Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Vocabulary with Indo-European cognates
11.23.18 Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):


Indo-European Table 1, Part 5 (of 11 Parts)

 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)

This table has Indo-European, Hurrian, Georgian (Kartlevian), Latvian (Baltic) and Finnish (Uralic) and Akkadian selections. We have colored words that may be related among the various languages/families. The coloring provides an unusual view of the mix of the cited languages. A Concordance with Akkadian is included in our Copeland-English-Akkadian Dictionary.


 by Mel Copeland

(from a work published in 1981)

Table 1, Section 1B: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.


Avestan, Persian, Georgian, Hurrian

Slavic, Baltic, Uralic

Greek, Armenian, Albanian






atra, therein, (in this), tatra, therein (in that), thereupon

adht [-] thereupon, afterwards; from that place, tadha, this is, there, in that place, at that time, then, athra (adv.) there (Avestan)

nj, darn j, adj.,
adv. there (Persian)
იქ, ik, there (Georgian)

edia, edini, there, itini, there, here, (Urartian)

akannaka, akannakunu, alluk, ammakam, anummānum, there, adv., innu, conj., there,
arānu, there, to there, here, from there,

anummi, there, thither (Akkadian)

там, tam, there (Belarusian)
tamo, there (Croatian)
tam, w tym  miejscu, there (Polish)
tur, there (Latvian)
acolo, there, LA, there (Romanian)
siell, there (Finnish-Uralic)

εκεί, ekei, there; tote, oipon, then
ayntegh, there (Armenian)
atje, there, aty, ktu, n kt vend, there (Albanian)

ibi, ibis, genit. ibis and ibididis, the ibis; ibi, adv.
illi, istic,
there, at that place,
en!, ecce!, behold!

ann, there (Irish)                  
ann, there (Scott)
yno, there (Welsh)
L, there, ivi, thereat, ecco, here, there (Italian)
L, there (French)

antuṣ (adv.), thereupon, afterwards (Tocharian)
abada(n), there,
biaku, there and then (Hittite)

adv. there [<OE thaer], at that place, then [OE thenne],
thereupon, therein, in [<OE], within the boundaries, toward the inside of, into, into or toward a location, etc.

la, Z470, Z551, TC179, TC290, TC318, K58, M74, AT-8, Q21, Q521, R381
_la, Script CH-2, (name of warrior)
LI, Z700, "the pl., there, adv."

ive, ibe (I8E), Script
Q107, Q117

ip, Script S22
ipa Script Z1153, Z1183, Z1227, BT-14, L-24
ipe, Script PQ-1
, Script Z1153,
Z1183, Z1227
ipei, Script Z1168
ipi, Script TC71,
See also, EC, Z109, ECA, M74, A-1, V-1, AH-1, K103, ECE, Q126, Q136, J8-4, EK, Q674, AC19?, EKE?, AC18,



isnr, be i, sn,
be nh, them
mat, them (Georgian)

іх, ich, them (Belarusian)

ih, them (Croatian)
ich, im, je, them
viņiem, them (Latvian)
LE, lor, them (Romanian)
niit, them (Finnish-Uralic)

em, em, them, aftous, aftes, afta
nrants, them (Armenian)
ata, ato, atyre,
them, pron.

ille, illa, ilud, they, illis, them,

les, legis, f., contract, covenant, agreement, law

iad, them (Irish)
iad, them (Scott)
nhw, them (Welsh)
loro, them (Italian)
leur, them (French)

-us, them (Hittite)

them [<ON theim, and OE  them]

le (Le), Script Z572, Z638, Z1334, Z1853, K67, Q303, AO-2, K37, K67

les, Script
R521, G21, K36,

li, Script TC-1


sh [ta]  for him, his (Avestan)
u, vey,
n, he, she; n, n ciz, it; nn, isn, nh, they; isnr, be
isn, be nh,
them, (Persian)
მას, ეს,
mas, to him, it, (Georgian)

яму, jamu to him, (Belarusian)
njemu, to him (Croatian)
ono, to, do niego, to him (Polish)
viņam, to him (Latvian)
LUI, to him, LU to him (modern & old Romanian)
hnelle, to him (Finnish-Uralic)

σε αυτόν, se aftn, to him (Greek)
nran, to him (Armenian)
pr t, to him,

ai, ajo, at, ky, kjo (Albanian)

hic, haec, hoc; is, ea, id, ille, illa, illud

d, to him (Irish)
dha, to him (Scott)
iddo fe, to him (Welsh)
a lui, to him (Italian)
lui, to him (French)

