion; lwica,
lioness (Polish)

liontari, lion; leaina, lioness (Greek)
luaneshë
, lioness; luan, lion (Albanian)

leaena, lioness, leo, lion
leno-ire, to be lenient, relieve, to make mild
linea-ae, thread, line

llew-od-ys [m], lion;
llewes-au [f] (Welsh)
leóghann, lion (Scott)
leone [m] lion;
leonesse [f] lioness;
lena, breath, wind,
vigor (Italian);
lion [m] lion; lioness
[f] lioness; souffler, to
breath (French)

lioness?
breath, wind,
vigor, energy?
relieve, to make mild?

lena, Script Z1292, Z1326
(see lei, lion)
, Script Z1292,
Z1326

kSauma [f]{I} made
of linen; n. linen
garment, linseed;
tandra [n], series,
line; rAji or {rAjI}[f], streak, line, row

derâz, xatti,
kaside, adj. linear
katân, malâfe, karbâs, adj., [n],
linen (Persian)

branza, dziedzina,
granica, kolejka,
kreska, krotki list,
lina, linia,
liniowac, porszyc,
polaczenie
telefoniczne,
przewod, rola,
specjalnosc,
szereg, sznur,
ustawic w szeregu,
wers, zakres, line;
bielizna, lniany, plocienny, plotno, linen (Polish)
lina (Baltic-
Sudovian)
LENEA, the laziness,
LENE, laziness, LENES, lazy (Romanian)

lino yfasma,
asproroucha, linen;
grammikos, linear;
linear (mat) vizor, linear; metriazo, kolazo, mitigate
(Greek)
dretoj, radhit
radhis, rreshtoj
linear (Albanian)

linea-ae [f]; lineo
are
, to make straight;
lena-ae [f] a

procuress, bawd
leno-ire, to make
mild, mitigate,
relieve;
linum-i, flax, linen

lliain, llieiniau [m],
linen, cloth, towel;
llinellaidd, adj., linear llin [m], flax, line, lineage (Welsh)
lino [m] flax; linea [f] line; lineare, adj. linear; tela [f] linen, cloth, canvas; clemente,
indulgent, adj. lenient
(Italian)
lin [m] flax,
linen;
linge [m] linen; linéaire, adj.linear;
ligne[f] line; indulgent,
aducissant, lénitif, adj. lenient (French)

line, linen, flax,
linen thread,
string? to mitigate,
lenient?

lena,Script Z1292, Z1326, Script Z1292,
Z1326
leni, Scripts TC127, TC236, BT26
lenies, Script R426
LeNE, Script Z65

dan, da3n, straighten

râst kardan,
dorost kardan, to
straighten|
(Persian)

porzadkowac,
prostowac,
straighten (Polish)

eythys, isios,
kateytheian,
straight (Greek)
dreijohem,
rregulloj, squaroj,
korrigoj, to
straighten
(Albanian)

linea-ae, [f] a linen thread; lineo-are, to make straight

sythu, to stiffen,
straighten, starve with cold;
syth [f], stiff, erect, perpendicular,
straight (Welsh)
lean, va. follow, adhere to, stick to, continue
(Scott)
lineara, adj.linear;
raddrizzare, to
straighten; diriturra,
straightness [f] (Italian)
linéare, adj. linear;
droit, adj. straight;
redresser, to straighten (French)

to make straight
[<ME strecchen]?
(probably to relieve, make mild)

lena,Script Z1292, Z1326, Script Z1292,
Z1326
leni, Scripts TC127, TC236, BT26
lenies, Script R426
LeNE, Script Z6

x x LIPSI, to lack (Romanian)
x lepus-oris x hare, rabbit? lepsi, Script PC-6

x

x

LAUR, laurel (Romanian)

Lerna, town south of Argos where the Alcyonian Lake, entrance to Hades, was located (Greek)

laurus-i, f. the laurel or bay-tree; meten. triumph, victory

x

laurel, bay tree; triumph?This word is used like "lord."

Lerni – Lerna? mythological entrance to Hades

ler, Script Z5, K16, PL-5, PL-7
lere,
Script  N26
leres,
Script  Z155
leri,
Script Z127, Z129, Z224, Z851, K21
lerni,
Script PL-26

x x x x les, legis x law les, Script R521, G18, K36, PL-1, XQ-5

zamAy, -yati; seek
for peace of mind;
{ya3te} bring to rest
i.e., kill.; muT,
moTate, to break or
cut off, strangle,
smother, kill; ghAtay, -yati (-yate), punish, slay, kill, destroy; mr,
marati, marate, to die,
depart from life,
{mAra3yati} ({-te},
kill, slay

kostan, to kill
(Persian)

zabic, kill (Polish)

skotono, to kill
(Greek)
vras, ves gazit, to
slay; i jap fund,
vras, heq, d
ëmtoj,
zhduk, shuaj,
rrëzoj, shkatërroj,
to kill
(Albanian)

leto-are; to kill, slay;
Lato-us and Latona-ae [f], mother of Apollo and Diana

lladd, to kill, slay,
slaughter, cut (Welsh)
uccidere, ammazzare,
distruggere (Italian)
tuer, détruire;
meurtre
[m], murder, meurtrir,
to bruise (French)
kwen, to kill (Hittite)

to kill [<ME
killen], slay[<OE
slean]; murder
[<OE morthor]
possibly the
Roman Goddess
Lato [Latona]

