Indo-European Table with Slavic, Baltic, Greek, Latin, Tocharian, Anatolian, Gaelic, Latin, Italian, French & Etruscan Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan vocabulary, with Indo-European cognates
10.13.2011 Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages; Proto-Indo-European (PIE):






Etruscan_Phrases
Indo-European Table 1, Part 8

 by Mel Copeland
(from a work published in 1981)






Table 1, Section 1C.1: Indo-European words as they relate to Etruscan. Notes: *Armenian W = West Armenian; E = East Armenian.

Sanskrit

Avestan & Armenian*

Slavic & Baltic

Greek & Albanian

Latin

other

English

Etruscan

graahaan.h, things;
tya, def. pron. that
person or thing

ciz [n], thing
(Persian)

predmet, stvar
mariti, nevolja,
uzrok (Serbo
Croatian)
odziez,
przedmiot,
rzecz, rzeczy,
sprawy, ubranie,
thing (Polish)
rec [f] (Belarus)
RÂIE, itch, or skin disease (Romanian)

ypothesi, matter;
pragma, thing
(Greek)
gjë, fakt, send,
kushj, punë
(Albanian)

res, rei

peth-au [m],thing,
item;
mater-ion [m],matter (Welsh)
nì, pl. nithean, thing, circumstance, affair (Scott)
tra,-ou (Breton)
coso [m] (Italian)
chose [f] (French)
wramm (Tocharian)

thing [<OE thing],
object [<obicio
-icere -ieci, iectum
,
to oppose],
matter
[<Lat.
materia-ae
and materies-ei [f]]

See also res, rei;

RIE and RII: Possibly Rhea, old name of Cybele? (L. Rhea-ae); See also Raia

ri, Script Z60, Z97, Z141, Z378, Z1615, Z1787, Au28, Au74, Au102, AN20, N462, R37, L44, MS13, K154, K156
rie (RIE), Script K42, Au74, Z62?
rii, Script K53, K79

x

x

x

x

regalis, regius-a-um,
of a king, royal,
regal, splendid

reale (Italian)
royal, adj. royal,
réel, adj. real
(French)

real [<Lat. realis], royal

rial, Script AM-9, AR-4
rials, Script BS-19

sudhana, adj., very
rich; tilvila, adj.,
fertile, rich;
purUvasu, adj., rich in goods.

tavângar, pormâye
gerânbahâ, rich, adj. (Persian)

bogaty, gleboki,
pozywny, zyzny,
rich (Polish)

plousios, rich;
ploutos, periousia,
wealth (Greek)
të pasurit, pasanik,
rich [n] (Albanian)

dives-vetis, rich,
wealthy; rica-ae [f],
a veil

abl, adj. rich, well
off, sufficient; aelaw [m], wealth (Welsh)
ricco, adj. rich (Italian)
riche, adj. rich
(French)
hap, wealthy, to
make a bargain
(Hittite)

rich, wealthy
[<OE
rice, rich]

ric, Script Z100, Z308, Z378, Z842, Z1352, Z1825, Z1787, Au28, Au74, Au102, AN20, N462, R31, L20, L44
rica, Script TC190 –see rica below

znath (znathiti),
pierce, perforate,
push back, repel,
strike down

x

odpychac, repel
(Polish)

zmbraps, prapësoj,
zbyth, to repel
(Albanian)

reicio-icere-ieci-iectum

gwrthladd, to resist,
repel, combat
(Welsh)
respinger, ripugnare,
to repel, reject
(Italian)
repousser,
rejeter, to
repel, reject (French)

to throw back,
throw behind,
drive off,
reject

rica, Script TC190

rAj, rAjati, -te,
rASTi;
to reign, rule, direct, be master of, shine, glitter, be illustious or eminent

saxt, seft, rigid, adj
sarrâst, râst, direct, adj., (Persian)

panowac,
panowanie,
prawidlo, przepis,
przymiar,
regula,
regulamin
, rzady,
rzadzic, zasada, rule lider, prowadnica,
prowadzacy,
przewodnik, leader
(Polish)
RIGĂ, rex, REGE, rex

archigos, leader
(Greek)
drejtues,
kryetar,
dirigjent,
udhëheqës,
udhëzues,
kryeartikull, kalë
prijës, rol kryesor,
qen prijës, leader
[n] (Albanian)

rigo-are, to lead;
rego, regere, rexi,
rectum
, to rule

lywio, to rule,
govern, direct, steer;
rheoli, to rule,
govern, control,
manage (Welsh)
rigare, to rule,
dirigere, to direct
(Italian)
rigide [f], rigid, firm,
strict, severe;
diriger,
to direct (French)
tapariala, to rule
(Hittite)

rigid, to lead [<OE lead]; to rule?

rik Script AF-1
rike, Script Q460,
Q726, Q837
rikes, Script Q671,
Q737, Q745, Q754

ambu, Apas,
dhArya,
vAr [n], water; uda, adj. water; udavAha, bringing water

âb[n], water
(Persian)

ociekac, podlewac,
poic, polewac,
woda, water
nawadniac,
przeplukiwac,
irrigate (Polish)
IRIG, I water, IRIGA, to water
(Romanian)

nero, potizo, water
(Greek)
ujit, i jap të pijë,
ujis, vadit, vadis,
holloj, me ujë, pi
ujë, lotoj, to water;
ujë, water [n]
(Albanian)

rigo-are, to water

dyfrio, to water,
irrigate (Welsh)
irrigare (Italian)
arroser, abreuver
(French)
watar (Gen. sing.),
wetenas, water;
warsa, dew (Hittite)

to water [<OE
waeter]

riges (RibES),
Script Q854;
rigo (RIbV),
Script R65;
ricu (RICF), Script MS24

tand, tanda, to relax, give way; zithilay, -yati, to loosen, relax; iyasy, -syate,
to shrink, relax,
dwindle

sost kardan, ârâm
sodan, to relax
(Persian)

odpoczac,odprezyc,
oslabic, zmniejszyc,
napiecie, relax
(Polish)

anapavomai,
chalarono, iremo,
relax; apalasso,
apolyo,
eleytherono,
apallagi, apolysi,
release (Greek)
liroj, lehtësoj,
zbutem,
dobësohem,
zvogëloj, clodhem,
to relax (Albanian)

rilassare

llacio, to slacken,
loosen, relax (Welsh)
rilassare (Italian)
relâcher (French)
lilai, to release
(Hittite)

relax [<Lat. relaxo
are
], slacken,
weaken,
release

RILiS, Script K54

vic, vinakti, to
separate, esp. grain
from the chaff; try,
examine; tul, tolayati, to lift up, weigh, examine, compare; ci {cike3ti}, {cinoti},
{cinute} ({cayate}), to observe, perceive,
examine, try

âzmâyes, bâzjuyi,
âzmun,
examination [n]
(Persian)

badac,
egzaminowac,
examine (Polish)

exetazo, examine;
controlloj,
ekzaminoj, këqyr,
marr në
provim,
bëj
provim, pyes
dëshmitari, to
examine (Albanian)

rimore-ari, to cleavento, probe, pry;
examino-are
, to weigh, consider

profi, to prove,
demonstrate, taste,
try, examine probe;
holi, to examine,
inquire, ask, query,
question (Welsh)
examinare (Italian)
examiner (French)

to pry [<ME prien]
into,
examine

rimat, Script TC331

rAj, rAjati, -te,
rASTi
; to reign, rule, direct, be master of,
shine, glitter, be
illustious or eminent;
virAji [f], queen,
deva [f], divine,
heavenly; queen,
princess;
rAjan [m], king, ruler

sâh, pâdsâh, king;
pâdsâhi, kesvar,
kingdom; sahbânu,
sahrbânu, queen
(Persian)

krol, king;
drolestwo, kingdom
(Polish)
REGN, rein, REGINA, queen (Romanian)

basileio, kingdom
(Greek)
regjencë [n]
regency
regjent [n] [polit.] regent[n];
mbretëreshë,
damë,
matkë, parezë,
queen [n]; mbret,
car, king [n]
(Albanian)