-()ṃ, him, her, it (Tocharian)
-si-, him, her it (Hittite)

it? to him [<OE], it?

lo (Lv), Script N311, Q152, Q202, Q224, R554, K113, PB-2

hvalati, to totter, kṣayaḥ, to fall, ruin

tivtiv, تلوتلو totter, ivi kardan, رد کردن reject, throw down (Persian)


datsema, to fall, შემცირება,
shemtsireba, to decline, იმედგაცრუება, imedgatsrueba, let down (Georgian)

kud-, to fall, down (Hurrian)

maqātu, to fall down, to fall, to fall to the ground, into a pit, to fall upon something, to fall in battle, to suffer a downfall, afflict, etc. (Akkadian)
пахіснуцца, pachisnucca, to totter,
padać, to fall, зніжацца, zniacca,
to delcine
pustiti, to totter, pasti, to fall, odbiti, to decline, spustiti, let down (Croatian)
nolaidīt, to totter, krist, to fall, atteikt, to decline, nolaisties, to let down (Latvian)

LAPEDA, LEPĂDA, to let something
fall, let down (Romanian)
nnty, to totter, pudota, to fall,
kieltyty, to decline (Finnish-Uralic)

να γεμίσει,
na gemsei, to totter, να πέσω, na pso, to fall, να μειωθεί, na meiothe, to decline (Greek)
saytakel, to totter, ընկնել, ynknel, to fall, հրաժարվելու համար,
hrazharvelu hamar, to decline (Armenian)
pr t lkundur, to totter, t bjer, to fall, decline, l n balt, let down (Albanian)

labo-are, to totter, begin to fall, labor, labi, lapsus, to decline,  fall down
iomln, to totter, decline, meath (Irish)
iomlan, to totter, cronadh, decline (Scott)
cyfansawdd, to totter, dirywiad, decline (Welsh)
barcollare, to totter, cadere, to fall (Italian)
chanceler, to totter, tomber, to fall (French)
totter, begin to fall; decline, fall down?
lape, AK-5

āhvayate, to provoke, challenge,

pra-kopayati, provoke, tāla, lock for doors

angixtan, انگیختن to provoke, arouse, awaken, excite, bastan, بستن to lock (Persian)

პროვოცირება, provotsireba, provoke, ლუქი, luki, latch, ჩაკეტვა, chaketva, lock   (Georgian)

mukīl ulbȋ, lock , (lit. which holds the bolt), argullu,  lock, muzzle, edēlu, to lock, edlu, locked up, imprisoned, eslu, locked up, constipated, gāmiru, bolt, mēdelu, bolt, bar of a door, mēdelu, in a mēdeli, man in charge of the bolt of the gate
правакаваць,  pravakavać, to provoke, зашчапка, začapka, latch, замыкаць, zamykać, lock (Belarusian)
izazvati, to provoke, reza, latch, zaključati, lock (Croatian)
provocēt, provoke, bloķēt, lock, fiksators, latch (Latvian)
a provoca, provoke, zăvor, latch, blocare, lock,
LACĂT, lock, padlock (Romanian)
provosoida, provoke, salpa, latch,
Lukko, lock (Finnish
να προκαλέσει, na prokalsei, to provoke, μάνταλο, mntalo, latch, κλειδαριά,
kleidari, lock (Greek)
hrahrel, to provoke, փակել, pakel, latch, կողպեքը, koghpeky, lock (Armenian)
provokoj, to provoke, shul, latch, bllokohet, lock  (Albanian)

lacesso-ire-ivi-and -li,-item; to provoke
persulus, bolt
pessulus, latch

provoquera spreagadh, to provoke, glas, lock (Irish)
a bhrosnachadh, to provoke, glas, lock (Scott)
i ysgogi, to provoke, clo, lock (Welsh)
provocare, to provoke, serratura, lock (Italian)
provoquer, to provoke, fermer cl, to lock (French)

har-, hark->lock, guard, protect,   areq- have, hold,  (Hittite)
to provoke, [<Lat. provocare, to challenge] exasperate, excite, induce?
[<OE locc], latch, [<OE lccan, to seize].

lachet, Script XB-17
(see cle)

ruj, rujati, break,
crushdown, destroy,
break open, tear out,
lacerate, dislimb;