LeTh, M67
leto (LETV)
,
Scripts Z160, Q183;
LeTV, Scripts Q713, R306, R560, R663

x x x x x x x LI (See LA)
x x x x fidelis, fidus leale (Italian)
loyal, adj. (French)
loyal (It. leale, adj., Fr. Loyal, adj., L fidelis, fidus) liallial, Script SM-5
x x x x x x Lycia? (probably a noun, "ei" suffix as in Elinei.
Licei, Script CP-25
x x LIMAN, end, shore, coast (Romanian)
x limen-inis limitare, soglia (Italian)
seuil, m. (French)
threshold, doorway, entrance, house, dwelling liman, Script XS-6

ghRS, gharSati,
polish, crush, pound;
likh, likhati (-te),
scratch, write, chisel,
form polish

pâlâyes dâdan, jalâ dâdan, to polish
(Persian)

ozywic, rozjasnic,
brighten, dobrze
wymieszany,
gladki, rowny,
spokojny,
wygladzac,
smooth (Polish)

gyalizo, gyalisma,
polish; gializo,
ampryno,
brighten; fakelos,
katatheto, archeio, file (Greek)
lustroj, lëmoj
(Albanian)

limo-are; lustro-are
to brighten, illumine polio-ire, to polish, file, make smooth, esp. to cover with
white, whiten; to
adorn, to finish off;
luceo-lucere, luxi, to be bright

caboli, to polish,
furbish, gloywi, to
brighten, polish,
clarify, furbish; llathru, to polish (Welsh)

lìomh
, va. to polish, smooth (Scott)
lucidare (Italian)
polir (French)

to polish [<L.
polio-ire]
, file
down

limo (LIMV), Script Au76, Script
Au76

x

x

x

x

Linas, gens.

x

person's name,
Linas

Linas, Script AK-6
, Script AK-1 Linii, Script
AK-10 (gen. pl.)

kAryadarzana, n.
trial of a law-suit;
pakSa, wing,
feather, side,
thesis, action, law
suit; nyAya,
norm, standard,
logical argument,
law-suit

dâdxâhi, lawsuit
ruydâd, tazes,
process [n]
(Persian)

proces, lawsuit
(Polish)

diki, agogi, lawsuit
filoniko, filonikia,
kavgas, quarrel
(Greek)
gjyq, proçes,
process; procedim
(Albanian)

lis, litis [f]

cyngaws (cynghawsau
-ion
) [m], lawsuit,
action (Welsh)
causa [f] (Italian)
procès [m] (French)

legal controversy,
action, suit, strife, quarrel,
process [<Lat. processus-us,
advance, progress]

lis, Script TC190, Script TC190

x x x x lixa-ae x camp followers
LISIAI, Script PA-7
x x LOC, location; LOCURI, locations (Romanian)
x locus-i posizione, collocamento, locazione
(Italian)
emplacement, site, repérage, situation (French)
location, place
lokes (LOKES) Script XB-2
loci (LVCI)
Script K170

jyotiH ru bhaaH,
bhaati

sabok, âhesete,
light, adv., rowsan kardan, âtas zadan, to light (Persian)

jasny, lampa,
lekki, lit, ogien,
oswietlac,
rozpalic, swiatlo,
swiecic,
zapalic,
light (Polish)
palic, v. imp.,
spalic, v. perf.,
burn (Belarus)
LUCI, to light (Romanian)

phos, light; lampo, bright (Greek)
ndizet, ndlem,
ulet, ndesh
(Albanian)

lux, lucis, luceo;

cynnau, to kindle,
light, ignite; goleuo (go
leu), to light, enlighten, illuminate,
elucidate, irradiate
golau, goleuadau [m], light;
lleu, llug, bright
(Welsh)
soillse [m] light, ray of light, brightness;
(Scott)
luce [f], light; lucidare, to polish, shine (Italian)
lustre [m] brilliance; lucide, clear-headed
(French)
luks, to illuminate,
(Tocharian)
luga, to burn down
(Lycian)
lukkai, to light, shine (Hittiete)

light [<OE leoht]

los (LVS) Script TC71, PL-6, PL-20, R123, Z147
los (LOS) Script XE-6, XQ-3
losa (LVSA) Script BB-2
losan (LVSAN), they light, Script Z543;
(Note: Script PL is the Piacenza Liver)

x x vx x x x Lotoi? name
Lotuoi, Script ON-3

apanunutsu
adj., desiring to
remove or expiate;
hvu, hvute, conceal
from, refuse, deny,
satisfy, apologize,
expiate

sol, gosâd, âzâd,
adj., adv. loose;
tuzes, atonement
[n] (Persian)

luzno, luzny,
obwisly, puscic,
rozluznic,
rozwiazany,
sypki, wolno,
wolny, loose;
odpokutowac,
expiate (Polish)
LUA, to take (Romanian)

timoroumai,
exileonomai, atone;