regnum-i, royal
power;
rego, regere, rexi, rectum, to
guide, direct, rule,
govern;
regius-a-um,
of a king, royal,
regal, splendid,
magnificent;
regina
-ae
, f. queen;
Rhenus-i [m], the
Rhine river

brenin (brenhinoedd)
[m], king, monarch;
rhi [m], king, lord;
brenhiniaeth [f],
kingdom;
teyrnas
-oedd
[f], kingdom,
realm (Welsh)
re, regno, m. king;
regina, f. queen;
regno, kingdom
reggere, to reign (Italian)
reine, f. queen; règne, m. reign;
règner, to reign, rule, hold, sway, prevail; régir,
to rule, govern,
administer
(French)
nasusara, a queen;
tapariala, to rule
(Hittite)

queen [<OE
cwen], king [<OE
cyning], kingdom, to rule; tyrant [<Gk. turannos, ruler]; note: S-22 is used as verb, "he reigns"

rin, Script Z1203,
rina, Script Z530, TC201, K-10, K31, K47, K70, K92, K101, K108, K147, K163, K181, S22, DA-9
rine, Script N21, N53, N553, N624, Q488
rines, Script Z1378
rino RINV), N160,
N260, N254,| N417
rinor (RINVR), Script Z432
ryna Script J-1
rinu (RINF), Script
Z960, K67
rinos (RINVS), Z1571,
the Rhine river?

sarit [f], stream,
river;
nAvya, adj.,
navigable, [n.f.],
river

rud, juy, stream,
[n];
rud, rudxâne,
river (Persian)

rzeka, river; brzeg,
podpier ac, podpora,
shore (Polish)
RÂU, river

revma, potami,
kymatizo, stream;
paralia, akti, shore
(Greek)
lumë, river;
breg,
candër, tokë,
mbështetëse,
pajandër, shore [n]
(Albanian)

rivus-i

afon-ydd [f], river;
glan-nau (glennydd)
[f], bank, shore,
brink, coast; traeth
-au [m], strand,
shore, beach (Welsh)
rio [m] (Italian)
rivière [f] (French)
hapa, river (Hittite)

river [<Lat. ripa,
bank],
stream [<OE stream] shore [<ME,
shore], bank [<of
Scand. orig.]

rio, riu (RIV), Scripts Z317, Z386, Z439, Z508, Z1553, Z1571, TC307
rios (RIVS) Script PM-6
ryo, ruo (RYV),
Script M8

udakānta, bank, shore, tIra [n], shore, bank, brim (of a vessel); taTa [m.f.], slope, declivity, shore, bank; kUla [n], slope, hill, shore, bank; rodha [m], obstruction,

restraint, blockade,
dam, bank, siege,
shore

daryâkenâr,
karâne,
bâr, shore
[n] (Persian)

rzeka, river; brzeg,
podpier ac, podpora, shore
(Polish)
RÂPĂ, shore, ravine

revma, potami,
kymatizo, stream;
paralia, akti, shore
(Greek)
breg, candër, tokë,
mbështetëse,
pajandër, shore [n]
(Albanian)

aripa-ae [f] shore, bank

afon-ydd [f], river;
glan-nau (glennydd)
[f], bank, shore,
brink, coast; traeth
-au [m], strand,
shore, beach;
achlesu, to succor,
shelter, protect; manure (Welsh)
ripa [f], shore, bank;  ripare, to protect, shelter, repair (Italian)
abri [m], shelter;
abriter, to shelter,
cover; côte, shore;
(French)
pahsi, pahhas, to
protect, to graze
(Hittite)

shore, bank; to
shelter

rip, Script AE-8

RtIy, -yate, to
struggle, quarrel;
kalahAy, -yate, to
quarrel, contend;
vigraha [m],
separation, division,
isolation, discord,
contest, quarrel, war
with

setize, gele, quarrel
[n]; setize kardan,
to quarrel
(Persian)

klocic sie, klotnia,
sprzeczka (Polish)

filoniko, filonikia,
kavgas, quarrel
kavgas, filoneikia,
filoneiko, brawl
(Greek)
grindem, grihem,
hahem, zihem, bëj
sherr, prishem,
diskutoj, to quarrel
(Albanian)

rixor-ari

cweryla (cweryl),
quarrel; cynhennu,
to contend, quarrel;
ffraeo, to quarrel,
bicker, brawl, nag;
ymgecru, to quarrel,
wrangle, bicker
(Welsh)
litigare (Italian)
crier, brailler;
discuter, to dispute
(French)
mugai, to complain, oppose (Hittite)

to quarrel
[<Lat.querela,
complaint],
brawl
[<ME brall]

riseras, Script M50

āhuti, any solemn rite accompanied by oblations; gRhya, adj. belonging to a house, [m], the
house-fire, domestic rite or rule; dhAman
[n], seat, home,
residence, law,
sacrifice, custom,
rite; karman, action, deed, sacrifice, rite

âyin, rite [n]
(Persian)

ceremonia,
uroczystosc,
ceremony (Polish)
RIT, rite (Romanian)

teletourgiko,
teletourgikos,
ritual; teleti,
ceremony (Greek)
ceremoni, rite [n]
(Albanian)

ritus-us, usage,
ceremony, rite;
caerimonia-ae [f],
holiness, sanctity,
holy awe, reverence,
religious usage,
sacred ceremony

defod-au [f] (Welsh)
rito, [m] rite (Italian)
rite [m] rite (French)

in due form, with
proper
ceremonies,
rite, devotion [<Lat. devoveo -vovere vovi -votum, to
consecrate, devote]

rite, Script Z748
rito, ritu RITV),
Script Q351

sarit [f], stream,
river;
nAvya, adj.,
navigable, [n.f.],
river

rud, rudxâne, river
[n] (Persian)

rzeka, river (Polish)

potamos, river
(Greek)
lumë, river; breg,
candër, tokë,
mbështetëse,
pajandër, shore [n]
(Albanian)

rivus-i

afon-ydd [f], river
(Welsh)
riva [f] (Italian)
rive [f] (French)
hapa, river (Hittite)

river, shore, bank

riva (RIFA), Script
Z1310
rifin (RIFYN) Script XC-1

see rio

knUy, to wet,
moisten; ghR,
jigharti, to sprinkle, moisten;
klid, klidyati, to be or become wet, wet, moisten, soil; pruS, pruSNoti, pruSNute, to wet, moisten, sprinkle anything on
oneself, sprinkle
about

tar kardan, namdâr
kardan, to moisten
(Persian)

zwilzyc, moisten
(Polish)
ROUĂ, dew (Romanian)

ygraino, moisten
(Greek)
lag, njom, lagem,
njomet, to moisten
(Albanian)

roro-are, to drop
dew, drip, be moist;
ros, roris [m] dew,
moisture

gwlychu, to wet,
moisten, bedew,
drench, dip;
lleitho, to damp, moisten; mwydo, to moisten, soak, steep, irrigate,
macerate (Welsh)
inumidire
irrorare, to drop dew, moisture; ruiada [f] dew (Italian)
humecter,
humidifier;
rosée [f] dew (French)
watar (Gen. sing.),
wetenas, water;
warsa, dew (Hittite)

to drop dew [<OE
daew, dew], moisten [<Lat. mucidus, moldy]; humidify [<Lat. humere, to be
moist]

ro, ru (RV),
Script Z1628, N268, N339, N357, N363, N738, BS-4, PO-14?
ror, rur (RVR) Script Z432;
roras, ruras (RVRAS)
Script K31, K109 See
ror below

x

x

x

x

rubor-oris, m., hardwood, oak

quercia, f. oak (Italian)
rouvre, m. oak (French)

hardwood, oak?