(Greek)
shlyej, vë në vend, to expiate
(Albanian)

luo, luere, lui,
luiturus
, to expiate

gwneud iawn, to do (gwneud) right iawn = adj. right, to atone, make amends, expiate
(Welsh)
espiare (Italian)
expier (French)
lila, expiation, lilai, to release (Hittite)

to loose [<ON
lauss], expiate
[<Lat. expio-are],
atone for

lua (LVA) Script BT-35
lui (LVI)
, Script M-8;
luis (LVIS) or LVISNA Script TC103 Note: (3)
luit (LFIT) Script XC-6
lur (LVR), Script Z582;
luri (LVRI),
Script Z463, HA-1;
LURS (LVRvS),
Script M24, M32 (see lus  (LFS)

x x x x limus-i, m.
x priest's apron?
llumas (LYMAS) Script XJ-5

shashii sudhaakar,
soma

mâh [-] (Avestan)
mâh, moon, month (Persian)

mesec
(Serbo-Croatian)
ksiezyc, moon;
miesiac, month
(Polish)
miesiac (Belarus)
menikas
(Baltic-Sudovian)
LUNA, moon (Romanian)

selini (Greek)
hënë, satlit,
moon;
muaj,
month (Albanian)

luna-ae, moon,
mensis (month)

lleuad-au [f], lloer-au [f], moon; mis-oedd [m], month (Welsh)
gealach [f.]
mìos [m] ré, moon, season (Scott)
loar (Breton)
mese [m] month;
lune [f] moon (Italian)
mois [f] month; lune [f] moon (French)
mañ, month,
(Tocharian)
arma, moon; mehur, a
month (Hittitte)

moon [<OE
mona], a month
[<OE monath]

lune (LVNE), Script Z1835, R125, R136, R149; K164?

x

x

x

x

lumbus, m., loins

lonza, f., Italian
longe, f., French

loins?

luns (LVNS), ScriptPL-28 (Area of Piacenza Liver)

x

x

x

x

luo, luere, lui,
luiturus
, to loose,
expiate, atone for, make good

lasciar, to loose;
espiare, to atone
(Italian)
lâcher, to loose; expier,
to atone (French)
lila, expiation, lilai, to
release (Hittite)

to loose [<OE
lauss], expiate, atone for

lus (LFS) Script PL-29 (see lur (LVR)

jambAla, mud, clay;
paGka, mud, dirt;
kardama [m], mud,
slime;

gel, lajan, mud
(Persian)

bloto, mul, mud
(Polish)
LĂUTĂ, washed, bathed;  LAUTU(L), the wash, the bath

laspi, borboros,
mud (Greek)
baltë, llucë, shpifje, punë dreqi, punë e ndyrë, mud
(Albanian)

lutum-i

baw [m], dirt, mire, filth, mud, muck, dung,
excrement;
llaca [m], mire, mud, puddle; llaid (lleidiau) [m],
mud, mire, ooze (Welsh)
fango [m] (Italian)
boue, fange [f] (French)

mud [<ME
mudde], mire
[<ON myrr], dirt
[<ON drit],
clay [<OE claeg];
this may be
the name of a
town, Luta

luta, lota (LVTA), Script
G11, G15, G36
loto, luto, lutu (LVTV) Script L27, G34

masRNay, -yati,
soften, smoothen;
mRdU bhU, become
soft, soften

narm kardan, kam kardan (to soften (Persian)

mieknac,
zlagodzic,
zmiekczyc, soften;
chudy,
leant,
opierac sie,
pochylac sie,
sklaniac sie, lean
(Polish)

malakos, apalos,
soft; tryferos,
prosfero, prosfora
(Greek)
lehtësoj, zbut,
zbus, to soften
(Albanian)

macero-are

esmwytho, to ease, soothe, soften, alleviate, relieve; meddalu, to soften, mollify, macerate; tyneru, to make tender, soften, mollify,
relent (Welsh)
maoth, adj. soft,
tender, delicate,
effeminate;
maothaich, va. soften, alleviate, become softer, become delicate (Scott)
magro [lean]
ammorbidire, vt, to soften (Italian)
macérer, to macerate
(French)

to soften [<OE
softe, pleasant],
make weak,
reduce, torment,
tease, vexan;
make lean,[<OE hlaene],
make tender
[<Lat.
tener -era -
erum
, tender,
delicate, soft,
young ]

mac, Script ZA-3, Z819
maci, Script ZA-3
See also
MvLAK

x

x

x

x

malus-a-um, bad, evil

male, evil (Italian)
mauvais, bad, evil (French)

bad, evil; possibly Mavors-vortis, archaic and poetic for Mars.

maf (MAF), Script , Script S-8

x x x x maleficus-a-um; adv. malefice) malizioso (Italian)
malicieux, méchant (French)
mischievous, evil-doing malafais (MALAFAIS), Script CAA-2

mala, dirt, rubbish;
malinay, -yati, to soil, defile

W-kesh; E-vad
(Armanian)

akha, bad,
evil; angra
(Avestan)
bad, sum,
ziyânâvar, adj.,
ziyânâvar, evil [n] (Persian)

neispravan, rdjav,
zao
(Serbo-Croatian)
zlo, zly, evil;
brzydki, ugly;
niedobry,
worse,
zepsuty,
zlo, zly,
bad (Polish)
brydki (Belarus)
piktas, vargas,
bad, evil
(Baltic-Sudovian)

kakos, kako, evil; dysmenis,
unfavorable
(Greek)
i pafavorshëm,
ikeq, ugly; ekeqe, mëkat, evil (Albanian)

malus-a-um

drwg (cyddrwg,
gwaeth, gwaethaf), adj.
bad, evil, naughty,
wicked, ill; drygionus,
adj. bad, wicked, evil naughty; anhardd, adj.
unhandsome,
unseemly, ugly ;
annillyn, adj. inelegant,
ugly, clumsy,
unseemly; cethin, adj., dark, fierce, ugly; diolwg, hagr,
adj. ugly;
hyll (f. hell; pl. hellion) adj. ugly, hideous, grisly, gruesome (Welsh)
duaichnidh, adj.
ghastly, gloomy, ugly; grànda, adj. ugly, ill favored (Scott)
male [f] evil, ill, sin; brutto, adj. ugly (Italian)
mal [m] evil, hurt,
harm, pain, wrong, disease;
laid, adj. ugly;
male, adv. badly
(French)
sakhar, dirt (Hittite)

unfavorable, bad
unsuccessful,
ugly [<ON uggligr,
frightful],
evil [<OE yfel], bad [<ME badde], hell [<OE helle]

male, Script Z614, Z622, Z629, TC201, R370
malo (MALV), Script R370
malus (MALvS, Script DE-7

uras[n] breast, uraska,
adj.;
stana [n], the
breast of a woman;
kuca [m], the female
breast

sine, pestân,
breast (Persian)

piers, breast
(Polish)
MAMAR, mammary (Romanian)

mastos, stithos
(Greek)
kraharor, gjoks, gji, sisë, zemër,
ndjenja, breast
(Albanian)

mamma-ae [f]

brest-iau [f], breast, chest; bron -nau, nydd [f], breast; dwyfron
nau [f], breast, chest; mynwes-au [f], breast, bosom (Welsh)
petto [m] (Italian)
mamelle [f] (French)

breast [<OE breost]

mamar, Script AD-1

x x MAMA, MAMI, mother (Romanian)
x x madre [f]; mamma [f] (Italian)
mer, maman [f] (French)

Mamu, name?
mum, mom, momma, ma, mother?
mamamu or mami (MAMY) Script XM-5

zeSI bhU, be left,
remain; As, Aste,
stay remain, seat
yourself;
sthA,
tiSThati, -te
, stand, stay, wait; sah, sahate (-ti),
overpower, withstand, suffer, endure

mândan,
bâzmândan, to
remain (Persian)

pozostac,
pozostalosci,
resztki, szcatki,
remain (Polish)
RĂMÂNI, stay (Romanian)

meno, apomeno,
remain (Greek)
mbetem, to
remain (Albanian)

maneo, manere,
mansi, mansum;
manto-are
, to wait for

aros, to wait, await, stay, stop, linger, tarry, abide, remain,
continue; georffwys,
to rest, repose, remain; dioddef, to suffer, bear, endure, wait
(Welsh)
seas, va. and vn.,
stand, support,
endure, last (Scott)
restare, rimane;
aspettare,
durare
to wait (Italian)
rester, demeurer;
attendre, to wait
(French)

to remain, stay,
endure, last, wait
for,
rest [<OE rest]

man, Script M50;
mani, Script R530
mano (MANV),
Script N206, Q219
MANTeR,
Script R381-– see below

x

x

x

Athena (Greek)

Minerva-ae [f]

x

Minerva-ae [f]
goddess of skill,
wisdom; wit, art

MANeRIFA,
Script M13

Aj _ apti, f. order,
command;
rAjazAsana, n.
royal edict or
order; zAsti, f.
punishment,
order, command

farmân, dastur,
mandate [n]
(Persian)

mandat (Polish)

entoli, diatagi,
to mandate dataxi,
taxi to order
paragkelia
systima, tagma
(Greek)
mandat, urdhër
(Albanian)

mando-are; to
mandate;
dico-dicere-dixi
dictum,
to indicate, appoint, to say, speak, tell

archebu, to order;
gorchymn, to
command, order,
decree, prescribe,
enjoin; hwylio, to sail, prepare, order, attune,
embark, lluniaethu, to
order, ordain, decree (Welsh)
mandato [m] mandate;
dichiarare, to declare
(Italian)
mandat [m] mandate;
dire, to say (French)

to commit,
mandate, entrust,
to
order [<Lat. ordoinis [m], a series, order], to dictate
[<L.
dico -dicere
dixi -dictum
]

MANTeR, Script
R381
(see man)

pastya, habitation,
stall, stable; [f], pl.
house, dwelling,
family, sgl. the
goddess of a house;
gotra [m] cow-stall,
race, family

kushk, portico;
âxor, stable [n]
cupâni, âhange
dasti, rustâyi,
pastoral [n]
rame, gale, herd
[n]; galle, rame [n], cattle (Persian)

stabilny, stajnia,
stateczny, stable;
fotel parterowy,
kosk, kram,
stajnia, stoisko,
stragan, stall;
bydlo, cattle;
stado, tloczyc sie,
tlum, trzoda, herd
(Polish)
peku, cattle (Baltic
Sudovian)

agelio, herd;
statheros,
monimos,
stablas,
stablizo
, stable,
stall (Greek)
grazhd,
stallë,
stendë, qoshk
(Albanian)

mandra-ae [f.];
stable, pascuum,
pasture;
pecus-oris, cattle, a herd, flock, esp. of sheep;
stabulo-are, transit. to stable cattle; intransit., to have a stall