robaras (RV8ARAS), Script PL-15 (an area of the Piacenza Liver)
robris,(RV8RIS) Script AV-2

parvati, zilA, [f],
rock, stone; azan,
[m], stone, rock,
sky; mahAzaila [m], great rock or
mountain;
giripati
[m], chief of
the mountains, high mountain or rock; dRSad [f], rock, large stone, esp. the nether mill-stone raGg, raGgati, to move hither and thither, rock

sang, xâre, rock
[n], jonbândan,
takân dâdan, to
rock / stone
(Persian)

kolysac sie, skala,
urwisko, rock
(Polish)
RUGA, to prey (Romanian)

brachos, petra,
kouno, kouniemai,
rock; botsalo,
chaliki, ogkolithos,
boulder (Greek)
gur, kore e tokës,
shkëmb, formacion,
shkëmbor,
gur i
cmuar, diamant,
gjel sheqeri , rock
[n];
gur, popël,
boulder [n];
gur, guralec, guri i
cmuar, bë
rthamë,
stone [n]
(Albanian)

rugus-i [m] funeral
pile; scupulosus,
rocky

clegr-au [m], rock,
crag,
cairn, stony
place; clog-au [f],
rock, precipice;
craig (creigiau) [f], rock, crag; tarren (tarenni -ydd) [f], knoll, rock
(Welsh)
rocca [f] rock; roccia, [f] rock, fortress, distaff; roccioso, rocky (Italian)
roc [m] rock; roche
[f] rock, boulder,
stone, stoney mass;
rocheux, rocky
(French)
peruna, rock
(Hittite)

rock [<ONFr.roque],
boulder [<ME
bulder], stone [<OE stan], cairn [<ME carne, of Celtic orig.,
mound of stones
erected as a
landmark or
memorial],
crag
[<ME crag]

rok (RVK),
Script TC170,
TC298
roca (RVCA) Script Z1314
roce (RVCE) Script J10-1
roco (RVCV)
Script Z1227,
Z1146
rocio (RVCIV)
Script TC90:
See Petra

x x x x rudis-e, rough, raw, uncultivated, unrefined, unskilled, awkward x Rudus, name
(probably rodos)
rodos, rudos (RVDVS) Script AG-1; see roros

x

x

x

x

rex, regis [m], ruler

re [m], king (Italian)
roi [m], king
(French)

king, regent, realm
[<Lat regimen]

roi (RVI) Script Z606, Z1161, Z1310, Z1334, Z1386, Z1578, Z1780, TC28, TC179, AT-10, L31, AM-3; MS-1, AF19, AM-3, FR-2, L17, RA-4, PQ-10
roial (RVIAL) Script AT-10?
rois (RVIS), Script Z1623, BT-10
roim (RVIM), Script Z1243

x

x

Rzymski, Roman (Polish)
ROMA, Rome (Romanian)

romak [n], Roman
(Albanian)

Roma-ae, [f] Rome;
Rumina-ae, [f] a
Roman goddess

Rhufain, Rome
(Welsh)
Romano, adj. Roman
(Italian);
Romain, adj. Roman
(French)

Rome

Rom (RVM), Script Z1216, Z1310, Z1770, F-14, S40
Roma
, Script Z1641;
Romhe (RVMHE) or RVM HE, F15
Romi, Script Z1372, Z1533, K173
Romna RVMNA), Script F11;
Romia, Script Au13

AvAra, rakSNa [m], guard, protection; pAyu [m], guard,
protector; rakS,
rakSati, -te, to
protect, guard, keep, save from; vartula, adj. round [n], a circle; parijri, adj., running or spreading round; maNDalI, to make or become round; vITA [f], a small round pebble

negahbâni, pâsdâri,
[n], guard; pâs
dâstan, to guard;
gerd, adj. [n],
round (Persian)

chronic, gwardia,
konductor, oslona,
straz, straznik,
strzek, warta,
zabezpieczenie,
guard; brac zakret,
dookola, kolo,
naboj, okraglak,
okragly,
runda,
wokolo,
round (Polish)

roloi, bardia,
frourisi, froura,
frouros, epitiro,
prosecho,
epagrypno, watch;
frouro, fylasso,
froura, fylakas,
guard (Greek)
cikël, rreth, fetë,
xhiro, qark,
shëtitje, round [n]
bëj rojë, ruaj,
mbroj,
kontrolloj,
fenoj, marr masa ,
to guard (Albanian)

rotundare, to make
round; runa-ae [f], a dart

arail, to guard, care
for, foster, cultivate; cadw, to keep, preserve, save, guard, hold, detain, observe;
gwarchod, to watch, guard,
mind, ward; gwylio (gwylied), to watch, guard, mind, beware,
espy;
cwmpasu, to
round, wind,
surround (Welsh)
ronda, [f] rounds,
watch (Italian)
rond [f], adj. round, circular, rounds (French)
pahsi, pahhas, to
protect, to graze
(Hittite)

to guard [<OFr.
guarder], ward [<OE weard, a guarding] watch, make the rounds, make round?
gird [<OE gyrdan, to encircle with a belt or hand]; compass [<OFr. compasser]

ron, run (RVN), Script Z123, Z224, Z530, Z1600
rona, runa (RVNA), Script Z1615, Z1623
rone, rune (RVNE)
Script Z1600
rons, runs (RVNeS), Script Z568, Z1430
ronem, runem
(RVNEM)
Script
Z1438, Z1654
roni, runi (RVNI)
Script Z727, Z769
ronis, runis (RVNIS) Script BT-18
rono, runo (RVNV), Script R314
ront, runt (RVNT) Script Q453
ronto, runtv (RVNTV)  Script Q683,

x

x

x

x

x

x

Ronai, woman's name?

Ronai (RVNAI), Script BS-6 see Apronia

x

x

x

x

erunt, they will be

saranno (Italian)
seront
(French)

they will be

ront, runt (rvnt)
Script Q453, J48

raktaka, adj., red,
bloody; atilohita [f], very red; pratAmra, adj. deep red; lohitAy, -yati, to become or be red

sorx, germex, adj.,
[n], red (Persian)

czerwien,
czerwony, kolor
czerwony, krwawy,
rudy, red (Polish)
ROZ, pink (Romanian)

kokkinos, red
(Greek)
i kuq, i kuqërremë,
i skuqur, red, adj.
(Albanian)

rufus-a-um, red,
rudy;
rosa-ae [f] a rose;
roseus-a-um, rose
colored, rosy

coch-ion, adj.; rhudd
-ion
, red; pinc [m]
pink (Welsh)
rosa [f] pink, rosso
[m] red (Italian)
rose [f] rose, pink;
rouge, adj. red
(French)

red [<OE read],
ruddy [<OE rudig];
pink [<OE pincen]

roph, ruph (RVΦ),
Q543
rose, ruse (RVSE)
Script Z865

x x x x x x Rositia, probably a person's name based upon the "ia" suffix
Rositia (RVSITA), Script PO-11

tiliGga, nepAla,
bAlhi [m], of
a country; uzInara
[m], of a people or a country; videza [m], a foregin country, abroad; paradeza [m], foreign or hostile country.

kesvar, milhan,
rus, country [n]
(Persian)

rolny, wiejski,
wsiowy, rural
(Polish)

katanalono,
consume; agrotikos
rural (Greek)
fshat [n],
countryside
fshatar, bujqësor,
rural, adj.
(Albanian)

rodo, rodere, rosi,
rosum, to gnaw,
nibble at, corrode,
consume, disparage; roro-are, to drop
dew, be moist;
ruro-are, to live in
the country

gwledig, adj., rural, countrified, country, agrarian (Welsh)
rurale, adj. rural
(Italian)
rural, adj. rural
(French)

rural?

ror (RVR), Script, Z432
roras (RVRAS), Script K31, K109;
roros, rurus (RVRVS)
Script AG-1

tiliGga, nepAla,
bAlhi [m], of
a country; uzInara
[m], of a people or a country; videza [m], a foregin country, abroad; paradeza [m], foreign or hostile
country.