ystabl-au [f], stable (Welsh)
stàbull [m] a stable (Scott)
stalla, f. stable (Italian)
écurie, f. stable
(French)

a stall [<OE
stealle
] cattle-pen,
stable, a herd of
cattle,
kiosk
[<Pers. kushk]

mantra? Script Q152

muSTihan, fighting
hand to hand;
prahasta, the
outstretched hand

W-tserk, E-tser
(Armenian)
dast, hand [n]
(Persian)

dlon, podawac,
przekazywac,
reka, robotnik,
wreczac,
wskazowka, hand
(Polish)
MÂNĂ(A) hand (Romanian)

cheri, dino sto cheri
(Greek)
dorë (Albanian)

manus-us [f]

llaw (dwylo, dwylaw)
[f], hand; palf-af [f], palm, hand, paw (Welsh)
mano [f] hand (Italian)
main [f] (French)
kessar, a hand (Hittite)

hand [<OE hand],
by hand

mano (MANV),
Scripts N206, Q219;
manu (MAN8), Script R596

abdhi, udadhi
samudra

daryâ, sea
(Persian)

more, luka,
sea-port
(Serbo-Croatian)
morze (Polish)
mora (Belarus)
jur'ai (Baltic
Sudovian)
MARE, sea (Romanian)

thalassa (Greek)
det (Albanian)

mare-is

gweilgi [f], sea, torrent mor (moroedd) {m]
(Welsh)
fairge [f] sea,
ocean
maraiche [m], sailor, mariner; muir
[f], g.
mara (Scott)
mor (Breton)
mare [f] (Italian)
mar [f], pond; mer [f] sea; marin [m] mariner
(French)

sea

mar, Script Z572, Z1236, Z1250, Q406, Q512
maram, Script Z43
marem, Script
Z1139;

maras, Script S-8
(note "am" and "em" must be sing. acc. variant spelling.)

x

nesâne, nesân,
daxse, mark [n]
(Persian)

cel, marka, nota,
ocena, oznaaczyc,
oznakowac,
stopien, wypisac,
znacznik, znak
mark (Polish)
MARCA, to mark (Romanian)

simeio, emporiko
sima, bathmos,
symeiono,
bathmologo, mark (Greek)
lë gjurmë, shënoj, etiketoj, vë vulë, to
mark; kryc, shenjë, kufi, vulë, cak,
notë, emër, tregues, famë, start, njollë,
mark [n]
(Albanian)

marcus-i; designare,
notare, to mark

amlygyn-nau [m],
mark, banner;
marc-iau [m], mark (Welsh)
marcare, to mark, score (Italian)
marque [f] mark
(French)

Marcus-i, Roman
praenomen;
possibly to mark,
a mark, to
note

marca, Script M8

x x MARIS old river in Romania - today called Mureş (Romanian)
x Mars, Martis, [old form Mavors]) x Mars Maris, Script CF-1, CF-6
(see maf)

kAkola, m. raven; n. acert. poison or hell;
dhvAGkSa
[m] a crow.

kalâqe siyâh, zâq, meski, raven; kalâq, crow (Persian)

kruczy, kruk,
raven;
crew, piac,
wrona, crow
(Polish)
varna, crow;
varnas, raven;
(Baltic-Sudovian)
MIERLĂ, blackbird (Romanian)

kotsyfas (Greek)
mëllenjë, mulizezë
(Albanian)

merula-ae [f]

mwyalch, blackbird; bran (brain) [f], crow, rook, raven (Welsh)
merlo [m] (Italian)
merle [m] (French)

blackbird? crow
[<OE crawe]?

marle, Script Z592;
see merlvm

x x x x Marsi-orum; adj. Marsicus and Marsus-a-um x Marsi, ancient people of Latium Marsi, Script M60

aparokSay, -yati, to
witness; karmasAksin
[m], witness of acts;
vettR, knower,
witness

govâhi dâdan, to
testify; govâhi,
govâh, witness [n]; govâh budan, to witness (Persian)

dawac
swiadectwo,
swiadczyc,
testify; byc
swiadkiem,
swiadczyc,
swiadek, zeznanie,
witness
(Polish)
MARTOR, witness; MARTIR, martyr (Romanian)

martus, witness;
martyro, testify
(Greek)
dëshmi, dëshmitar,
provë, witness [n]; dëshmoj, dal
dëshmitar, shfaq,
to testify (Albanian)

testor-ari, to bear
witness

tyst-ion [fm], witness (Welsh)
martire [m], attestare, to testify (Italian):
martyr [m], témoigner,
attester, to testify
(French)

martyr, witness
[<OE witnes]

marten
Script N11, N533;
martir, Script Z598

x x Marti, second day of week, Tuesday; MARTIE, Mars (Romanian)
Ares v

Mars, Martis [old form Mavors]; martius-a-um, adj. from Mars

x Mars, god of agriculture and war; from Mars Marti,
Script N628, M60;
Marties, Script
N304, N324

chaTA [f], mass,
lump, multitude; rAzi [m], heap, mass, multitude; puJja [m], heap, lump, mass,
multitude of

tude, âyine asâ,
mass [n], tude
kardan, to mass
(Persian)

gromadzic, masa,
mnostwo, msza,
nagromadzenie,
mass (Polish)
MASA, table, dine, to mass (Romanian)

maza, soros, ogkos, synolo, leitourgia, mazevo, syssorevo
(Greek)
masë, lëmsh,
grumbull, meshë,
tufë, shumicë, sasi, tog, mass [n] (Albanian)

massa-ae [f], mass, lump

pentwr (pentyrrau)
[m], heap, pile, mass;
pentyrru, to heap, pile, accumulate, amass; clamp-iau [m], mass, lump, bunch, clump, monster (Welsh)
massa [f] mass,
bunch (Italian)
masse [f] mass,
heap, crowd;
masser, to mass
(French)

to mass

masa, Script BS-20
masan
, Script Au83;
MaSaN, Script
Z1164;
maso (MASV), Script K75, K84, K92
masnial or masni al, Script A-4
(Short text eca suthi masni al THANCHVILVS (this is the point, site  of Tanaquil's tomb?)

yeS, yeSati, to boil up, bubble; mad or
{
manda, ma3dati, -te, ma3ndati, -te,
mama3tti, mA3dyati}
, pp.
{matta3}, to bubble,
undulate, boil, be
agitated, or pleasantly excited, rejoice at, be mad or drunk with, to madden

jusânidan, jusidan, to boil (Persian)

gotowac, wrzec, boil (Polish)

brazo, boil (Greek)
avulloj, ziej,
gatuaj me ujë të valuar, valoj, gufon [deti],
to boil (Albanian)

madeo-ere; to steam; bullire, to boil

berwi, to boil, seethe, effervesce; brydio, to burn, inflame, boil,
throb (Welsh)
boilire, to boil;
vaporizar, to steam
bouillir, to boil; s'évaporer, to steam (French)

to be wet, steam,
to be
boiled [<Lat. bullire], to be
steeped in, about in

matam, Script Z761, Z1359, Z1647
matan, Script Z1777
(Note: This text is from the linen wrappings of the Zagreb Mummy. Thus "we boil" (matam)and "they boil" (matan)

matR^i, maataa, ambaa; zuzU [f]
mother.

barethrishva
(Avestan)
mâdar (Persian)

majka (Serbo
Croatian)
maci, matka
(Belarus)
mate (Baltic
Sudovian

mana, mitera (Greek)
mëmë, nënë
(Albanian)

mater, matris [f]

màthair (Scott)
mamm (Breton)
mam-au [f] (Welsh)
mère [f], maman [f] (French)
madre [f]; mamma [f] (Italian)
mácar (Tocharian)
êna (Lydian)
matar (Phrygian)
xñna, a mother (Lycian)

mother [<OE
modor]; mama

matra, Script R426,
matro, matru,
(MATRV)
,
Script R487

matrob (MATRO8), Script R459

x x x x x x Mathuma, person's name?
Matthew?
mathuma, mathoma (MATHVMA) Script PA-5

maharsi, great rishi
(rishi = sage);
pramahas, of great
might

sokuh, bozorgi,
far, magnificence;
bozorg, setabr,
meh, adj. great
(Persian)

MAXIMA, the great (Romanian)

metgalos, tranos,
spydaios, great;
megaloprepis,
magnificent (Greek)
mad
ështor,
madhërishëm, I
madhërishëm,
mrekulleshëm,
magnificent;
madh, famshëm, fisnik, kryesor, adj. great
(Albanian)

maximus-a-um,
superl. of magnus-a
um, compar.
maior, maius; great, large; of
standing, great,
mighty, powerful,
important

mawr-ion, cymaint,
mwy, mwyaf, dj. large, big, great, high; ysblennyd, adj. splendid, magnificent
(Welsh)
magnanimo (Italian)
magnifique
(French)
wali, great (Hittite)

great [<OE great], glorious, magnificent [<Lat. magnificus-a-um]

maximas (makimas),
Script VF-6; See Note (2)

x

kân [n], marâ, mâle man, pron. mine; xodam, myself
(Persian)

ja, mi, mnie, me
(Polish)
ME(A), to me, mine (Romanian)

mua, , ma, unë, me, pron.
(Albanian)

me

fi, I, me; fy ('m, 'n), my; mi, pron. I, me; myfi, pron., I, me, myself (Welsh)
me (Italian)
me (French)

me, to me, myself

me, Script, Z122,
Z224, N149, N280,N357, N363, N391,
N485, N582, Q311,Q360, Q551, R459,
R474, R619
Me, Script M45

x x x x x x Mean, a Lydian goddess like Diana and Artimus, a virgin huntress who awarded Alexander / Paris with the hand of Helen, according to Etruscan mytholgy, script DM.
Mean, Script DM-7, CU-3, CZ-2

x

x

x

x

x

mecco (Italian)

with me, to me

mek, Script N74,
N112, N139, N173, N206, N216, N230,
Q311, Q326, Q452, Q521, Q784, Q795,
Q806,
Q813, Q829, Q837, Q863, Q871,
TC213, Au22

x

x

x

x

x

x

Etruscan name of Diana, Artimus; ancient name of Lydia

MEAN, Script
DM-7

madhurasa [m], honey
juice, sweetness;
madhu [f], sweet,
pleasant, agreeable
[n], milk, honey,
Soma, mead, wine