kesvar, milhan,
rus, country [n]
(Persian)

kraj, wies, country
(Polish)

chora, patrida,
ypaithro, country;
agrotikos, rural
(Greek)
fshat [n],
countryside
fshatar, bujqësor,
rural, adj. (Albanian)

rus, ruris, the
country, farm,
estate;
rudise-e, rough, raw,
uncultivated,
unskilled
rusticus-a-um, country, rural

gwledig, adj., rural, countrified, country, agrarian (Welsh)
rurale, adj. rural,
farm;
rustico [m]
farmhouse; adj.
rustic (Italian)
rural, adj. rural;
rustique, rustic
(French)

country [<LLat.
contrata]

ros, rus (RVS) Script R542, AT-2;
rusa (RFSA) Script TC108; probably resa
RUSTA (RVSTA), Script F-6

rathanemi, f. the rim of a chariot-wheel; rathacakra, chariot wheel

carx, carxe gerd,
wheel (Persian)
dewr, wheel,
circle (Kurdish)

kierownica, kolo,
wheel (Polish)
kelan, wheel
(Baltic-Sudovian)
ROATA, the wheel, ROTA, ROTI, to rotate (Romanian)

trochos, peristrefo,
gyrizo, wheel
(Greek)
rrotë, wheel [n]
(Albanian)

rota-ae [f]

olwyn-ion [f],
wheel, cycle;
rhod
-au
[f], wheel, orbit, ecliptic; troell-au [f],
wheel, spinning-
wheel, pulley; cerbyd-au [m],
chariot, coach, car
(Welsh)
roth (Scott)
ruota [f] (Italian)
roue [f] (French)

a wheel [<OE
hweol], chariot
[<Lat. carrus-i [m], a four-wheeled
vehicle,
wagon
[<MDu. wagen]

rot, rut (RVT),
Script Z138;
rota (RVTA), Script Z1168, Au22;
rotas (RVTAS), Script K124
rotas (RVTaS), Script BT-11
rote (RVTE), Script Z89;
roteu (RvTEF)
Script M24;

naSTi [f], loss, ruin; dhvR, dhvarati, to bend, cause to fall, ruin; bhraMz, bhrazate, bhrazyate, to fall, drop, bounce against, sink, decline, decay, disappear, be
lost; cause to fall,
throw down, ruin,
destroy; lup,
lumpati (-te), to break, harm,
injure, attack,
plunder, consume,
destroy, ruin

x

niszczyc, ruina,
ruiny, rujnowac,
upadek, zaglada,
ruin (Polish)

katastrofi, ereipio,
katastrefo, ereipono,
ruin (Greek)
gërmadhë,
shkatërrim, rrënim,
rrënoja, ruin [n]
(Albanian)

rubeus-a-um, of a
bramble; rubor-oris,
[m] redness,
modesty, shame,
disgrace;
rubeta
-orum
, bramble,
thickets;
ruina-ae [f] falling down,
collapse, ruin,
destruction

adfail (adfeilion)
[m], ruin; murddun
-od [m], ruin, ruins; andwyo, to spoil, ruin, undo, harm, mar;
miaren (mieri) [f], bramble, briar
(Welsh)
roveto [m] bramble
bush;
rovinare, to
ruin, to crumble
down (Italian);
ruiner, to wreck, ruin, ronce [f], bramble
(French)

ruined, bramble
[<OE braembel]; mar [<OE mierran, to damage, deface or spoil]

rovato, ruvato
(RV8ATV
)
Script Q139

x

x

x

x

Robigo (Rub) -in,
Robiscus (Rub) -i
[m], a diety invoked
to preserve grain
from mildew
rubeo-ere, to be red, to blush,

arrosire, to blush (Italian)
rougir, to blush (French)

Rub-i, a diety
invoked to preserve grain
to blush

rub (RV8) Script N268, N476, N607
rub (RF8), PL-16 (this is an area of the Piacenza Liver)

x

x

x

x

rufus-a-um, red, ruddy

rosso (Italian); rouge, roux, rousse (French)

red [<OE read], ruddy

rufas (RVFAS), Script Au33

x

u râ, -as, him, her,
pron.; ân, [n], ân,
ân ciz, pron. it
(Persian)

go, jego, jemu, mu,
him; ja, jej, her; ono,
to, it (Polish)
SA, herself, to her (Romanian)

i tij, e tij, të tija, i
tiji, e tija, të tijtë, të tijat, his, pron.;
atë, asaj, i saj, e saj, të saj, her, pron.; i tij, i saj, i veti, e vetja, its, pron. (Albanian)

se or sese

suo, sua, suoi, sue (Italian)
sa
, poss. adj. his,
her, its, one's
(French)

reflexive pronoun
or poss. adj.

sa, ScriptZ522, Z842, Z1317, TC12, TC28, TC201, TC307, K103, Au17, AN30, TC103

x

xodas, xodas râ,
himself, herself,
pron. (Persian)

go, jego, jemu, mu,
him; ja, jej, her; ono, to, it (Polish)

ai vetë, vetë,
himself, pron. ajo
vetë, veten [e saj],
vetes [së saj], vetë,
herself; vetë, itself,
pron. (Albanian)

se or sese, acc. sing. and pl. sui, genit. sibi, dat., se or sese, abl. or reflex. pron.
3rd pers., himself,
herself, itself,
themselves

ei hun, hunan,
himself, herself,
itself (Welsh)
se, if, conj. whether, provide, in case, providing;
se, reflex.
pron. (Italian)
se, reflex. pron.
(French)

reflexive pronoun,
himself, herself,
itself, oneself,
themselves

se, Script Z77, Z102, Z1310, J23, K11, K122, Q805, R26, R127, BT31, Au40, BB-3
Se, Script MS13, S-1, K117, K130, Z24
sese, Script Q424,
Q661, Q767

x

xodasân, xodasân
râ, themselves,
pron. (Persian)

go, jego, jemu, mu,
him; ja, jej, her; ono, to, it (Polish)

ai vetë, vetë,
himself, pron. ajo
vetë, veten [e saj],
vetes [së saj], vetë,
herself; vetë, itself,
pron. (Albanian)

se or sese, acc. sing. and pl. sui, genit. sibi, dat., se or sese, abl. or reflex. pron. 3rd pers., himself,
herself, itself,
themselves

si, reflexive
pronoun; indef.
pronoun, reciprocal
pronoun (Italian)

reflexive pronoun,
himself, herself,
itself, oneself,
themselves;
reciprocal pron.
each other, one
another

See also:
si, supposing that;
si, yes

si, Script Q56, Q283, Q303, R40, R53, R195, G13, G45, TC170, K46, K52, M50, AB-6, AN-53, PG-1, ZB-1, Z79, Z104, Z139, R176, Q53, Q283, Q303, R39, R53, R173, R195, G13, G36, TC170, K46, K52, M50, AB-7, AN-53, PQ-2, XT-5

x

x

x

x

Sabelli-orum [m], the Sabines; vellus-eris, a fleece, skin or hide

x

Sabines? Reflexive sa + vellus?

sabels (SA8ELeS)
Script TC103

kUrpa, sand; saikata [f], sandy, sandy soil, sandbank;
pAMsu [m], dust,
sand; sikatA [f],
sand, gravel;
cumbana [n], a
kiss; niMs, to kiss

mâse, rig, sen,
sand [n] (Persian)

piach, piasek, sand
(Polish)

filo, fili, kiss
(Greek)
puth, prek lehtë, to
kiss; kohë, rërë,
rërëzë, ranishtë,
plazh, sand [n]
(Albanian)

saburra-ae [f], sand
used as ballest;
savior-ari, to kiss;
saevio-ire-li-itum,
to rage, be furious

tywod [m], sand;
cusanu, to kiss
beiston-nau [f],
seashore, beach, surf (Welsh)
sabbia [f] sand,
splaggia [f], beach
(Italian)
sable [m] sand; plage [f], beach (French)

sand [<OE sand]?
to kiss [<OE
cyssan]? to rage
[<Lat. rabies]?
beach [<orig.
unknown]

sabo; savo (SA8V), Script K58

bhastrA, f. bag, sack, bellows; topara, small bag, purse

guni [n], sack; jib,
kif [n], purse
(Persian)

worek, wylac z
pracy, sack;
portmonetka,
sakiewka, sciagnac,
zacisnac, purse
(Polish)
kalikis, bag;
karbis, purse
(Baltic-Sudovian)
SAC, sack (Romanian)

sakola (Greek)
grabitje, thes,
sack; kuletë,
qesë, purse;
cantë, bag
(Albanian)

sacculus-i [m]

ffetan-au [f], sack,
bag;
sach-au [f], sack (Welsh)
sac, sack,
bag;
sacaich,
va. load, lay on as a burden (Scott)
sacco [m] (Italian)
sac [m] (French)

sack [<Gk. sakkos],
purse [<Gk. bursa,
leather]

sac, ScriptZ317, Z328, Z1139, Z1825, Z2192, Z290, Z317, Z386, Z463, Z540, Z638, Z842, Z872, Z922, Z937, Z960, Z1065, Z1106, Z1292, Z1662, CP56
sacev (SACE8), Script N100
saco (SACV) Script CP-57

tyak.h

qorbâni, hâdoxt
[n], sacrifice;
espand, pâk,
sacred, adj.
(Persian)

zrtva, zrtvovati
(Serbo-Croatian)
ofiara, poswiecac,
poswiecenie,
sacrifice (Polish)
sventas, sacred
(Baltic-Sudovian)
SACRIFICA, to sacrifice (Romanian)

thysiazo, thysia
(Greek)
fli, sacrifice;
sakrifikoj, to
sacrifice (Albanian)

sacro-are

aberthu, to sacrifice;
affrymu, to offer,
sacrifice, immolate
(Welsh)
sacro, adj. sacred,
holy;
sacrificare, to
sacrifice (Italian)
sacré, adj., sacrifice [m]; sacrifier, to sacrifice (French)
sipantahhi, I
sacrifice; uppi, pure, sacred (Hittite)

to sacrifice, offer
[<Lat.
offerro
oferre, obtuli,
oblatum
]

sakra, Script N311,
N378,

sakre
, Script Q303, Q311, Q375, Q416, Q481, R258, R270, R405
sakreo (SAKREV),
Script R40
sakreu, sacrev
(SAKRE8)
,
Script N598

x x  SĂRUTA, to kiss (Romanian)
x savior-ari bacio, kiss, baciare, to kiss (Italian)
baiser, kiss (French)
to kiss
saf (SAF) Script CF41

kati [m], of an
ancient sage; kenipa [m], a sage; surarSi [m], a divine sage;
rAjarSi [m], a royal sage; kavi; adj., wise,
thoughtful [m], a
wise man, seer, sage, poet; siddhAdeza
[m], lAkSaNika [f], fortune-teller,
prophet

dânesmand, dânâ,
xeradmand, adj.,
dânesmand,
xeradmand [n],
sage; payâmbar,
peyqambar,
prophet [n]
(Persian)

prorok, prophet
(Polish)

profitis, prophet
(Greek)
i urtë, sherbelë,
sage [n];
mënyrë,
njeri i mencur, wise [n];
profet,
prashikues,
prophet [n]
(Albanian)

sagax-acis, keen,
acute, shrewd,
clever;

saga-ae
[f], a
prohetess, fortune
teller; vates-is, a
prophet, seer

saets [m], sage;
proffwyd-i [m],
prophet (Welsh)
saggiare, to try, test;
saggio [m] sage; profeta prophet [m], (Italian)
sage, adj. [m], sage;
assagir, to make wiser, to steady; prophète [m],
prophet (French)

a sage [<Lat.
sapere,to be wise;
sapienta-ae [f],
wisdom],
prophet [<Gk. prophetes],
to test, make wise?

sage (SAbE)
Script Q224
sagi (SAbI)
Script N573, Q162

x

x

x

x

saga-ae [f], a
prohetess

x

sage, prophetess? word is used as a noun

saih, S-50

viroga [m], health,
healthy; aruj
adj., free from
disease, sound,
healthy, well; aroga [m], health;
AyuSmant, adj.,
healthy

tandorosti,
behbudi, health [n]
(Persian)

zdrowy, healthy
(Polish)
 SĂNĂTOS, healthy (Romanian)

ygieinos, healthy
(Greek)
i mirë për
shëndetin, i
shëndetshëm,
healthy, adj. (Albanian)

sannus, adj. healthy

iach, adj. healthy,
well,
hale (Welsh)
sanare, to cure, heal, reclaim, remedy, settle;
sano, healthy (Italian;
sain, adj. healthy
(French)

healthy? health:
[<OE
haelan], hale
[<ON heill, sound in health]

sains, Script TC170

zAlA [f], hut, house, hall, room, stable; sabhA [f], house or hall for public meetings, court or palace of a prince

av_ra; otâq, xâne,
jâ, room [n]
(Persian)

dwor, gmach, hall,
przedpokoj,
sala,
hall (Polish)
SALĂ, hall (Romanian)

aithousa,
diadromos, hall
(Greek)
korridor, sallë,
hyrje,
sallon,
godinë, shkollore,
paradhomë [n]
(Albanian)

atrium-i, hall,
entrance, room:

llys-oedd [m], law or royal court; neuadd -au [f], hall; plas-au
[m], hall, mansion,
palace (Welsh)
sala [f] (Italian;
salle [f] (French)

hall [<OE heall],
room [<OE rum];
corridor [<OItal.
corridore], salon
[<OItal. sala]

sale Script AB-1 SaLE, Script K13;
salo (SALV)
Script L25

lavaNam.h
akṣār, natural salt

namak, salt [n]
(Persian)

slan, so, usoliti
(Serbo-Croatian)
slony,
sol, solic,
(Polish)
sol [f] salic,
v. imp. (Belarus)
salis (Baltic-
Sudovian)
SARE, salt (Romanian)

alati (Greek)
kripë, salt;
krip, kripos,
to salt (Albanian)

sal, salis, salsus-a
-um
, salted, salty,
hence, sharp,
biting, witty; adv.
salse

hallt (heilltion), adj. salt, salty, brackish, severe (Welsh)
goirt, sore, sour,
painful, salt;
salann
[m] (Scott)
holen (Breton)
sale [m] salt, wit
(Italian)
sel [m]; salé, adj.
salty (French)
sal (Illyrian)
sále (Tocharian)

salt [<OE sealt]

sal, Z1274, Z1282,
Au25
salso (SALSV)
Script Z648)

x

x

x

x

x

x

Salini, person's
name

Salini, name? Script
TC71, TC279
Salinis, Script TC290)

naTana, nRtya,
dance, n. pantomine
raqs, pâykubi [n],
raqsidan, to dance
(Persian)
tanczyc, taniec,
dance (Polish)
daina, dance; dainot,
to dance (Baltic
Sudovian)
SALT, jump (Romanian)
pido, pidima, to
jump (Greek)
kërcet, to dance
(Albanian)
salto-are llamu (llemain,
llamsach), to stride, leap, bound, jump, dance; swalpio, to flounder, jump, bounce;
neidio, to jump, leap, ound, throb, bounce; dawnsio, to dance; (Welsh)
saltare, vi. to jump,
vault, explode;
danza [f], dance; ballare, to dance (Italian)
sauter, to jump,
leap, bound,
explode, omit;
danse [f], dance;
dancer, to dance
(French)
to dance [<OFr. danser], sing with gestures salt (TC179)

ayatha [n], leg, foot; caritra [m], foot, leg; pAda [m], foot, leg

panje, cangâl, paw
[n]; rân, salang,
thigh [n] (Persian)

bok trojkata, noga,
odgalezienie,
odnoga, leg (Polish)

podi, leg (Greek)
këmbë, këmbëz,
etapë [sport], leg
[n] (Albanian)

crus, cruris, shin,
shin-bone, leg of a
bridge, pier, support;
pes, pedis,
foot

bagl-au [f], crutch,
crook, leg; clun-iau
[f], hip, haunch,
thigh, leg;
coes-au
[f], leg, shank;
hegl
-au
[f], leg, shank;
troed (traed) [m.f.],
foot, leg, pedestal,
handle (Welsh)
zampa [f], leg; piede, foot [m] (Italian)
jambe [f]; étape [f], stage, halting place; pied [m], foot (French)

leg [<ON lleggr], paw [OFr.powe, of Gmc. orig.]