ängabin, asal
honey (Persian);
hingiv (Kurdish)

kochanie!, miod,
honey (Polish)
MIERE, honey (Romanian)

meli, honey
(Greek)
mjaltë, ëmbëlsi, një mrekulli, shpirti im [gj.fol.], shpirt njeriu (Albanian)

mel, mellis

me+l [m], honey
(Welsh)
miele, [f] honey
(Italian)
miel [m] honey
(French)
melit, honey (Hittite)

honey [<OE hunig], sweetness,
pleasantness;
mead [<OE medu]

mele, Script Z133, Z224;
meli, Script AJ-1

x x x x x x Meleager, prince of Calydon, hero of the Calydonian Boar Hunt Meliapher (MELIAØR), Script DB-2
x x x x x même (French)
the self, same?
mem, Script XA-26, XE-2

sIsa & {sIsaka}[n]
lead; irajy, -jyati, -te, to direct, lead,
dispose of, command;
dIrghI kR, to lengthen, lead far away; RtAy, pp.
{ya3ntra} lead or
make right, observe
the law; be obedient, pious, or honest;
puras, adv. in front, forward, before (also prep. w. gen., abl., acc., or ); eastward, at first. With {gam} go
first, take the lead;
Cf. {kR} 1 & {dhA}

rahbari, pisvâyi,
sorb, lead [n],
rahbari kardan, to lead (Persian)

doprowadzenie,
glowna rola,
interlinia,
kierowac,
kierownictwo,
led, olow, prowadnica,
prowadzenie,
prowadzic, prym,
przewod, zagranie,
zagrywac, lead
(Polish)
MÂNA, to lead, to direct, to conduct, to guide (Romanian)

odigo, kathodigisi,
to lead, guide;
proporevomai,
protia, molybi,
molybdos,
to lead (Greek)
coj,
drejtoj, shpie, jam në krye, shoqëroj, kryesoj, bind, udhëheq, e
bëj të, ndjek, to
lead;
drejtoj,
udhëheq,
komandoj, to guide
(Albanian)

duco, ducere, duxi, ductum, to draw along or away; to charm, influence,
mislead; to lead, to marry

arwain, to lead;
blaenori, to lead,
precede, head, forego; tywys, to lead, guide
(Welsh)
menare (Italian)
mener (French)
arnumi, I bring;
tapariala, to rule;
uwate, to bring, lead
(Hittite)

to lead [<OE
laedan], to take, to
deal, to bring, to
conduct, guide,
drive, command [<OFr.
comander]

mena, Script K128
menas, Script Z805
mene, Script Z1835, M60
menes, Script N160;
menan, Script K131

meniar, Script N428

x x x Athena Minerva x Minerva, goddess of war
Menarva (MENARFA), Script CN-3
Menrva (MENRFA) Script MR-2, MG-3, LM-3, CF-4, CK-1, CX-2, CAB-1, DG-3, DK-1
 _ _NRFA, Script OB-1

x

x

x

x

x

x

Menelaus, husband of Helen of Troy

MENLe, Script
DM-10

manasy, -syati, -te, to have in mind, intend; manasketa [m], idea (of the mind)

maqz, andise, rây, mind [n]; pâyidan,
yâdâvar sodan, to mind (think);
hozvârdan,
daryâftan,
âsnudan, to
understand
(Persian)

dazenie, decyzja,
dusza, opinia,
pamiec,
przejmowac sie,
rozum, umysl,
zdanie, zwazac,
zyczenie, mind
(Polish)
MINTE, mind (Romanian)

nous, gnomi,
prosecho, frontizo,
mind; katanoisi,
antilipsi,
synennoisi,
understanding
(Greek)
mend, mendje,
intelekt, opinion,
shpirt
, mind [n]
(Albanian)

mens, mentis [f] mind,
understanding,
intellect; judgment,
feelings, courage

bryd-iau [m], mind, heart, will; meddwl (meddyliau) [m],
thought, meaning,
opinion, mind (Welsh)
mente, pensiero,
intenzione, inteligenza

(Italian)

esprit, penchant, avis [m] (French

mind, understanding

mens, Script
R349, R359

arh, arhati, to
deserve, merit, be
liable to, capable of

sazâvâr budan,
sâyestegi, dâstan, to deserve
(Persian)

zaslugiwac,
deserve;
zaleta,
zasluzyc,
zsluga,
merit (Polish)
persluzit, to
deserve
(Baltic-Sudovian)
MERIT, I merit, to merit ; MERITUL, the merit (Romanian)

axia, azizo,
merit (Greek)
meritë, vlere,
merit;
meritaj, to
merit, deserve
(Albanian)

mereo-ere
ui-itum; meritus-a
-um

haeddiant
(haeddiannau) [m], merit, desert, due;
teilyngu, to deserve, merit; elwa, to gain,
profit, benefit, earn; ennill, to win, gain, earn, attain, get
(Welsh)
toill, va. (Scott)
meritare (Italian)
mériter (French)

to deserve, [<Lat.
desirvio-ire, to serve zealously, be a slave to] earn [<OE earnian], obtain; deserving, merit

mer, Script K97,
L38
meres, Au35
meri, Script Z98, Z317, Z386
merio (MERIV) Script L38
meritan, Script PC-11 
PC
merito (meritv),
Script R437

x x x x merula-ae merlo (Italian). merle (French)
blackbird
merlum (MERLVM) Script Z142, Z245, Z470, Z969, Z1016, Z1065, Z1602, Z1832
(see marle)

ud, und, unatti,
spring, water, bubble up, wet, bathe, immerse, sprinkle, wet;
plu, plavat, to float, swim, bathe,
submerge, inundate,

immerse; dhA,
dadhAti, dhatte;
dadhati, -t, to put,
set, lay conceal,
immerse, ertc.

forubari, senâvari,
immersion
(Persian)

zanurzyc, immerse
(Polish)
MERS, MERSU, walk, walking, go, going (Romanian)

embythizo,
immerse; bouto,
bythizo, boutia,
dip (Greek)
zhyt, zhys, thith,
ngatërroj, to
immerse (Albanian)

merso-are

suddo, to sink, dive, founder, immerse, merge, invest; trochi,
to dip, plung, immerse, drench, duck, dunk, soil (Welsh)
immergere (Italian)
immerger (French)

to dip, immerse;

merso (mersv),
Script Q326, Q468
mersos (MERSVS),
Script Q294
x x x x meo, meare; 2nd pers. pres. mes x to go or pass
mes, Script PQ-6, PC-10

bhuj, bhunakti,
bhuGkte, to enjoy,
cause to enjoy or eat, feed, reap the fruit; kRSi [f], ploughing,
agriculture,
husbandry; field;
{kRSI}); harvest.

derudan, derow
kardan, parxidan,
to reap; derow,
xarman, harvest
[n], derow kardan,
to harvest
(Persian)

zbierac zboze,
zbiory, zniwa,
harvest (polish)

therizo, reap;
sygkomidi,
therismos, harvest
(Greek)
korr, mbledh, to
reap; korrje,
prodhim,
përfundim, pasojë, harvest [n] (Albanian)

meto-metere, messui, messum

medi, to reap (Welsh)
messe [f], crop,
harvest;
mietere, to reap (Italian)
moisson [f], harvest,
moisssonner, to reap (French)

to reap {<OE
ripan], harvest
[<OE
haerfest],
mow down

Metin, name of person? Medea?

MeTH, Script
M38
metva (MET8A)
Script Z1216
metua, metoa (METVA) Script CT-1
metin, Script CJ-3
x x x x x x Medusa, Greek sorceress Metus, Metos (METVS) Script DG-2

asatkArya [n], an evil deed; durAdhI, adj. evil-minded; durvAc [f], evil speech; duzcit, adj. thinking evil; dUDhI, adj., evil minded

W-kesh; E-vad
(Armanian)

akha, bad, evil; angra (Avestan)
bad, sum,
ziyânâvar, adj.,
evil, bad;
badi,
ziyânâvar, bad,
evil [n] (Persian)

neispravan, rdjav,
zao
(Serbo-Croatian)
zlo, zly, evil;
brzydki, ugly;
niedobry,
worse,
zepsuty,
zlo, zly,
bad (Polish)
brydki (Belarus)
piktas, vargas,
bad, evil
(Baltic-Sudovian)

kakos, kako, evil; aschimos, bad; aschima, badly (Greek)
e keqe, fatkeqësi,
mëkat, sëmundje, evil [n]; mungesë
besimi, mosbesim,
mistrust [n];
keq,
bad, adv.
e keqe,
bad [n]
(Albanian)

suspicor-ari, to
suspect, surmise,
suppose;
malus-a
um
, comp. peior-us;
peius
, superl.
pessime, badly, ill

drwg (cyddrwg,
gwaeth, gwaethaf), adj.
bad, evil, naughty,
wicked, ill; drygionus,
adj. bad, wicked, evil naughty; anhardd, adj.
unhandsome,
unseemly, ugly ;
annillyn, adj. inelegant,
ugly, clumsy,
unseemly; cethin, adj., dark, fierce, ugly; diolwg, hagr, adj. ugly;
hyll (f. hell;
pl. hellion) adj. ugly, hideous, grisly, gruesome (Welsh)

sospettare (Italian)
mauvais, bad; méfier,
to mistrust (French);

evil [<OE eyfel],
bad, adj. worse
[<
OE badd] harmful

meva (ME8A)
Script Q117
(See
peiu [PEIV] Script N268)
Compare the pronunciation of
Menrva (MENRFA) (Latin Minerva) with ME8A, 8RATER, (English brother) etc. where the "8" appears to be a "b", as opposed to the "F" being disctinctly a "v" as in Minerva. At other times the "F" is a "u" as in EFAN (Euan), another name for Bacchus.


 Notes:

1) The character K, , is rare in the Etruscan scripts. It is positioned between the H and the I in the Formello Alphabet from Veii; Rome, Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia (from The Etruscans, Massimo Pallottino, Indiana University Press, 1975). See Note (2) below for the use of the K. The word, Chiave, sets the word following it: LAFES.
(2) The word, LAFES, is used on a 7th century B.C. gold fibula from Chiusi in the context, "to me / my [the] gold key (Lat. chiafe) of praise [of] Nasia the great. The word MAXIMAS reflects a shift from Latin, "maximus" to Etruscan "machimas."
(3) Addition of prefix, FEL, before LVIS in TC-103 suggests this is a name, Luis. Change based on better image from http://vcg.isti.cnr.it/projects/miscellanea/cortona/cortona_images/


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