sam, Script
Z842, Z1770, AN54

bhiSajy, -jyati,
to heal, cure

tandorosti,
behbudi, health [n]
(Persian)

wyleczyc, heal
(Polish)
ÎNSĂNĂTOŞI, to heal, SĂNĂTOS, healthy (Romanian)

therapevo, to heal,
ygienos, healthy
(Greek)
mbyllet (plaga),
shëroj, to heal/cure; i
shëndoshë,
healthy (Albanian)

sano-are, to
heal, cure, restore,
repair;
sanus-a-um,
sound, healthy, of
sound mind

ach, adj. healthy,
well,
hale; iacha/u, to
become healed;
mendio, to mend,
heal, recover
(Welsh)
slàn, adj. whole,
sound, healthy;
slànaighear
[m] saviour,
healer (Scott)
sanare (Italian)
sante [f] health; sain, adj. healthy (French)

to heal, cure;
healthy
healthy health, [<OE haelan], hale
[<ON heill, sound in health]; <OE
amenden, to make
right]

sana, Script N660,
sani,
Script AF-17, XR-3
sano
(SANV),
Script Q500, R270,
sans, Script AL-8,
R653, TB-1
sanvos (SAN8VS) Script K17
sanim, Script AN35

dIkS, dIkSate, q.v.
be consecrated

pâkdâman, pâk,
avize, holy, adj.,
pâk [n], (Persian)

poswiecic,
consecrate (Polish)

agios, saint
(Greek)
shenjtëroj, to
sanctify
(Albanian)

sancio, sancire,
sanxi, sanctum
[sancitum]

consegru, to
consecrate, dedicate,
devote, hallow,
inaugurate;
sancteiddio, to
sanctify, hallow
(Welsh)

sanntaich
, va.
to covet, desire, long for (Scott)
santo [m], saint;
santificare, to
sanctify (Italian)
saint [m], saint,
sanctifier, to
sanctify (French)
sipantahhi, I
sacrifice; uppi, pure, sacred (Hittite

to consecrate [<Lat. consecro-are],
sanctify, make
inviolable, ratify

santi, Script Z1282;
santis, Script Z1337

svahastikA, f. hoe,
hatchet; dharSaNa, f. attack, assault,
offence, violation

giyâhe harze, zâz,
weed [n[; jodâyi,
duri, gosixtegi,
separation [n]
(Persian)

ata [f] sturm [m]
attack (Belarus)
chwast, plewic,
weed;
atak,
atakowac, napadac,
attack (Polish)
SAP, to hoe (Romanian)
chorizo, diachorizo
choristos, to
separate (Greek)
prashis, prashit, to
hoe; shat, hoe
(Albanian)
sario [sario]-ire, -ui
and-ivi

chwynnogl, hoe,
weed;
hof-au [f],
hoe;
hofio, to
hoe;
cyrchu, to
attack, go, resort,
repair (Welsh)
sàr, prefix, excellent;
sàr [m] hero sàraich, va. oppress, harass, fatigue, wrong, injure, tire (Scott)
sarchiare, to weed
(Italian)
sarcler, to weed
(French)
sarra, to separate;
sarh, to attack (Hittite)
hija, to attack (Luwian)
zrigali, a warrior,
zrqqi, to fight, to
attack (Lycian)
sarpa, a sickle;
iskallai, to break,
divide (Hittite)

to hoe [<OFr. houe, of Gmc. origin], weed [<OE woed]; attack [<OItal. attaccare]; storm [<OE storm]

sar, Script Z1853,
TC28
sari, Script Z981,
saris, Script Z776,
saro (SARV),
Script Z1282
sarrom (SARRVM),
Script Z572, Z1378;
sarroms (SARRVMS),
Script Z543;

SaRAN,
Script R79 –
reflexive verb, ran?
third person pl.?

x

x

ŢARINA, the land to hoe (Romanian)

x

x

x

Sarina, name of a queen

Sarina, Script K46
See Note (1)

parvati, zilA, [f],
rock, stone; azan,
[m], stone, rock,
sky; mahAzaila [m], great rock or
mountain;
giripati [m], chief of
the mountains, high mountain or rock; dRSad [f], rock, large stone, esp. the nether mill-stone raGg,, raGgati, to move hither and thither, rock; pASANa [m], stone; adri [m], rock, stone, esp. bruising
or hurling stone,
mountain, cloud

sang, gowhar,
kolux [n],
sangsâr
kardan, to stone
(Persian)

kamien, pestka,
stone (Polish)
ŞASE, six (Romanian)

petra, petrobolo,
stone (Greek)
gur, guralec, guri i
cmuar, bë
rthamë,
stone [n] (Albanian)

lapis-idis [m], stone;
saxum-i, rock, stone;
sex, six

caregan (caregen) [f], stone, pebble;
llabyddio, to stone
palmant-ydd-au [m], pavement; carreg balmant, cobble, cobblestone (Welsh)
saasso, [m] pietra [f]; sie, six  (Italian)
caillou, galet,
roc [m] roche, pierre [f]; six, seize, adj. six (French)
peruna, a rock
(Hittite)

stone [<OE stan],
cobble (<ME
cobelstan, a
naturally rounded
rock used for paving
streets],
rock
[<ONFr. roque]

sas, Script TC150;
sase, Au49;
see
petra

sannI kR,
appease, satisfy;

abhidhi, to satisfy

pori [n], por
kardan, âgandan,
to fill (Persian)

spelnic, zadowolic,
zaspokoic, satisfy
(Polish)
SAŢ, satiety,  SĂTURA, to satisfy, to fill (Romanian)

ikanopoio (Greek)
kalmaro, katevnazo,
katapravno, to
appease (Greek_
plotësoj, siguroj,
to satisfy
(Albanian)

satio-are

boddhau, to please,
satisfy, gratify
bodloni, to satisfy,
content, digoni, to
suffice, satisfy, cloy cook; llanw, to fill Welsh)
sàsaich, va. to satisfy, satiate; sàth, plenty, satisfaction, fill (Scott)
saziare (Italian)
satisfaire (French)
suwai, to fill
(Hittite0

to satisfy, fill [<OE
fyllan]

sat, Script Z865,
sata, Script Z391, VG-3
sate, Script N324;
sati, Script Z865.
sato (SATV),
Script R554
sataro (SATARV) Script VG-3

x

bas, be andâze,
enough, adj.
(Persian)

dosyc, pod
dostatkiem,
wystarczajaco,
enough (Polish)

arketos, eparkis,
arketa, enough
(Greek)
i mjaft,
mjaftueshëm,
enough, adv.
(Albanian)

satis or sat, enough, sufficiently, fairly,
quite; compar.
satius, better, more
advantageous;
satine, satin = satisne, introducing questions; satis (or sat) ago or satago -agere, to satisfy or pay a creditor, to have enough to do, have one's hands full

digon, adj. [m],
gwala [f], enough,
filled (Welsh)
sufficienza, quanto
basta, enough
(Italian)
suffiisant, adj.,
assez, adv., enough
(French)

enough, sufficient
[<Lat. sufficio-ficere-feci -fectum, to put under, supply]

satan, Script 26 satane, Script Q30
satina, Script K148

x

x

x

satir, njeri i
shthurur, satyr [n]
(Albanian)

Satyrus-i, m
sator-oris, m., a sower, planter, begetter, father, producer

satyro [m] (Italian)
satyre [m] (French)

satyr? begetter?

SATeRS,
Script Z157
SATeR, PL-2 (area of the Piacenza Liver)

x x x x Sabelli-orum x Sabines, people of northern Italy
Saveles, Sabeles (SA8ELeS) Script TC103
ṛghāya, to be passionate, impetuous, rave, rage; roṣa, anger, wrath, passion, fury rosaprati, to be angry with; , parikrudh, to fly into a rage
x x x  saevio-ire furore, collare, (Italian)
rage, fureur (French)
rage, to be furious savo (SABV) Script K61

sopAn [n], stairs, a
ladder

pele, pelekân, stair
[n] (Persian)

schody, shodek,
stair (Polish)

skalopati, stair;
skala, ladder
(Greek)
këmbë
shkalle,
shkallare, shkallë

[n] (Albanian)

scalae-arum [f] pl.,
a flight of stairs,
ladder; milit. scaling ladders

gris-iau [f], step,
stair;
ysgol-ion [f],
school, academy,
ladder (Welsh)
scala [f] staircase
(Italian)
escalier [m] (French)

stairs [<OE staeger], staircase, ladder [<OE hlaeder]; school [<Gk. skhole]

skal, Script Q767

vid, vetti, to know,
understand, learn,
perceive, experience,
feel, think;
lok,
lokate
, look, look at, view, perceive,
know;
budh,
bodhati
, wake,
awake, watch,
notice, perceive,
learn, know

dânestan,
senâxtan, âgâh
budan, to know
(Persian)

knew, poznac,
umiec,
wiedziec,
znac, know (Polish)
ŞTI, SCI, to know (Romanian)

xero, know; thema, proposition (Greek)
di, marr vesh,
dalloj,
njoh, shquaj, them, to know (Albanian)

scio, scir, scivi or
scli, scitu; sciens
entis
, knowing,
aware

cnot-iau [m],
knowledge, bunch;
adnabod (nabod), to know, recognize,
identify;
gwybod-au
[m], knowledge,
studies;
gwybod, to
know (Welsh)
sapere,
conoscere,
capire (Italian)
conaître, savoir
(French)
parjanaza (Hittite)

to know, [<OE
cnawan] understand;
look [<OE locian]

sce, Script TC-1, TC140, TC58, TC61, TC190, R173, R177, AH-11, Au9
scinir, Script K124;
scis, Script Q127,
Q139
skenem (SKENEM) Script XA-33

dUSay, dUSayati (
te), to spoil, corrupt, defile, pollute, harm,
injure, blame, revile, attack, defame

âludegi, palidi,
âhidi, pollution [n]
(Persian)

zanieczyscic,
pollute (Polish)

molyno, bebilono,
pollute (Greek)
horr, faqezi,
zarbanik, zabërhan,
zullumqar, viran,
scoundrel [n]; ndot, fëlliq, ndyj, pëthur, zvetëgëj, moleps, përdhos, prish, shthur, zvetënoj, to
pollute (Albanian)

scelero-are; scelus
-eris
, a crime,
calamity, scoundrel

difwyno, to soil,
foul, pollute, defile, deface; halogi, to defile, profane, pollute, deprave, desecrate; llygru, to corrupt, pollute, contaminate,
pervert, infect,
deprave; adyn-od
[m], wretch,
soundrel; anfadwr
[m], villain,
scoundrel; dihiryn
(dyhiryn, dihirod,
dyhirod), scoundrel,
blackguard, rascal,
myrmidon;
selio, to seal (Welsh)
scégliere, to choose, select (Italian)
scélérat [m]
scoundrel;
scéléatesse [f],
villainy;
sceller, to seal up, fasten, confirm (French)

to pollute [<Lat.
polluo -uere -ui
utum
] with guilt [<OE gylt]; to
seal [<Lat. sigillum]
up

scela (SCeLA), Script PQ-13
sceles, Script Q837, R193
SKeLES Script
Q717
SCeLOM,
SCeLUM,
(SCeLVM)
Script
N462, Q183, Q335, Q406

vetra [m], a reed,
staff; daNDa [m],
stick, staff, pole,
cudgel, mace, club;
yaSTi [f], staff,
stick, stalk; rambha
[m], prop, support,
staff; vip, adj.,
agitated, inspired [f], switch, rod, staff (of an arrow)

kârkonân,
kârmandân, staff
[n]; club [n],
casbidan, stick [n]
gir kardan, [verb],
stick (Persian)

drag, rozga, wedka,
rod; kij, laska, palka, przylegac,
przylepic,
przymocowac,
stuck, trzymac sie,
wbic, wetknac,
wsadzic, stick
(Polish)

prosopiko,
epiteleio, rabdos,
skeptron, staff,
(Greek)
shkop magjik,
skeptër, thupër,
wand [n]
(Albanian)

scipio-onis [m];
Scipio-onis [m], a
family of the gens
Cornelia;
ramus-i
[m], branch, twig;
sceptrum-i, sceptre, dominion

ffon (ffyn [f], stick,
staff, cudgel; paladr (pelydr) [m], ray, beam, staff, stem;
llath-au [f], yard, wand (Welsh)
manico, handle, stick [m]; verga, bacchetta  magica [f] wand, rod
scettro [m], sceptre
(Italian)
bâton, mât, pole,
mast; bâton,
baguette [f] wand,
stick; soutien,
support, stay [m];
sceptre [m], sceptre (French)
alkistan, branch
(Hittite)

staff [<OE staef],
wand [<ON vöndr], stick [<OE sticca]; scepter (sceptre) [<Gk. skeptron, staff]; lath [<OE laett]; family name?

Scepis, Scripts
N194, Q854

x x ŞCOALĂ, school
(Romannian)l
x  schola-ae x school, debate scol (SCVL) Script K38

vRzcika [m],
scorpion

kazdom [n] (Persian)

SCORPIE, dragon lady (Romanian)

skorpios (Greek)
akrep, scorpion [n]
(Albanian)

scorpio-onis and
scorpios [os] -i [m], a scorpion, military engine for throwing missiles

ysgoripon-au [m]
(Welsh)
scorpione [m]
(Italian)
scorpion [m]
(French)

scorpion?

scorpi (scvrpi),
Script A
N-23

likh, likhati (-te),
draw a line, write,
write down, engrave
nevestan, nâme
nevestan, to write;
tarkib, ensâ,
pasâzes,
composition
(Persian)
grawerowac
wyryc, engrave
pisac,
wrote,
zapisywac, write
(Polish)
peisatuns, to
write; laiskas,
book (Baltic
Sudovian)
SCRIITURĂ, composition), SCRIITORul, author of the SCRIITURĂ - art. (Romanian)
grafo, to write
(Greek)
skalis, skalit,
lajoj,
to engrave;
kompozoj, shkruaj,
to write (Albanian)
scripo, scribere,
scripsi, scriptum
, to write; compono
ponere, posui
positum
, to put
together, compose
ysgythru, to cut,
carve, engrave, graze, prune, lop; sgwennu, to write (slang);
ysgrifennu, to write, pen, indite; torri, to break, cut, fracture, hack, hew, crop, dig,
incise, write, trace
(Welsh)
sgrìobh, va. to write; sgriobtuir [m] scripture (Scott)
scritta [f]
inscription;
scriver, to write;
compositore [m]
composer (Italian)
écrire, to write,
composer, to compose
(French)
kisa, to scratch;
hatuas, hatuars, a
letter; hatura, to
write (Hittite)
to engrave [<OE
grafan], draw [<OE dragan], write [<OE
writan], compose,
indite [<Lat. indiceo dicere -dixi -dictum, to make publicly known, proclaim]
scriato, (scriatv);
possibly scria tu
(N100)
apit, adj., barren,
dry; jalahIna, adj.,
waterless, dry;
zyAna, adj., dried,
dry; tRSTa, adj.,
dry, rough, harsh;
dah, dahati (-te), to
burn, consume,
destroy, dry up;
zuS, zuSyati (-te), to dry, wither, fade,
dry up, parch,
emaciate, afflict,
destroy
hushanãm
[hushka]
, dry
(Avestan)
xosk, bipirâye,
bimaze, adj. dry
kâriz, âbozar [n],
âb kesidan, to
drain (Persian)
schnac, sucho,
suchy, suszyc
, dry
(Polish)
sausas, dry; sausint,
to dry (Baltic
Sudovian)
SEC, I dry, I empty
SICA, the dacian dagger
(Romanian)
xiros, stegnos,
xiraino, dry
(Greek)
thaj, thahem
(Albanian)
sicco-are
seco, secare, secui, sectum
, to cut, amputate, to wound, hurt, divide, part, make by cutting;
sica, dagger
cras, pl. creision, adj. parched, dry, arid, harsh, crisp; crin, pl. -ion, adj. withered, seared, dry, arid; hysb (hesb [f], pl.
hysbion),
adj. dry,
barren;
sych (sech
[f], pl.-ion)
, adj. dry, arid, husky; sychu, to dry, dry up, absorb, wipe, mop, drain (Welsh)
caoin, adj. kind,
mild, dry; caoinich,
va. dry as hay, dry
by exposure, sooth;
seac, wither, cause
to wither, parch,
fade, decay (Scott)
seccare, to dry; daga, pugnale, dagger (Italian)
sécher, to dry ; poignard , dagger (French)
to make dry, drain;
to cut – Script
MS18 is in the
context of "cutting" grapes
sec, Script Z990;
sek, Script MS18
seca
, Script Q63, Q84, Q416, Q442, Q452, Q460, Q717, Q775, Q795, Q805, Q821, Q829, Q847, R405, R574, R596, R609
secom
(SECVM),
Script N491

Asa [m], seat,
proximity; pITha
[n], seat, stool,
bench, pedestal;
garta [m], high seat, throne; the seat of a war chariot, carriage;
svAsana [n], a fine
seat;
niSatti [f],
sitting, seat;
sadanAsad, adj.,
sitting down on the
seat; dhAsi [f], seat, home

jâ, nesimangâh,
nimkat, seat [n];
câvdâr, gandome
siyâh, adj. [n], rye;
(Persian)

cygan, zyto,
rye; miejsce,
siedzace, posadzic,
siedzenie, siedziba,
umiescic, seat
(Polish)

kathisma, edra,
kathizo, seat;
sikali, rye (Greek)
karrige, ndenjëse,
bythë, vend, vatër,
vendqëndrimi,
shalë, seat [n];
miell, thekre,
thekër, rye [n]
(Albanian)

sigilla-orum, n. pl.,
small figures, images, a seal;
sedes-is [f],
seat, chair; sella-ae
[f], seat, stool

cadair (cadeiriau) [f], chair, seat, udder; eisteddfa
(eisteddfeydd-u) [f], seat;
mainc
(meinciau) [f],
bench, form, seat,
bank;
set (seti) [f],
sedd-au [f], seat,
pew;
seddi, to seat,
install; eistedd, to
sit, seat (Welsh)
rhyg [m], rye
(Welsh)
seggio [m] seat,
chair;
segale [f] rye
(Italian)
siège [m] seat, chair; s'assoir, to sit; seigle [m] rye
(French)
asa, asana, chair
(Hittite)

seat [<ON saeti],
chair?
rye [<OE
ryge], seal [<Lat.
sigillum]?

segeles,
Script Q701

kRSi [f], ploughing,
agriculture,
husbandry, field,
harvest

farâvarde, crop
[n]; cidan, to
plant a crop;
meydân, dast,
zamin, field
(Persian)

obciac, ostryzyc,
plon, sciac, uprawa,
wlosy, krotko,
ostrzyzone, zbior
crop; boisko,
dziedzina, pole,
teren, zakres, field
(Polish)
SĂGEATĂ, arrow (Romanian)

therizo, perikopto,
sygkomidi, crop
(Greek)
të korra, prodhim,
dorezë kamzhiku,
qethje, crop [n],
fushë, fushë misri
cornfield; fushë,
arë, shesh, field
(Albanian)

seges-etis [f];
sagetta, arrow

cnwd (cnydau) [m], crop, covering; crynnyrch
(cynhyrchion) [m],
produce, product,
crop (Welsh)
messe [f]; raccolto
[m]; freccia, arrow (Italian)
rècolte [f], crop,
harvest; fièche, arrow (French)

crop [<OE cropp,
ear of corn],
cornfield, field;
arrow?

segeta, Script R499;
segetes Script Q701

vaGka [m.f.]
palyāṇaya, to saddle; saparyāṇa, saddled

zin, saddle [n]
(Persian)

obarczyc, siodelko,
siodlac, siodlo,
saddle (Polish)
ŞA, ŞEA, saddle (Romanian)

kathisma, edra,
kathizo, seat
(Greek)
astar [tek.],
shalë,
saddle [n]
(Albanian)

sella-e [f] seat, chair, stool; sterno,
sternere, stravi,
stratum, to stretch
out, spread, lie
down, saddle;
ephippium-i, a horsecloth, saddle

cyfrwyo, to saddle
(Welsh)
sel [m], six;
sella [f] saddle; sellare, to saddle (Italian)
selle [f] saddle,
stool;
seller, to
saddle (French)

to saddle [<OE,
sadol], seat?

sela, Script Au87, PE-2
SeLA, Script Z1386, Z1397
sele, Script Au58

kRdara, store-room,
treasury;
, bhūtikīla, a cellar for concealing wealth

zire zamin, sardâb,
cellar [n] (Persian)

piwnica, cellar
(Polish)
tairas (Baltic-
Sudovian)
CHIL(I)ER, CELAR, cellar (Romanian)

apothiki,
apothikevo,
efodiazo, store
apothikefsi, storage
bareli, cask (Greek)
bodrum,
qilar
(Albanian)

cellarius-a-um

seler-au-ydd-i [f],
cellar (Welsh)
cantina [f] (Italian)
saillear [m] salt
-cellar, cask
cellier
[m] (French)

store-room, cellar

selur (SELFR)
Script
Z692

prarakṣ, parirakṣ, paritrai, to save; nirvah, to lead out of, save from

x

SALVA, to save (Romanian)

x

salveo-are, to save

salvare (Italian)
sauver (French)

he saves

selva (SELFA), Script PL-4, PL-27
(These are areas of the Piacenza Liver)

aSTi [f], grain of
seed; vApa, [m],
sower, scatterer,
scattering, seed;
yoni, place of birth, origin; yoni-posana, seed, grain

toxm, dâne, barze,
seed [n]; sarcasme,
nezâd, origin [n]
(Persian)

nasienie, ziarnko,
ziarno, seed (Polish)

sporos, sperma,
sperno, seed
(Greek)
farë, bërthamë,
fillim, seed [n]
(Albanian)

semen-inis

blaguryn (blagur)
[m], sprout, bud,
shoot; impyn
(impiau) [m], scion, shoot, graft; egino,  germinate,  sprout, shoot; had-au [m],
seed, issue; hedyn
(hadau) [m], seed,
germ; hau, to sow
(Welsh)
semenza [f], seed,
origin (Italian)
semis [m] sowing,
seedling (French)
hasmi, kin, kinship
(Hittite)

shoot [<OE
sceotan], seed [<OE saed], stock,
race

semenies,
Script Q-1

(3rd Decl. Acc. pl; w/ TECURIES)



 

Notes:

(1) The bust of this extremely beautiful Etruscan queen is in the Louvre Museum, Paris.
(2) Thanks to Constantin Cucu  for his contributions on the Romanian language.

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Launched 2.21.04

Updated 2.22.04: 2.29.04; 3.01.04; 3.04.04; 3.21.04; 3.24.04; 3.25.04, 3.30.04; 4.03.04; 4.11.04; 4.19.04; 4.29.04; 5.10.04; 5.25.04; 5.29.04; 6.23.04; 7.05.04; 7.12.04; 9.21.04; 1.29.05; 5.14.05; 6.05.05; 11.14.05; 2.23.06; 5.11.06; 6.01.06; 7.16.06; 7.21.06; 10.13.11

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Copyright © 1981-2011 Mel Copeland. All rights reserved.
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